AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Mahmoudi G, Khodadadi B, Farhadi A, Moalemnia P, Astaraki P. A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 1163-1168.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Mahmoudi et al., 2019)
Reference: Mahmoudi, G., Khodadadi, B., Farhadi, A., Moalemnia, P., & Astaraki, P. (2019). A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 1163-1168.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Mahmoudi et al., 2019)
Reference: Mahmoudi, Ghafar-Ali, Babak Khodadadi, Ali Farhadi, Parisa Moalemnia, and Peyman Astaraki. "A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 1163-1168.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Mahmoudi et al., 2019)
Reference: Mahmoudi, G., Khodadadi, B., Farhadi, A., Moalemnia, P., and Astaraki, P. (2019). A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 1163-1168.

MLA
In-text citation: (Mahmoudi et al., 2019)
Reference: Mahmoudi, Ghafar-Ali et al. "A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1163-1168.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Mahmoudi G, Khodadadi B, Farhadi A, Moalemnia P, Astaraki P. A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1163-8.

Abstract

Background and Objective: One of the important principles of medicine is the ability to deliver bad news to the patient and caregivers. There are different views on how bad news are delivered. This study was conducted in 2016 to evaluate the viewpoints of hospitalized patients in Khorramabad hospitals on how to deliver bad news.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Non-probability convenient sampling was used. The studied population consisted of patients with incurable chronic diseases admitted to internal and oncology wards of Khorramabad hospitals. The questionnaire was given to patients after confirming validity and reliability. Then, data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis using SPSS version 23 software.
Results: The sample size was 200 patients, 92 men, and 108 women. Based on factor analysis, three factors, including physician notification, patient satisfaction with notification and people involved in delivering bad news, were obtained; 52.4% of patients were aware of their disease, 88.6% of patients agreed with full notification, 67% of patients were satisfied with the truth; for 90.5% and 46.5% of patients, the presence of a psychiatrist and religious advisor, respectively, was necessary when delivering bad news.
Conclusion: Patients’ wishes for how to deliver bad news are related to factors such as culture, news deliverer and news delivering skills and it is suggested that guidelines be tailored to the culture of each region.

References

  • Anonymous (2008) Patient’s rights in New York State. Retrieved from www.healthstate.ny.us
  • Bertakis KD, Roter D, Putnam SM (1991) The relationship of physician medical interview style to patient satisfaction. J Fam Pract, 32(2): 175-81.
  • Cassel C (1996) The patient-physician covenant: an affirmation of Asklepios. Conn Med, 60(5): 291-3. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-124-6-199603150-00010
  • Fujimori M, Akechi T, Morita T, et al. (2007) Preferences of cancer patients regarding the disclosure of bad news. Psychooncology, 16(6): 573–81. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1093
  • Gillon R (1985) Introduction to philosophical medical ethics. UK: Wiley, Reprint 2001, P. 1-8.
  • Herbert PC (1994) Truth-telling in clinical practice. Can Fam physician, 40: 2015-13.
  • Herbert PC, Hoffmaster B, Glass KC, Singer PA (1997) Bioethics for clinicians: 7. Truth telling. Can Med Assoc J, 156(2): 225-8.
  • Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, Rogers WH, Ware JE Jr. (1996) Characteristics of physicians with participatory decision-making styles. Ann Intern Med, 124(5): 497-504. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-124-5-199603010-00007
  • Kazemi A (2008) Medical Environment, Patient and Bad News. Strides Dev Med Educ., 4(2): 133-139. [In Persian]
  • Managheb SE, Hosseinpour M, Mehrabi F (2013) Patient’s viewpoints about how to break bad news. Ijme, 6(4): 68-79. [In Persian]
  • Miles SH (2009) Hippocrates and informed consent. Lancet, 374(9698): 1322-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61812-2
  • Molleman E, Krabbendam PJ, Annyas AA, Koops HS, Sleijfer DT, Vermey A (1984) Significance of the doctor-patient relationship in coping with cancer. Soc Sci Med, 18(6): 475-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(84)90003-0
  • Parsa M, Baqeri A, Larijani M (2011) Telling bad news to the patients and its different aspects. Iran J Med Ethics Hist Med, 4(6): 1-14. [in Persian]
  • Walter F, Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale EA, Kudelka AP (2000) SPIKES-A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist, 5: 302-11. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.5-4-302
  • Wenrich MD, Curtis JR, Shannon SE, Carline JD, Ambrozy DM, Ramsey PG (2001) Communicating with dying patients within the spectrum of medical care form terminal diagnosis to death. Arch Intern Med, 161(6): 868-74. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.161.6.868

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.