Analysis of the ultrastructure of pollen grains and seeds to identify plant materials

Abstract

We studied the ultrasculpture of pollen grains and the surface, the macro- and microstructure of the seeds of broad beans (Faba bean L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It was revealed that pollen grains are single, medium in size, radially symmetric, three-aperture, but the exine surface sculpture and ornamentation of the pollen grain surface are of decisive importance. The main role in determining pollen grains is played by shape and ornamentation. It was also determined that the seeds of beans differ in the maximum sperm thickness, and the thickness of the sclerotest makes the main contribution to the formation of this trait. The bean epidermis of the seed peel is two-row and has the greatest thickness. When seeds germinate, the matrix protein and aleuron grains of the storage parenchyma are first consumed. Its cells and the size of starch grains are larger in broad beans. And the sign “the ratio of the size of starch grains to the size of the cells of the storage parenchyma,%” allows you to identify fragments of the seeds of broad beans, peas and beans without seed peels.

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