Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients

Abstract

Microalgae play a significant role in the development of new products for medical and pharmaceutical research due to their ability to generate different biologically active metabolites. They are target organisms in the search for new antibiotic molecules to deal with antibiotic resistance. In addition, the use of natural antibiotics could satisfy consumer demand to avoid the side effects of chemicals. Our results showed antimicrobial activity of two algal species Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris against nine human pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Seven concentrations of algal extract (10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/ml) were used. It was observed that ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis was most effective against Streptococcus agalactiae with maximum inhibition zone of 21.6 mm, while the minimum inhibition zone (8.5mm) was found in case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentration 300 mg/ml. In the case of ethanolic extract of Chlorella vulgaris, the inhibition zone was the highest (31.6 mm) against Staphylococcus lentus, while the lowest inhibition zone (20.6 mm) was in case of Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 300 mg/ml. While the concentrations less than 300 mg/ml showed varying inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, some bacterial isolates showed resistance to low concentrations of algal extracts. The results of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the two algal extracts showed that chemical composition analysis consisted of terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes)

References

  • Adepoju AO, Osunsanmi O (2018) Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 85-95.
  • Ahmed EAJGARJM (2016) Antimicrobial activity of microalgal extracts isolated from Baharia Oasis, Egypt 5: 033-041.
  • Ali IH, Doumandji AJBdlIS, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Vie (2017) Comparative phytochemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis and the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa: potential application of bioactive components as an alternative to infectious diseases 39: 41-49.
  • Appelbaum PCJJoAC (2012) 2012 and beyond: potential for the start of a second pre-antibiotic era? 67(9): 2062-2068.
  • Arun N, Gupta S, Singh DJIJoPS, Research (2012) Antimicrobial and antioxidant property of commonly found microalgae Spirulina platensis, Nostoc muscorum and Chlorella pyrenoidosa against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi 3(12): 4866.
  • Bagamboula C, Uyttendaele M, Debevere JJFm (2004) Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri 21(1): 33-42.
  • Borowitzka MAJJoAP (1995) Microalgae as sources of pharmaceuticals and other biologically active compounds 7(1): 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00003544
  • Chouhan S, Sharma K, Guleria SJM (2017) Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils—present status and future perspectives 4(3): 58
  • Chowdhury MMH, Kubra K, Hossain MB, Mustafa MG, Jainab T, Karim MR, Mehedy MEJIJP (2015) Screening of antibacterial and antifungal activity of freshwater and marine algae as a prominent natural antibiotic available in Bangladesh 11: 828-833
  • CLSI CJCLSI (2016) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  • Dineshkumar R, Narendran R, Jayasingam P, Sampathkumar PJJoA, Biology M (2017) Cultivation and chemical composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens 5: 00119
  • El-Sheekh MM, Daboor SM, Swelim MA, Mohamed S (2014) Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis. Iran J Microbiol 6(2): 112-119
  • El-Sheekh MM, El-Shafay SM, El-Ballat EMJi-j (2015) Production and characterization of antifungal active substance from some marine and freshwater algae 6: 85-92
  • Fair RJ, Tor Y (2014) Antibiotics and bacterial resistance in the 21st century. Perspect Medicin Chem 6: 25-64. doi:10.4137/PMC.S14459
  • Falaise C, François C, Travers M-A, Morga B, Haure J, Tremblay R, Turcotte F, Pasetto P, Gastineau R, Hardivillier Y, Leignel V, Mouget J-L (2016) Antimicrobial Compounds from Eukaryotic Microalgae against Human Pathogens and Diseases in Aquaculture. Mar Drugs 14(9): 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/md14090159
  • Foxman BJIdcoNA (2014) Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden 28(1): 1-13
  • Guimarães AC, Meireles LM, Lemos MF, Guimarães MCC, Endringer DC, Fronza M, Scherer R (2019) Antibacterial Activity of Terpenes and Terpenoids Present in Essential Oils. Molecules 24(13): 2471. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132471
  • Gutiérrez RMP, Flores AM, Solís RV, Jimenez JCJJonm (2008) Two new antibacterial norabietane diterpenoids from cyanobacteria, Microcoleous lacustris 62(3): 328-331
  • Güven KC, Sezik E, Kaleağasıoğlu F, Erdugan H, Coban B, Karakaş E (2013) Volatile Oils from Marine Macroalgae. In: Ramawat KG, Mérillon J-M (eds) Natural Products: Phytochemistry, Botany and Metabolism of Alkaloids, Phenolics and Terpenes. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg: 2883-2912. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22144-6_128
  • Jaki B, Heilmann J, Sticher O (2000) New Antibacterial Metabolites from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (EAWAG 122b). Journal of Natural Products 63(9): 1283-1285. https://doi.org/10.1021/np000033s
  • Jena J, Subudhi E (2019) Microalgae: An Untapped Resource for Natural Antimicrobials. In: The Role of Microalgae in Wastewater Treatment. Springer: 99-114
  • Keeling CI, Bohlmann J (2012) Plant Terpenoids. In: Natural Products in Chemical Biology, N. Civjan (Ed.): 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118391815.ch5
  • Khan MI, Shin JH, Kim JDJMCF (2018) The promising future of microalgae: current status, challenges, and optimization of a sustainable and renewable industry for biofuels, feed, and other products 17(1): 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-018-0879-x
  • Kokou F, Makridis P, Kentouri M, Divanach PJAR (2012) Antibacterial activity in microalgae cultures 43(10): 1520-1527
  • Leggett HC, Cornwallis CK, Buckling A, West SA (2017) Growth rate, transmission mode and virulence in human pathogens. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 372 (1719):20160094. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0094
  • Li Y, Ghasemi Naghdi F, Garg S, Adarme-Vega TC, Thurecht KJ, Ghafor WA, Tannock S, Schenk PMJMCF (2014) A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research 13(1): 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-13-14
  • Mahizan NA, Yang S-K, Moo C-L, Song AA-L, Chong C-M, Chong C-W, Abushelaibi A, Lim S-HE, Lai K-SJM (2019) Terpene Derivatives as a Potential Agent against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Pathogens 24(14): 2631
  • Martínez-Francés E, Escudero-Oñate CJMb (2018) Cyanobacteria and microalgae in the production of valuable bioactive compounds.105
  • Mgbeahuruike EE, Stålnacke M, Vuorela H, Holm Y (2019) Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of Commercial Piperine and Piperlongumine in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobials. Antibiotics (Basel) 8(2): 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020055
  • Pattanaik B, Lindberg PJL (2015) Terpenoids and their biosynthesis in cyanobacteria 5(1): 269-293
  • Prarthana J, Maruthi KJAJoSR (2019) Fresh Water Algae as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds for Aquaculture and Significance of Solvent System in Extraction of Antimicrobials 12: 18-28
  • Prinsep MR, Thomson RA, West ML, Wylie BLJJonp (1996) Tolypodiol, an antiinflammatory diterpenoid from the cyanobacterium Tolypothrix nodosa 59(8): 786-788
  • Rezapour-Nasrabad R (2018) Application of Transitional Care Model in Patients with Chronic Heart Disease: A Case-Controlled Intervention Study. Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension, 13(3): 285.
  • Roca I, Akova M, Baquero F, Carlet J, Cavaleri M, Coenen S, Cohen J, Findlay D, Gyssens I, Heure OE, Kahlmeter G, Kruse H, Laxminarayan R, Liébana E, López-Cerero L, MacGowan A, Martins M, Rodríguez-Baño J, Rolain JM, Segovia C, Sigauque B, Tacconelli E, Wellington E, Vila J (2015) The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention. New Microbes and New Infections 6:22-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2015.02.007
  • Singh B, Sharma RAJB (2015) Plant terpenes: defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation and clinical applications 5(2): 129-151
  • Singh R, Parihar P, Singh M, Bajguz A, Kumar J, Singh S, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2017) Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects. Frontiers in microbiology 8: 515. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00515
  • Syed S, Arasu A, Ponnuswamy IJIJBB (2015) The uses of Chlorella vulgaris as antimicrobial agent and as a diet: the presence of bio-active compounds which caters the vitamins, minerals in general 7(1): 185-190.
  • Tajbakhsh S, Ilkhani M, Rustaiyan A, Larijani K, Sartavi K, Tahmasebi RJJoMPR (2011) Antibacterial effect of the brown alga Cystoseira trinodis 5(18): 4654-4657
  • Usharani G, Srinivasan G, Sivasakthi S, Saranraj PJAiBR (2015) Antimicrobial activity of Spirulina platensis solvent extracts against pathogenic bacteria and fungi 9(5): 292-298
  • Wilson J, Schurr M, LeBlanc C, Ramamurthy R, Buchanan K, Nickerson CJPmj (2002) Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity 78(918): 216-224
  • Wright GD (2010) Antibiotic resistance in the environment: a link to the clinic? Current Opinion in Microbiology 13(5): 589-594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2010.08.005
  • Zhang J-h, Sun H-l, Chen S-y, Zeng L, Wang T-tJBs (2017) Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium 58(1): 13

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.