Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Pagarra H, Rahman RA, Rachmawaty. Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1), 199-206.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Pagarra et al., 2019)
Reference: Pagarra, H., Rahman, R. A., & Rachmawaty (2019). Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), 199-206.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Pagarra et al., 2019)
Reference: Pagarra, Halifah, Roshanida A. Rahman, and Rachmawaty. "Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 1 (2019): 199-206.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Pagarra et al., 2019)
Reference: Pagarra, H., Rahman, R. A., and Rachmawaty (2019). Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), pp. 199-206.

MLA
In-text citation: (Pagarra et al., 2019)
Reference: Pagarra, Halifah et al. "Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019, pp. 199-206.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Pagarra H, Rahman RA, Rachmawaty. Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):199-206.

Abstract

The substrate plays an important role in solid state fermentation (SSF) in the production of exo-polygalacturonase (one type of the pectinase enzymes). The aim of this study was to investigate a pretreatment method on Nephrolepis biserrata leaves as a substrate for the production of exo-polygalacturonase. The pretreatment steps improved the decomposition of the lignocellulosic material in the structure of N. biserrata leaves as a substrate and allowed Aspergillus niger better access of the substrate to the enzymatic reaction. This optimised both exo-polygalacturonase activity and the growth of A. niger in SSF. Pretreatment was performed under alkali, acidic, autohydrolytic and control conditions. The highest exo-polygalacturonase activity was 39.16 U/g and biomass of A. niger was 0.39 mg/gdsf at 120 h was found for the autohydrolysis pretreatment, as compared to alkali pretreatment, acid pretreatment and control. Scanning electron microscope images showed a marked change in the physical appearance of treated N. biserrata leaves as compared to untreated N. biserrata leaves, especially following autohydrolysis pretreatment.

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