Abstract

The main objective of this work was to study the richness and the effect of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of riparian plant in Draa basin, which is part of the Oasis Biosphere Reserve located in South-East of Morocco. For this purpose, water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, electrical conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, nitrate and phosphorus concentration, and riparian plants diversity were estimated at 12 stations along the Draa River and its tributaries using phytoecological surveys. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was performed to assess the relationship between environmental parameters, the distribution and abundance of riparian plants inventoried.
The results of the assessment of 12 phytoecological surveys revealed the existence of 86 species of aquatic and semi aquatic plants, divided into 76 genera and 30 botanical families, with 15.11% of the species are endemic and 9.30% as rare and threatened species. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results revealed that the salinity, the conductivity, degree of submersion and the nitrate concentration are the main factors affecting the composition and the distribution of the riparian plants in Draa basin.
Given the increasing human pressure on native riparian plant in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot region, including the climate change effects and habitat loss, urgent conservation measures are discussed for this and other riparian plant species.

References

  • Agoussine M., Bouchaou L (2004) Les problèmes majeurs de la gestion de l’eau au Maroc. Sécheresse. 15. 2. 187-194.
  • Atbib M (1979) Etude phytoécologique de la réserve biologique de Mehdia : la végétation hygrophile de la Merja Sidi Boughaba. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique. Rabat 4. pp. 99-188.
  • Atbib M (1980) La Végétation du littoral du Maroc septentrional. Etude phytoécologique et phytodynamique de la réserve biologique de Mehdia (littoral atlantique). Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat. Université Mohammed V. Rabat. 273 p.
  • Bubanja N, Šinzar-Sekulic J, Stevanovic F (2016) Assessing the influence of environmental parameters on aquatic plants of ponds in the hinterland of Long Beach in Montenegro. Limnetica. 35 (2) : 385-396.
  • Chehma A, Djebar MR, Hadjaiji F, Rouabeh L (2005) Etude floristique spatiotemporelle des parcours sahariens du Sud-Est Algérien. Sécheresse. 16. 275-285.
  • Christia C, Papastergiadou ES (2007) Spatial and temporal variations o aquatic macrophytes and water quality in six coastal lagoons of western Greece. Belgian Journal of Botany 140 (1) : 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/20794622
  • Coops H, Brink FWB, Velde VG (1996) Growth and morphological responses of four helophyte species in an experimental water-depht gradient. Aquatic Botany. 54: 11-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(96)01025-X
  • Coring E, Bathe J (2011) Effects of reduced salt concentrations on plant communities in the River Werra (Germany). Limnologica. 41 : 134-142.
  • Ennabili A, Ater M (1996) Flore (Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta) des zones humides du Maroc Méditérranéen. Inventaire et écologie/ Wetland flora (Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) of Mediterranean Morocco: inventory and ecology. Acta Botanica Malacitana. 21 : 221-239.
  • Ennabili A, Ater M (2005) Diversité floristique et production de biomasse des macrophytes des marais de Smir. Bull. Inst. Sci. Rabat. Série générale. 2005. n°4. 17-25.
  • Ennabili A, Gharnit N (2003) Effets d’aménagements du littoral tétouanais (Nord-ouest du Maroc) sur la végétation hygrophile (Spermatophyta). Acta Botanica Brasilica. 48 : 199-216.
  • Ennabili A, Nabil L, Ater M (1996) Importance socio-économique des hygrophytes au Nord-ouest du Maroc. Al Biruniya. Rev. Mar. Pharm. 1996. Tome 12. N°2, p.95.
  • Fawad M, Gul B, Khan H, Khan Z, Pak J (2013) Study and collection of hydrophytes of the district Swabi. Pakistan. Weed Science Research. 19/4 513.
  • Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M (1998) Le catalogue des plantes vasculaires rares, menacées ou endémiques du Maroc. Bocconea 8. 243 p.
  • Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M, Mathez J, Ouyahya A, EL Oualidi J (1999) Flore pratique du Maroc : Manuel de détermination des plantes vaculaire. Volume1. Institut Scientifique. Univ. Mohamed V- Rabat. 558 p.
  • Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M, Ouyahya A, EL Oualidi J (2014) Flore pratique du Maroc, manuel de détermination des plantes vasculaires, volume (2). Travaux de l’institut scientifique. Série Botanique. N°38. Rabat. 636 p.
  • Ferchichi-Ben J, Muller H, Daoud-Bouattour SD, Ghrabi-Gammar A, Rhazi Z, Soulie-Marsche L, Ouali I, Ben Saadlimam MS (2010) Structures de végétation et conservation des zones humides temporaires méditerranéennes ; la région des Mogods (Tunisie septentrionale). Comptes Rendus Biologies. 333 : 265-279.
  • Grillas P (1990) Distribution of submerged macrophytes in the Camargue in relation to envirnmental factors. J. Veg. Sci. 1 : 393-402. https://doi.org/10.2307/3235716.
  • Hammada S (2007) Etudes sur la végétation des zones humides du Maroc : Catalogue et analyse de la biodiversité floritique et identification des prinicpaux groupement végétaux. Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat en Sciences. Université Mihammed V-Agdal. Faculté des Sciences. Rabat 199p.
  • Hammada S, Dakki M, Ibn Tattou M, Ouyahya A, Fennane M (2004) Analyse de la biodiversité floritique des zones humides du Maroc. Flore rare, menacée et halophile. Acta. Bot. Mal. 29. 43-66.
  • Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontol Electronica. 4(1): 9pp.
  • Heidecke C, Heckelei T (2010) Impacts of changing water inflow distributions on irrigation and farm income along the Draa River in Morocco. Agricultural Economics. 41: 135-148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2009.00431.x.
  • James C, Fisher J, Russell V, Collings S, Moss B (2005) Nitrate availability and hydrophyte species richness in shallow lakes. Freshwater Biology. 50(6): 1049-1063. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2005.01375.x.
  • Jong CA, Cappy SB, Finckh MC, Funk D (2008) A transdisciplinary analysis of water problems in the mountainous karst areas of Morocco. Engineering Geology. 99 : 228-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.11.021.
  • Känel B, Michel C, Reichert P (2017) Méthodes d’analyse et d’appréciation des cours d’eau. Macrophytes – niveau R (région) et niveau C (cours d’eau). Projet. Office fédéral de l’environnement. Berne. 118 p.
  • Kors A, Vilbaste S, Kiaro K, Pall P, Piirsoo K, Truu J, Viik M (2012) Temporal changes in the composition of macrophytes communities and environmental factors governing the distribution of aquatic plants in an unregulated lowland river. Emajogi. Estonia. Boreal Environment. Research. 17: 460-472.
  • Labiad M, Khabbach A, Ennabili A (2012) Végétation ripicole et gestion des eaux de surface, cas du Bassin versant de l’oued Inaouène (N-O du Maroc). Revue AFN Maroc.35-63.
  • Lougheed VL, Crosbie B, Chowfraser P (2001) Primary determinants of macrophyte community structure in 62 marshes across the Great Lakes basin: latitude, land use, and water quality effects. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 58(8): 1603-12.
  • Makin MJ, Kingham TJ, Waddams AE, Birchall CJ, Eavis BW (1976) Prospects for irrigation development around Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Land Res. Study Division. UK Ministry of Overseas Development. Report 26. Tolworth.
  • Naiman RJ, Décamps H, Mcclain (2005) Riparian: Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities. Elsevier. Burlington. MA. 2005.448 pp. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[353:fl]2.0.co;2.
  • Negre R (1961) Petite Flore des régions arides du Maroc occidental. C.N.R.S. Tome I et Tome II. 979 p.
  • Quezel P, Santa S (1962-1963) Nouvelle flore de l’Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. Editions C.N.R.S. Paris. Tome I et II. 1165 p.
  • Raunkiaer C (1934) The Life Forms of Plants and Statistical Plants Geography. pp. 623. Clarendon Press Oxford.
  • Rhazi L, Rhazi M, Grillas, El Khyari D (2006) Richness and structure of plant communities in temporary ponds from western Morocco: influence of human activities. Hydrobiologia 570. 197-203.
  • Schwarz AM, Hawes I (1997) Effects of changing water clarity on characean biomass and species composition in a large oligotroophic lake. Aquatic Botany. 56: 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(96)01114-X.
  • Spence DHN (1982) The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. Advances in. Ecological. Research. 12: 37-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60077-X.
  • Vestergaard O, Sand-Jensen K (2000) Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes. Aquatic Botany. 67 (2) : 85-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00086-3.
  • Warner N, Lgourna Z, Bouchaou L, Boutaleb S, Tagma T, Hsaissoune M, Vengosh A (2013) Integration of geochemical and isotopic tracers for elucidating water sources and salinization of shallow aquifers in the sub-Saharian Draa Basin. Morocco. Applied Geochemistry. 140-151.
  • Warwick N.W, Brock MA (2003) Plant reproduction in temporary wetlands: The effects of seasonal timing, depth, and duration of flooding. - Aquatic Botany 77(2):153-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(03)00102-5.
  • Wolff C (1987) Analyse de la végétation aquatique et de la végétation riveraine de la Haute-Sûre en fonction des perturbations du milieu. Bulletin de la. Société des. Naturalistes. Luxemb. 87: 1.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.