Background: Schizophrenic patients often complain of sleep disturbances. These disturbances are more susceptible to occur if there is non-compliance with taking medication. This study aimed to identify the correlation between drug compliance and sleep quality of schizophrenic patients in the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya.
Methods: This study used a cross-sectional analytic method. Sleep quality of patients was measured using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and patient drug compliance was measured using a questionnaire.
Results: The number of study subjects was thirty-eight people, with 21 (55.3%) subjects having good levels of drug compliance and 17 (44.7%) subjects not compliant in taking medication. Twenty-three subjects had good sleep quality, and 15 (39%) had poor sleep quality. Statistical test results showed an association between the level of compliance to take medication and the quality of sleep in schizophrenic patients at the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic of Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya (p <0.05, phi coefficient = 0.681).
Conclusion: The level of compliance to take medication associated with the quality of sleep of schizophrenic patients.


  • Afonso P, Brissos S, Cañas F, Bobes J, Bernardo-Fernandez I, (2014) Treatment adherence and quality of sleep in schizophrenia outpatients. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 18(1): 70-76.
  • Afrina R, Karimah A, (2019) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain. Biomolecular and Health Science Journal 2(2): 129-134.
  • Akbar NL, Effendy E, Amin MM, (2018) Vitamin D and plain type: A study of male patients with schizophrenia. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012180
  • American Sleep Disorders Association, (1997) The International Classification of Sleep Disorder, Revised. Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester, Minnesota: American Sleep Disorders Association.
  • Brissos S, Afonso P, Cañas F, Bobes J, Bernardo Fernandez I, Guzman C, (2013) Satisfaction with life of schizophrenia outpatients and their caregivers: differences between patients with and without self-reported sleep complaints. Schizophrenia research and treatment.
  • Catherine, Amin MM, Effendy E, (2018) The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012184
  • Cohrs S, (2008) Sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. CNS drugs 22(11): 939-962.
  • Fallah S, Seifi M, Firoozrai M, Godarzi M, Jafarzadeh M, Ghohari L.H. (2009). Influence of Apo E Polymorphism on Coronary Artery Disease. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 57: 580 -584
  • Hidayati AN, Febriyana N, (2014) Prenatal factors on schizophrenia. Jurnal Psikiatri Surabaya 3(1): 1-10.
  • Krystal AD, Thakur M, Roth T, (2008) Sleep disturbance in psychiatric disorders: effects on function and quality of life in mood disorders, alcoholism, and schizophrenia. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 20(1): 39-46.
  • Liaury K, Miyaoka T, Tsumori T, Furuya M, Hashioka S, Wake R, Tsuchie K, Fukushima M, Limoa E, Tanra AJ, Horiguchi J, (2014) Minocycline improves recognition memory and attenuates microglial activation in Gunn rat: A possible hyperbilirubinemia-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 50: 184-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.12.017
  • Luo Y, Hu Z, Xu F (2018) To Explore the Impact of Medical Education on Sleep Quality toward Quality of Life. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(7), 3013-3020. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/90629
  • Miftahussurur M, Nusi IA, Graham DY, Yamaoka Y, (2017) Helicobacter, hygiene, atopy, and asthma. Frontiers in microbiology 8: 1034.
  • Park S-C, Oh HS, Tripathi A, Kallivayalil RA, Avasthi A, Grover S, et al., (2019) Cannabis use correlates with aggressive behavior and long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment in Asian patients with schizophrenia. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 73(6): 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2019.1632381
  • Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, (2015) Synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences, clinical psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer.
  • Utami N, Effendy E, Amin MM, (2018) BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012181
  • Waters F, Manoach DS, (2012) Sleep dysfunctions in schizophrenia: A practical review.
  • Wilson S, Argyropoulos S, (2012) Sleep in schizophrenia: time for closer attention. The British Journal of Psychiatry 200(4): 273-274. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.111.104091
  • Wulff K, Dijk D-J, Middleton B, Foster RG, Joyce EM, (2012) Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry 200(4): 308-316


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.