A study to detect the most important virulence factors of cryptosporidium parasite samples by PCR


Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite causing diarrhea. The aim of our study is the detection of the infective species with virulence factors in Cryptosporidium in children who have diarrhea in Diwaniyah city. The total fecal samples were one hundred; take from diarrheic children who are aged below 10 years old in Maternity and Childhood Teaching Hospital. Oocytes of Cryptosporidium oocytes were 29 (29%) in children with diarrhea using a light microscope with an acid-fast stain for the samples. Findings of polymerase chain reaction showed that C. parvum is an accusative agent of the cryptosporidiosis in children and all these samples contain the Glycoprotein 900 pathogenic factor under study.


  • AL-Alousi T I, Mahmood O I (2012).Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in calves and Children in Mosul, Iraq. College of Veterinary Medicine. Tikrit University.280-285.
  • AL-Hindi A L, Elmanama A A, Elnabris K J (2007). Cryptosporidiosis among children attending Al- Nasser pediatric hospital, Gaza, Palestine. Turk. J.med. sci. 37(6) 367-372.
  • Barnes DA, Bonnin A, Huang JX, Gousset L, Wu J, Gut J, Doyle P, Dubremetz JF, Ward H, &Petersen C. (1998). A novel multi-domain mucin-like glycoprotein of Cryptosporidium parvum mediates invasion. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 96:93–110.
  • Benigno B A, George W J, Yajarayma J T, and Joseph silva J R (1996). Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA in Human Feces by Nested PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. p. 1769–1772.
  • Bonnin A, Ojcius DM, Souque P, Barnes DA, Doyle PS, Gut J, Nelson RG, Petersen C,& Dubremetz JF. (2001). Characterization of a monoclonal antibody reacting with antigen-4 domain of gp900 in Cryptosporidium parvum invasive stages. Parasitol. Res. 87:589 –592.
  • Chekly W, Gilman RH, Epstein L D, Suarez M, Diaz JF Cabrera L, Black R E and Sterling C R (1997). Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Cryptosporidiosis: their Acute Effect on Weight in Peruvian Children. Am. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 145, pp.156-163.
  • Garcia L S, Bruckner D A, Brewer T C, Shimizu RY (1983). Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol, 18, 185-190.
  • Haque R, Roy S, Kabir M, Stroup S E, Mondal D and Houpt E R (2005) Giardia assemblage A infection and diarrhea in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 192: 2171-2173.
  • Hossein S, Omid Y, Amene Y, Mohammad-Reza M. and Mohsen S. (2010). Infection Rate of Cryptosporidium parvum among Diarrheic Children in Isfahan. Iran J Pediatr; 20 (No 3), 343-347.
  • Huang DB, Chappell C, Okhuysen PC. (2004). Cryptosporidiosis in children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis.; 15(4): 253-9.
  • Kashyap A, Singh MP, Madhu, Ghoshal U. (2013). Occurrence of gastrointestinal opportunistic parasites in immunocompromised patients in Northern India. J Biol.;1:77–80.
  • Khoshzaban F, Dalimi-Asl A. (1998). Epidemiological study on Cryptosporidiosis in diarrheatic children. Daneshwar.;19(5):21-6. (In Persian)
  • Mikhlif M M (2008). Study of the spread of Cryptosporidium parvum parasite in children under five years of age in the city of Ramadi and its environs. Anbar University Journal of Pure Sciences, Second Issue, Volume Two.
  • Okhuysen PC, Chappell CL. (2002). Cryptosporidium virulence determinants— are we there yet? Int. J. Parasitol. 32:517–525.
  • Petersen C, Barnes D A, Gousset L. (1997). Cryptosporidium parvumn GP900, aUnique Invasion protein.J.E.M, 44,p 89s-90s.
  • Petersen C, Barnes DA, Gousset L. (1997). Cryptosporidium parvum GP900, a unique invasion protein. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44:89S–90S.
  • Petersen C, Gut J, Doyle PS, Crabb JH, Nelson RG,& Leech JH. (1992). Characterization of a _900,000-M(r) Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite glycoprotein recognized by protective hyperimmune bovine colostralm immunoglobulin. Infect. Immun. 60:5132-5138.
  • Petersen C, Gut J, Doyle PS, Crabb JH, Nelson RG,& Leech JH. (1992). Characterization of a _900,000-M(r) Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite glycoprotein recognized by protective hyperimmune bovine colostralm immunoglobulin. Infect. Immun. 60:5132-5138.
  • Petri W A, Haque R, Lyerly D. and Vines R R (2000): Estimating the impact of amebiasis on health. Parasitol Today. 16, 320-321.
  • Rotz LD, Khan AS, Lillibridge SR, Ostroff SM, Hughes JM. (2002). Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents. Emerg Infect Dis.;8:225–30.
  • Roy SL, DeLong SM, Stenzel SA, (2004). Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001. J Clin Microbiol;42(7):2944-51.
  • Stark D, Barratt JL, van Hal S, Marriott D, Harkness J, Ellis JT. (2009). Clinical significance of enteric protozoa in the immunosuppressed human population. Clin Microbiol Rev.;22:634–50.
  • Tzipori S, Ward H. (2002). Cryptosporidiosis: biology, pathogenesis and disease. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur;4:1047-58.
  • Webster K A, Pow J D E, Giles M, Catchpole J, and Woodward M J (1993). Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum using a specific polymerase chain reaction. Vet. Parasitol. 50:35–44.
  • Weitzel T, Dittrich S, Möhl I, Adusu E, and Jelinek (T.2006). Evaluation of seven commercial antigen detection tests for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in stool samples,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 656–659.
  • Xiao L and Cama V. (2006).Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in: Ortiga,Y. editor.Food Born Parasitology”. Springer Scince.,USA: 289 pp.
  • Xiao L, Lal AA, Jiang J. (2004). Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water by PCR-RFLP. Methods in molecular biology;268:163-76.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.