Congenital anomalies are a major cause of infant mortality and are an important contributor to child and adult morbidity. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of fetus with congenital malformation at tertiary hospital. This was a descriptive-retrospective study using secondary data from medical records, weekly reports, and perinatal death conference from January 2013 to December 2015. There were 82 congenital anomalies in 3 years with age of the mothers of 35 years old as many as 53 (60.9 %), from outside Surabaya (n=54, 62.06%), and gestational age of 37-42 weeks in 43 women (52.44%). Non-booked congenital anomaliese were found in 54 (65.8%) mothers. The types of anomalies found were biggest proportion hidrocephalus in 32 infants (36.78%), and multiple congenital anomalies in 17 infants (19.5%). The major sex of infants born was female as many as 40 (48.78%). Mode of deliveries was mostly by caesarean birth as many as 42 (51.73%). There were congenital anomalies with fetal congenital anomalies. The most common anomaly was hydrochephalus. The major sex of infants born was female and mode of deliveries was mostly by caesarean birth.


  • Ahmed W, Dey D, and Farid R, (2017) Prevalence and Pattern of Congenital Anomalies and Its Outcome at Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu General Hospital. Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College Journal 16(1): 22–25. https://doi.org/10.3329/cmoshmcj.v16i1.34981
  • Ameen SK, Alalaf SK, and Shabila NP, (2018) Pattern of congenital anomalies at birth and their correlations with maternal characteristics in the maternity teaching hospital, Erbil city, Iraq. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 18(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-2141-2
  • Amiruddin H, Ansariadi, and Palutri S, (2018) Counseling quality of danger signs pregnancy in work region or rural and urban primary health center district Jeneponto. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series 99–104. https://doi.org/10.1145/3242789.3242818
  • Black AJ, Lu DY, Yefet LS, and Baird R, (2020) Sex differences in surgically correctable congenital anomalies: A systematic review. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.01.016
  • Bush Welch S, (2018) Navigating Infant Death from Life-Limiting Congenital Anomaly: A Classic Grounded Theory Study. The Grounded Theory Review 17(1): 7.
  • Chongsuvivatwong V, Bachtiar H, Chowdhury ME, Fernando S, Suwanrath C, Kor-Anantakul O, et al., (2010) Maternal and fetal mortality and complications associated with cesarean section deliveries in teaching hospitals in Asia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 36(1): 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01100.x
  • DeSilva M, Munoz FM, Mcmillan M, Kawai AT, Marshall H, Macartney KK, Joshi J, Oneko M, Rose AE, Dolk H, Trotta F, Spiegel H, Tomczyk S, Shrestha A, Kochhar S, and Kharbanda EO, (2016) Congenital anomalies: Case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine 34(49): 6015–6026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.047
  • Fitriani, Masni, Bustan MN, Salmah U, Stang, and Syafar M, (2019) Analysis of risk factors maternal mortality in Sinjai District. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development 10(10): 1503–1507. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.03050.X
  • Foster WG, Evans JA, Little J, Arbour L, Moore A, Sauve R, Andrés León J, and Luo W, (2017) Human exposure to environmental contaminants and congenital anomalies: a critical review. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 47(1): 59–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2016.1211090
  • Ivanov DO, Iurev VK, Shevtsova KG, Moiseeva KE, Berezkina EN (2019) Fetoinfantile losses in the north-west region of Russia. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 16(2): em135. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/102417
  • Kalliora C, Mamoulakis C, Vasilopoulos E, Stamatiades GA, Kalafati L, Barouni R, Karakousi T, Abdollahi M, and Tsatsakis A, (2018) Association of pesticide exposure with human congenital abnormalities. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 346(December 2017): 58–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2018.03.025
  • Lumbanraja SN, (2013) Determining the maternal characteristics that predicts the adverse outcomes for patients with preeclampsia. Journal of the University of Malaya Medical Centre 16(1): 1–6.
  • Maulinda Nadhifa Anwar RT, (2018) The Relationship between Age and Maternity Parity with Postterm Birth. The Influence of Patients’ Characteristics with Intravena Catheter in Phlebitis Incidence Nella 6: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v6i12018. 27-34
  • Nasution SK, Mahendradhata Y, and Trisnantoro L, (2019) Can a National Health Insurance Policy Increase Equity in the Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants in Indonesia? A Secondary Analysis of the 2012 to 2016 National Socio-Economic Survey of Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539519892394
  • Norwood MS, Lupo PJ, Chow EJ, Scheurer ME, Plon SE, Danysh HE, Spector LG, Carozza SE, Doody DR, and Mueller BA, (2017) Childhood cancer risk in those with chromosomal and non-chromosomal congenital anomalies in Washington State: 1984-2013. PLoS ONE 12(6): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179006
  • Orzack SH, Stubblefield JW, Akmaev VR, Colls P, Munné S, Scholl T, Steinsaltz D, and Zuckerman JE, (2015) The human sex ratio from conception to birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(16): E2102–E2111. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1416546112
  • Peng R, Zhou Y, Xie HN, Zheng J, Xie YJ, and Yang JB, (2016) MCDA twins with discordant malformations: submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies detected by chromosomal microarray analysis and clinical outcomes. Prenatal Diagnosis 36(8): 766–774. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.4859
  • Utomo MT, (2010) Neonatal Sepsis in Low Birth Weight Infants in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease 1(2): 86. https://doi.org/10.20473/ijtid.v1i2.2172


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.