Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Antioxidant properties flavonoids and phenolic content of grape seed extracts in Jordan
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 4571-4574
  • Published Online: 30 Oct 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Background: Grape seeds extract (GSE) is one of recommended natural antioxidants that could be used in various food products. it is used in jordan as healthy food material recording about 10000 kg consumption per year. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to quantify the antioxidant compounds that found in grape seeds which extracted using organic solvents (acetone 60%, ethanol 60% and methanol 75%) comparing with their 100% extracts. Grape pomace was collected from Jordan market, washed and dried then seeds were removed and powdered into fine particles. Ten g were extracted either by 100% of suggested solvents or by their corresponded dilute concentrations. Results: Grape seeds contain 6.79% (moisture), 7.00% (protein), 9.80% (fat), 2.10 (ash), 42.33% (fibers) and 31.98% (calculated carbohydrates). Yield of grape seeds extract was significantly affected by type of solvent either diluted with water or not. Such yield ranged between 5.5 to 10.4% when 100% organic solvents was used, meanwhile the corresponding extraction yield ranged between 10.7 to 14.0 % when such organic solvents were diluted. It could be descending ordered the efficiency of solvents for yielding extract as: Acetone: water (60: 40), Ethanol: water (60: 40) and Methanol: water (75: 25).
A significant difference in total flavonoids content of grape seed extracts was detected owing to solvent type. Grape seeds treated by diluted methanol (75: 25) gave an extract possessed the highest total flavonoids content contrary to that of extracted by 100% acetone. It could be reported that diluting of organic solvents Acetone: water (60: 40), Ethanol: water (60: 40) and Methanol: water (75: 25) enhanced corresponding extraction yield of total flavonoids by 1.8, 1.5 and 1.1 times higher. Similar pattern that found earlier was also detected when the content of total phenolics was considered showing higher efficiency for extracting more phenolics by diluting methanol with 25% of water to be in the first order. In conclusion, higher efficiency of extracting flavonoids and phenolics from grape seeds was seen when using 75% methanol for extraction.


  • A.O.A.C., (2012). “Official Methods of Chemical Analysis”. Associated of Official Analytical Chemists, 19th (Ed.), Maryland, USA.
  • Baydar N.G., Babalik Z., Turk F.H., et al. (2011). Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Wines and Extracts of Some Grape Varieties Grown in Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 17:67-76
  • Casazza, A.A., Aliakbarian, B., Mantegna, S., Cravotto, G. and Perego, P., (2010). Extraction of phenolics from Vitisvinifera wastes using non-conventional techniques. J. Food Eng., 100, 150–155. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.03.026
  • Centeno, G., M.R., Jourdes, M. Femenia, A., Simal, S., Rosselló, C. and Teissedre, P.L., (2013).Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, 11579-11587.
  • Daglia, M. (2011). Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2011.08.007.
  • Dwyer, K., Hosseinian, F. and Rod, M., (2014).The market potential of grape waste alternatives., J. Food Res., 3, 91-106. DOI:10.5539/jfr.v3n2p91
  • Gibis, M., &Weiss, J. (2012). Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties. Food Chemistry, 134, 766-774. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.179
  • Hagr, T., Adam, I. (2020). Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial and antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa (L) Seeds, (Sudanese Karkadi). Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 3(3), 194-201. doi: 10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2020.3.2
  • Hayat, A., Jahangir, T., Yar Khuhawar, M., Alamgir, M., Ali, R., Ali, A., Musharraf, S. (2019). Determination of Important Phenolic Compounds in Pakistani Brown Rice Varieties in Controlled, Germinated and Fermented Conditions by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 2(3), 134-142. doi: 10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2019.2.6
  • Huang, Y., Chang, Y. and Shao, Y., (2006). Effect of genotype and treatment on the antioxidant activity of sweet potato in Taiwan. J. Food Chem., 98, 52-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.083
  • Larki, A., Shakiba Maram, N., Zarei Ahmady, A., Mohtasham, N., Mafakher, L., Khelghati, N., Hedayati, E. (2020). Comparing different extraction methods for oral syrup formulation of major bioactive compounds from Cordia Myxa fruit. Eurasian Chemical Communications, 2(9), 953-960. doi: 10.22034/ecc.2020.113247
  • Librán, C.M., Luis Mayor, L., Esperanza M. Garcia-Castello and Vidal-Brotons, D., (2013). Polyphenol extraction from grape wastes: Solvent and pH effect. Agricultural Sciences, 4 (9B), 56-62. DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.49B010
  • Mohammedelnour, A.A., Mirghani, M.E.S., Kabbashi, N.A., Alam, Md Z., Musa, K. H. and Abdullah, A., (2017). Effect of solvent types on phenolics content and antioxidant activities of Acacia polyacanthagum. International Food Research Journal 24(Suppl.), S369-S377.
  • Nageb, A.M.M., (2015). Using of natural antioxidants for improvement quality of meat products. M.Sc. Thesis, Food Technology Dep., Fac. Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt, pp. 95-98.
  • Ovcharova, T., Zlatanov, M. and Dimitrova, R., (2016). Chemical composition of seeds of four Bulgarian grape varieties. Ciência Téc. Vitiv. 31(1), 31-40. DOI: 10.1051/ctv/20163101031
  • Pereja, O.M.J., Fernandez-Ponce, M.T., Mantell, C. and Enrique, J.M., (2015). Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace. Molecules, 20, 9686-9702. doi: 10.3390/molecules20069686
  • Perumalla, A. V. S., & Hettiarachchy, N. S. (2011). Green tea and grape seed extracts-potential applications in food safety and quality. Food Research International, 44, 827-839. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2011.01.022
  • Rehman, Z.U., (2006). Citrus peel extract- A natural sources of antioxidant. Food Chem., 99(3), 450-454.
  • Ricardo da Silva J M, Rosec J P, Bourzeix M & Heredia N (1990). Separation and quantitative determination of grape and wine procyanidins by HPLC. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 53: 85–92.
  • Rockenbach, I.I., Rodrigues, E., Gonzaga,L.V., Caliari, V., Maria Inés Genovese, M.I., Gonçalves, A.E. and Fett, R., (2011). Phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in pomace from selected red grapes (Vitisvinifera L. and Vitislabrusca L.) widely produced in Brazil. Food Chem., 127, 174–179. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.137
  • Selcuk, A.R., Demiray, E. and Yilmaz, Y., (2011). Antioxidant activity of grape seeds obtained from molasses (Pekmez) and Winery Production. AkademikGida, 9(5), 39-43.
  • Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. Affiliated East-West Press. East-West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 313 p.
  • Teixeira, A, Baenas, N., Dominguez-Perlles, R., Barros, A., Rosa, E., Moreno, D.A., Garcia-Viguera, C., (2014). Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-product as health promoters. A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 15, 638-678. DOI: 10.3390/ijms150915638
  • Titto, J.R., (1985). Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. of Agric. and Food Chem., 33, 213-217.
  • Uzelac, D.V., Pospisil, J., Levaj, B. and Delonga, K., (2005). The study of phenolic profiles raw apricots and their purees by HPLC for the evaluation of apricot nectars and jams authenticity. Food Chem., 91(2), 373-383. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.004
  • Vayupharp, B. and Laksanalamai, V., (2012). Recovery of antioxidants from grape Seeds and its application in fried food. J. Food Process Technol., 3, 4. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000152
  • Williams, B.W., Cuvelir, M.E. and Berset, C., (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Tecnology, 28, 25-30.
  • Zulkifli, K.H., Abdullah, N., Abdullah, A., Aziman, N. and Wan Kamarudin, W.S., (2012). Phytochemical screening and activities of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant of some fruit peels. The Malaysian. J. Analy. Sci., (16) 3, 309 – 317


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.