Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Artemisia dracunculus in combination with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm improves wound healing in MRSA infected excisional wounds: An animal model study


The objective of the present study was to assess effect of Artemisia dracunculus in combination with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm on MRSA infected excisional wounds. Thirty rats were randomized into five groups of six rats each. Group I: Animals with uninfected wounds treated with 0.9% saline solution. Group II: Animals with infected wounds treated with saline. Group III: Animals with infected wounds were dressed with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm. Group IV: Animals with infected wounds were treated topically with Artemisia dracunculus and Group V: Animals with infected wounds were treated topically with Artemisia dracunculus and dressed with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm. Wound size was measured on 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21days after surgery. Microbiology, reduction in wound area and hydroxyproline contents indicated that there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between group V and other groups. Quantitative histological studies and mean rank of the qualitative studies demonstrated that there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between group V and other groups. It was concluded that the Artemisia dracunculus with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm had a reproducible wound healing potential and hereby justified its use in practice.


  • Archana D, Dutta J, Dutta PK (2013) Evaluation of chitosan nano dressing for wound healing: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Biol Macromol. 57: 193-203.
  • Ataee RA, Kamali M, Ranjbar R, Karami A, Ghorbani M (2012) Standardization of molecular diagnostic of the entc staphylococcus aureus isolated from human infections and determine its sequence. Journal of Military Medicine. 14 (3): 226-234.
  • Azad AK, Sermsintham N, Chandrkrachang S, Stevens WF (2004) Chitosan membrane as a wound-healing dressing: characterization and clinical application. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl. Biomater. 69: 216-222.
  • Calamari SE, Bojanich MA, Barembaum SR, Berdicevski N, Azcurra AI (2011) Antifungal and post-antifungal effects of chlorhexidine, fluconazole, chitosan and its combinations on Candida albicans. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 16:23-28.
  • Chandika P, KO SC, Jung WK (2015) Marine-derived biological macro-molecule-based biomaterials for wound healing and skin tissue regeneration. Int J Biol Macromol. 77: 24–35.
  • Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, Robbins SL (1999) Robbins pathologic basis of disease: Saunders.
  • Das S, Baker AB (2016) Biomaterials and Nanotherapeutics for Enhancing Skin Wound Healing. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 31: 4:82.
  • Dogan S, Demirer S, Kepenekci I, et al. (2009) Epidermal growth factor-containing wound closure enhances wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Int Wound J. 6: 107–115.
  • Gholami H, Sharifzade A, Mohammadian M, Morovati-Sharifabadi H (2012) Inhibitory Effect of Artemisia drancunculus Essential Oil on the Two Important Species of Aspergillus. 2nd International congress of microbiology, Ardabil, Iran, 14-16 July, 533.
  • Jonaidi Jafari N, Kargozari M, Ranjbar R, Rostami H, Hamedi H (2018) The effect of chitosan coating incorporated with ethanolic extract of propolis on the quality of refrigerated chicken fillet. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 42(1): e13336.
  • Kishen A, Shi Z, Shrestha A, Neoh KG (2008) An investigation on the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of cationic nanoparticulates for root canal disinfection. J Endod. 34: 1515-1520.
  • Koji K (1992) Clinical application of chitin artificial skin (Beschitin W). in: C.J. Brine, P.A. Sanford, J.P. Zikakis, (Eds), Advances in chitin and chitosan Elsevier Applied Science, Landon and New York: 9-15.
  • Kordali S, Cakir A, Mavi A, Kilic H, Yildirim A (2005) Screening of chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils from three Turkish Artemisia species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:1408–1416.
  • Lopez-lutz D, Alviano D, Alviano C, Kolodziejczyk P (2008) Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils. Phytochemistry. 69:1732-1738.
  • Maghsoudi O, Ranjbar R, Mirjalili SH, Fasihi-Ramandi M (2017) Inhibitory activities of platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma on the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Iranian Journal of Pathology. 12(1): 79-87.
  • Martin J, Zenilman M, Lazarus GS (2010) Molecular microbiology: new dimensions for cutaneous biology and wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 130: 38-48.
  • McLaughlin S, Podrebarac J, Ruel M, Suuronen E J, McNeill B, Alarcon EI (2016) Nano-engineered biomaterials for tissue regeneration: what has been achieved so far? Front Mater. 3: 27.
  • Meepagala K, Sturtz G, Wedge D (2002) Antifungal Constituents of the Essential Oil Fraction of Artemisia dracunculus L. Var. dracunculus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:6989–6992.
  • Mizuno K, Yamamura K, Yano K, et al. (2003) Effect of chitosan film containing basic fibroblast growth factor on wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. J Biomed Mater Res A. 64: 177-81.
  • Nayak V, Jyothi MS, Balakrishna RG, Padaki M, Ismail AF (2015) Preparation and characterization of chitosan thin films on mixed-matrix membranes for complete removal of chromium. ChemistryOpen. 4(3): 278–287.
  • No HK, Park NY, Lee SH, Meyers SP (2002) Antibacterial activity of chitosans and chitosan oligomers with different molecular weights. Int J Food Microbiol. 74:65-72.
  • Okamoto K, Sibazaki S, Minami A, Matsuhashi S, Tanioka Y, Shigemasa Y (1995) Evaluation of chitin and chitosan on open wound healing in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 57: 851–854.
  • Qiu AH, Kwon Y (2007) Effects of plasma fibronectin on the healing of full-thickness skin wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Surg Res. 138: 64-70.
  • Rajan S (2012) Skin and soft-tissue infections: Classifying and treating a spectrum. Cleve Clin J Med. 79(1): 57- 66.
  • Rampinoa A, Borgognaa M, Blasi P, Bellicha B, Cesàro A (2013) Chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, size evolution and stability. Int J Pharmaceut. 455(1-2): 219-228.
  • Ranjbar R, Ashrafzadeh-Takhtfooladi M (2016a) The effects of low level laser therapy on Staphylococcus aureus infected third-degree burns in diabetic rats. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira. 31(4).
  • Ranjbar R, Ashrafzadeh-Takhtfooladi M (2016b) The effects of photobiomodulation therapy on Staphylococcus aureus infected surgical wounds in diabetic rats. A microbiological, histopathological, and biomechanical study. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira. 31(8).
  • Ranjbar R, Goudarzi MM, Jonaidi N (2016) Prevalence of mecA and femB genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Iran’s military hospitals. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 10(1): 389-393.
  • Ranjbar R, Moazzami Goudarzi M, Jonaidi N, Moeini R (2016) Cassette chromosome mec typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients in Tehran. Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology. 31(2): 109-115.
  • Ranjbar R, Shahreza MHS, Rahimi E, Jonaidi-Jafari N (2017) Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates from iranian restaurant food samples: Panton-valentine leukocidin, sccmec phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 16 (8): 1939-1949.
  • Roghani M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Sabouri B, Nahavandi N (2006) The analgesic effect of oral administration of tarragon in diabetic rat. The journal of Qazvin Univ. of Med. Sci. 9(4): 19-24.
  • Sayyah M, Nadjafnia L, Kamalinejad M (2004) Anticonvulsant activity and chemical composition of A. dracunculus L. essential oil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 94: 283-287.
  • Schmidt BM, Ribnicky DM, Lipsky PE, Raskin I (2007) Revisiting the ancient concept of botanical therapeutics. Nat. Chim. Biol. 3:360-366.
  • Seetharaman S, Natesan S, Stowers RS, et al. (2011) A PEGylated fibrin-based wound dressing with antimicro-bial and angiogenic activity. Acta Biomater. 7: 2787–2796.
  • Silva PV, Guedes DF, Nakadi FV, Pecora JD, Cruz-Filho AM (2013) Chitosan: a new solution for removal of smear layer after root canal instrumentation. Int Endod J. 46: 332-338.
  • Sinha VR, Singla AK, Wadhawan S, et al. (2004) Chitosan microspheres as a potential carrier for drugs. Int J Pharm. 274:1-33.
  • Toreti VC, Sato HH, Pastore GM, Park YK (2013) Recent progress of propolis for its biological and chemical compositions and its botanical origin. Evid Based Compl Alternative Med. 2013: 697390.
  • Wang EC, Wang AZ (2016) Nanoparticles and their applications in cell and molecular biology Integr Biol. 6: 9–26.
  • Yazdanparast R, Saee A (1999) Effects of aqueous tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus, extract on lipid and coagulatory parameters in rats. Biomedical Letters. 59:137–141.
  • Zetola N, Francis JS, Nuermberger EL, Bishai WR (2005) Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 5(5): 275-286.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.