Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2019 - Volume 13 Issue 2, pp. 1177-1185
  • Published Online: 12 Sep 2019
  • Article Views: 248 | Article Download: 167
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Naraghi L, Negahban M. Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 1177-1185.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Naraghi & Negahban, 2019)
Reference: Naraghi, L., & Negahban, M. (2019). Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 1177-1185.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Naraghi and Negahban, 2019)
Reference: Naraghi, Laleh, and Maryam Negahban. "Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 1177-1185.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Naraghi and Negahban, 2019)
Reference: Naraghi, L., and Negahban, M. (2019). Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 1177-1185.

MLA
In-text citation: (Naraghi and Negahban, 2019)
Reference: Naraghi, Laleh et al. "Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1177-1185.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Naraghi L, Negahban M. Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1177-85.

Abstract

In this research, the efficiency of four different nanoformulations (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and a former formulation (F0) from the fungus Talaromyces flavus were investigated in reducing the incidence of cotton Verticillium wilt in greenhouse conditions. Nanoformulations were two types of nanocapsules, one nanoemulsion, and one nanopowder. The former formulation was formed based on rice bran. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The treatments included each of four nanoformulations with two methods of seed impregnation and soil application, soil application of the former formulation, intact control, and infected control. Each replicate consisted of a 3-L pot with three seeds of a sensitive cotton variety (Varamin). The germplasm of the disease agent was completely mixed with two-thirds of the upper part of the potted soil three days before cultivation. Formulation treatments were provided by soil application simultaneously with planting. Two months after planting, the treatments were evaluated by determining the disease severity (%). Then, mean percentages of disease severity in different treatments were grouped by Duncan’s multiple range test using the MS TAT C software. Results showed decreased percentages of disease severity in treatments of nanoformulations (85-97%) and the former formulation (95%) in comparison to the infected control. The most effective nanoformulations were not significantly different in the disease control efficiency compared with the former formulation. In addition to decreased disease severity, a ten-day earlier flowering and fruit production were also observed in treatments of nanoformulations and the former formulation than the infected control. In terms of decreasing the disease severity, the nanoformulations presented different results by using two methods of seed impregnation and soil application. No significant differences were found between the two application methods for F2 and F4 nanoformulations. F1 and F3 nanoformulations, however, had better efficiencies in both soil application and seed impregnation methods. The highest disease severity reduction (97%) was recorded in treatments with F2 and F3 nanoformulations in seed impregnation method (1.66) compared to the infected control (66.66). Statistically, disease severity significantly increased in only three F1 treatments with seed impregnation method, and F3 and F4 by soil application compared to the other treatments with no significant differences.

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