Agrotechnical methods for increasing yield and grain quality of spring barley in the Central Black Earth region

Abstract

The article presents the results of studies on the use of internal reserves to increase the yield and quality of spring barley using radical technology elements of the best precursors and rational doses of mineral fertilizers for the conditions of the Central Black Earth region. The research was carried out in a long-term stationary field experiment of the laboratory studying the agricultural systems of the Belgorod State Agrarian University named after V.Ya. Gorin. The object was a regional brewing variety of spring barley Knyazhych. The soil of the experimental plot was represented by leached chernozem, medium loamy on loesslike loam. The experimental scheme (4×4) stipulated the study of four gradations of A factor (precursors: corn for grain - control, sunflower, sugar beets, soybeans) and B factor (norms of mineral fertilizers: N10P10K10 control, N30P30K30, N50P50K50, N70P70K70). The meteorological conditions of spring barley vegetation during the years of research were arid with high temperature and lack of moisture in the form of precipitation. As a result of field experiments, it was found that increasing the dose of mineral fertilizers led to an increase in the yield of barley grain for all precursors. The highest yield on average for two years was obtained at high N50P50K50 and intense N70P70K70 for soybeans and sugar beets and amounted to 5.00 и 5.28 t/ha, as well as 5.26 and 5.06 t/ha, which is higher than the control for 0.62 and 0.94 t/ha, as well as 0.88 and 0.72 t/ha or for 14 and 22 %, as well as 20 and 16 %. The highest protein content in barley grain was obtained from the soybean precursor and amounted to N10P10K10 11.47 %, N30P30K30 12.52 %, N50P50K50 13.20 %, N70P70K70 13.42 %. On a low base of fertilizers N10P10K10, barley grain was characterized according to the current GOST as brewing, according to other bases - as feeding. When cultivating spring barley, the most effective precursors were soybeans and sugar beets when applying mineral fertilizers N50P50K50, the profit amounted to 27,912.65 and 25,298.52 roubles/ha, the profitability level - 166.2 and 147.1%.

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