EurAsian Journal of BioSciences (Eurasia J Biosci, e-ISSN 1307-9867) is an international, refereed electronic journal. It publishes the results of original research in the field of biological sciences especially related to morphology, physiology, genetics, ethnobiology, ethnobotany, taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Advantages of publishing in Eurasia J Biosci

  • Independent, rigorous peer review
  • Rapid publication
  • Open access – gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. 
  • Quality: Eurasia J Biosci applies the professional copyediting and typesetting processes.
  • Indexed in major databasesEurasia J Biosci is indexed by AGRICOLA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, SCOPUS, SCImago, Zoological Record (Thomson Reuters) etc. All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI)- CrossRef. 

Current Issue (Volume 14, Issue 1, January-July 2020)

(In Progress)

Potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on beef cattle performance
Syamsuddin Hasan, A. Mujnisa, Purnama Isti Khaerani, Sema, Asmuddin Natsir

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Abstract

The study aimed to identify potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on and beef cattle performance. This study employed Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisted of 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of T0= amofer-corn straw ad libitum (9.0% CP and 60.0% TDN); T1= Complete feed (10.0% CP and 55.0% TDN); T2= Complete feed (11.0 CP and 60.0% TDN); T3= Complete feed (12.0% CP and 65.0% TDN. The results showed that the treatment of amofer-corn straw significantly affected (P<0.01) chemical component i.e. crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose of complete feed. The treatment of amofer-corn straw significantly affected (P<0.05) feed consumption and Body Weight Gain (BWG). In conclusion, Treatment T3 containing 12.0% of CP and 65.0% of TDN is more effective to improve beef cattle performance.

Keywords: complete feed, fattening, in vitro, local raw materials

Citation: Hasan S, Mujnisa A, Khaerani PI, Sema, Natsir A. Potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on beef cattle performance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1-6.

Influence of constricts on the body of a medical leech on their reproductive ability
Ruslan Aminov, Alexander Frolov, Alina Aminova

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Abstract

In the experiment, 120 medical leeches of three species were used: H. verbana, H. medicinalis, H. orientalis. In which constrictions (defect) on their body and reproductive belts were revealed. Those leeches, which had constricts, right up to the rupture of its tissues in these places, were planted two or three in liter jars for reproduction. Their readiness for reproduction was checked by fecundity belts. Piece conditions were created by examples of their living in the wild. We found that this defect (constrictions) contribute to their poor laying of cocoons, up to their absence. Also, most leeches died without laying cocoons in the second week of jigging. The resulting cocoons were defective. our results prove that the appearance of constrictions in a medical leech significantly affects their reproductive. These constrictions appear in about 5% of leeches fed by human and animal blood.

Keywords: medical leeches, reproductive, ectoparasite, constrictions, hematophagus, cocoons

Citation: Aminov R, Frolov A, Aminova A. Influence of constricts on the body of a medical leech on their reproductive ability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):7-10.

Screening for some marine cyanobacteria isolated from Red Sea Coast, Egypt producing antimicrobial activity
Reham G. Elkomy

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Abstract

Marine microalge are known as source of bioactive secondary metabolites. In the present work, production of antimicrobial activity by three marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria simplicissima, Oscillatoria acutissima and Spirulina platensis and antimicrobial activities of them was investigated against different microorganisms. The effects of pH, temperature and light intensity on the production of antimicrobial activity were tested. Extracts of the algae were prepared using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water, then assayed for antimicrobial agents against microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococus luteus, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and one species of yeast Candida albicans. Data showed that the methanol extract was very effective against bacterial and fungi strains compared to other extract at pH 8.0, 30ºC and 3000 lux for three algal. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the water extracts. This material was produced, maximally, after 12, 14, 12 days of incubation period in aerated culture for Oscillatoria simplicissima, Oscillatoria acutissima and Spirulina platensis respectively. The results indicated scope for utilizing these microalgae as a source of antimicrobial substances.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, marine microalgae, cyanobacteria, Red Sea, optimization

Citation: Elkomy RG. Screening for some marine cyanobacteria isolated from Red Sea Coast, Egypt producing antimicrobial activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):11-9.

Antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil obtained through multiple drying methods
Sophia Grace Sipahelut, Ariance Yeane Kastanja, Zeth Patty

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the influence of drying methods on the antioxidant activity and peroxide value of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil. This research employs a Completely Randomized Design (RAL) with 3 repetitions and nutmeg fruit flesh drying treatment (fresh/ without drying, shade-drying, sun-drying). The parameters observed include antioxidant activity test and peroxide value of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil. The research results show that nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil contains 32 components, with major components consisting of α-pinene (18.0%), myristicin (14.1%), α-terpineol (9.4%), β-pinene (8.9%), limonene (8.5%), terpinene-4-ol (8.4%), δ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinolene (5.2%), and α-terpinene (4.3%). The highest antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil is found in the shade-drying treatment, which may serve as a reducing agent in oxidation process and has good activity as an anti-free radical of DPPH. The peroxide value is lower than that of α-tocopherol, showing that nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil has the capability to inhibit oxidation process better than α-tocopherol.

Keywords: nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil, antioxidant activity, peroxide value

Citation: Sipahelut SG, Kastanja AY, Patty Z. Antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil obtained through multiple drying methods. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):21-6.

Use of bioactive chitosan and Lippia multiflora essential oil as coatings for maize and sorghum seeds protection
Cissé Mohamed, N’guessan Elise Amoin, Tia Vama Etienne, Kouakou N’guessan Yannick

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Abstract

Essential oil (EO) extracted from leaves of Lippia multiflora were used alone or combined with chitosan at 0.25% and 0.5% as coating solutions for maize and sorghum seeds. Different coating formulations made were tested on seeds to determine their antifungal activity against Rhizopus sp and A. Flavus respectively isolated from sorghum and maize seeds. Coating solutions impact on seeds germination rate and plant growth in the laboratory condition were also evaluated. Results revealed that chitosan and L. Multiflora EO coating used separately exhibited fungicidal effect against Rhizopus sp and fungistatic effect against A. Flavus. When there were associated, the coating formulation demonstrated a strong inhibition against A. flavus and became ineffective against Rhizopus ssp. Chitosan solution (0.25% and 0.5%) without EO significantly increased seeds germination percentage and height maize and sorghum plant. On the other hand, EO coating alone displayed a total inhibition of seeds germination. When EO was mixed with chitosan solution, a decrease in the height of plants was observed.

Keywords: Chitosan, Lippia multiflora, coating, antifungal, germination

Citation: Mohamed C, Amoin NE, Etienne TV, Yannick KN. Use of bioactive chitosan and Lippia multiflora essential oil as coatings for maize and sorghum seeds protection. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):27-34.

Molecular detection of β-lactamase production among klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical cases
Najlaa Abdullah D. AL-Oqaili

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Abstract

Many bacteria around the world produce the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are resistant to many beta lactam antibiotics by coding genes of enzymes that in turn give K.pnemoniae antibiotic resistance, as well as a role in the development of infection. The isolates of K.pneumoniae were identified based on phenotypic and laboratory methods, as well as screening of β-lactamase by phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT) where most isolates were positive at a rate (62.06%). K.penumoniae isolates resistance was also tested from a total of (110) isolates from various clinical sources: urine (72) and K.pneumonia isolates were diagnosed about 16 (22.22%, 16/72) , sputum (25) were diagnosed about 8 (32%, 8/25) and burns (13) about 5 (38.46%, 5/13) different resistance to 10 beta-lactam antibiotics including piperacilin (100%), ticarcillin (82.75%), aztreonam (79.31%), ceftazidime (58.62%), ceftriaxone (48.27%), augmentin (41.37%), ceftaxime, meropenem (37.93%), cefepime and imipenem (34.48%). In this study molecular diagnostics for 16S RNA gene screening, as well as four genes for beta-lactamase were investigated. The results showed that high genes of these enzymes were βlaTEM, βlaSHV (80%) and βlaCTX-M, βlaAmpC (100%). It results in a positive relationship between the existence of genes and the of antibiotic resistance in isolates.

Keywords: klebsiella pneumonia, βlatem, βlashv, βlactx-m and βlaampc genes, esbls, antibiotic resistant

Citation: D. AL-Oqaili NA. Molecular detection of β-lactamase production among klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical cases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):35-41.

Evaluation of mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography
Mohammad Ali Moghadam, Zohreh Reyhani, Marzie Shokrollahi, Soghrat Faghih Zadeh

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Abstract

Introduction: Since radiography plays an important role in the early detection of osteoporosis in patients, we decided to conduct a study to evaluate mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography. Material and method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed randomly on 321 patients aged 20-50 years requiring panoramic radiography referring to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology center in Zanjan in 1398. Only 319 patients (137 males and 182 females) remained by the end of the study divided into three groups of 20-30, 31-40 and 41-50. Radiomorphologic and radiomorphometric indices of GI, MI, PMI and MCI were evaluated. Data were then analyzed using test.t, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The results of this study showed that MIC has a direct relationship with age and sex and this relationship is clinically relevant. MI was inversely correlated with age but was significantly correlated with sex but was not clinically significant. GI was inversely correlated with age and significantly correlated with sex. PMI was inversely correlated with age and has a significant relationship with sex, but it was not clinically significant despite its significance. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study showed the effective role of age and sex variables on radiomorphometric indices and supported the finding that these variables could be useful in identifying osteoporotic conditions.

Keywords: radiomorphometric indicators, panoramic radiography, mandible

Citation: Moghadam MA, Reyhani Z, Shokrollahi M, Faghih Zadeh S. Evaluation of mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):43-8.

Anthropometric evaluation of the maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on cbct images
Mahnaz Sheikhi, Mandana Moradi Nejad, Arash Ghodousi

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Abstract

Introduction: Today, it has been determined that women and men are different from each other in anatomical, physiological, and many other aspects. These differences can be useful in many cases, including identification. Considering that we are facing with increased rate of crimes and felonies, and there are different costly diagnostic methods in the field of identification, and few studies have been conducted in this field, as well as the limitation of 2D images and the complex structure of sinus, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (gold standard) are used as the methods for depicting the true anatomy of sinus; However, their use has been limited due to high dose, lack of public access and high cost, and finally, since it seems that the loss of teeth is the only factor that can affect the dimensions of sinus, we decided to carry out a study with the aim of investigating the anthropometric analysis of maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on CBCT images. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 70 patients (39 women and 31 men) were selected among available samples from the Maxillofacial Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Khorasgan Azad University in Isfahan. The CBCT images were taken from samples with high resolution and voxel dimensions of 0.1 mm and with exposures of 85 kV and 21 to 35 mAh (according to patient’s size) and were examined by SIDEXIS software with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS ver.25 at two descriptive and inferential levels. Findings: in this study, 55.7% of the images were related to women and 44.3% were related to men. Also, 57.1% of them were related to dentate subjects and 42.9% were related to completely edentulous subjects. The gender had an impact on the cephalocaudal dimension (p-value = 0.017) and mediolateral dimension (p-value = 0.036), and is greater in men than women. Dental status had an impact on the orbital floor bone (p-value = 0.002), mediolateral dimension (p-value = 0.003), anteroposterior dimension of right maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.042) and soft tissue thickness (p-value = 0.042). These sizes are greater in dentate subjects than edentulous subjects. Gender had a significant effect on the volume of maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.021). Dental status had a significant effect on the volume of maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.022). The mean volume of maxillary sinus in men is higher than women, and in subjects with complete dental system is higher than subjects with complete edentulism. It is also higher in men in both groups of dentate and edentulous than women. Discussion and conclusion: Anthropometric analysis of the sinus by the CBCT not only helps in identification of corpses, but also provides us with useful information about the relationship between dental system and sinus dimensions.

Keywords: maxillary sinus, anthropometric, cbct images, gender

Citation: Sheikhi M, Moradi Nejad M, Ghodousi A. Anthropometric evaluation of the maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on cbct images. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):49-55.

The influence of lead on the growth and development of various mustard types
M. O. Baikhamurova, G. A. Sainova, A. Abseyit, G. Tashmetova, K. Kelesbayev

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Abstract

The article studies the capacity of two types of mustard to accumulate Pb from contaminated sierozem soils. The dependence between the degree of lead contamination of soil (from 150 to 550 mg/kg) and the intensity of its entry in the vegetative and generative organs of brown (Brassica Juncea L.) and white mustard (Sinapis Alba L.) have been thoroughly examined. It has been established that with an increase of Pb content in soil, there is increased content of this metal in organs of the above plants. The effect of vermicompost, sulfur- and perlite-containing waste and their mixtures, the lead behavior in the system of sierozem soil and mustard plants were studied. In conducted experiments, the following soil mass ratios were used: sulfur- and perlite-containing waste:vermicompost = 3:1:0.5. The introduction of vermicompost or its mixture with the sulfur- and perlite-containing waste into the contaminated soil helps to reduce the concentration of Pb, which passes into various plant organs. At the same time, the lead content in mustard organs decreases in the following order: the roots > leaves > stalks > grains. It was revealed that, despite the increased lead content in the soil (from 150 to 550 mg/kg of soil), its translocation amount in the grain portion of mustard does not exceed the standard maximum permissible concentration value for food products (MPC = 0.5 mg / kg).

Keywords: heavy metals, vermicompost, accumulation, sulfur- and perlite-containing waste, mustards, sierozem soils, Brassica Juncea, Sinapis Alba

Citation: Baikhamurova MO, Sainova GA, Abseyit A, Tashmetova G, Kelesbayev K. The influence of lead on the growth and development of various mustard types. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):57-64.

The considerable evidence between latent toxoplasma infection with testosterone and total antioxidant among infertile women
Noor Abdul Redah Al-kremy, Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-hassnawi

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii an intracellular parasite that cause toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma infection it’s well known to induce various physiological, hormonal and behavioral changes in humans and animals. In current study, 147 infertile women were divided into three groups, primary, secondary infertility and aborted woman (sub-infertility). Twenty healthy volunteer women served as controls. Enzyme linked immunofluorescence assay was used to confirm anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Whereas, Testosterone concentration were measured by ELISA technique. We investigated the testosterone and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in free and infected (Toxoplasma gondii) infertile women, to provide clinical scenario that may be adopted as one causes of primary, secondary infertility and sub infertility. Although, there are no significant variation in Testosterone levels between infertility women groups, but according normal, hypo and hyper range, testosterone were increased significantly just in toxoplasmosis women(p-value=0.04), whereas no significant variation are seen in other infertile groups. Testosterone statistically decreased in primary infertile women. In additions, serological analysis confirm that 28 (19%) enrolled women were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis have a significant impact on Total antioxidant capacity especially in secondary infertility and sub-infertility. In addition no significant variations were reached in TAC and Testosterone as correlated with intensity of parasites (anti-IgG antibodies) .interestingly the testosterone hyper concentration are found in secondary infertile women(p-value=0.01, 29%) and in opposite direction percentage of hypo-testosterone is increased significantly in primary infertility women . In conclusion this study suggested a considerable evidence of hypothesis that consider Toxoplasmosis is a one of a risk factor for increase the level of Testosterone and increasing the chance of infertility in women especially according Hypo-Hyper values. Also based our data that supplementations of TAC is recommended for women who had primary and secondary infertility to enhance reproductive outcome.

Keywords: toxoplasma gondii, testosterone, total antioxidant capacity, infertile women

Citation: Redah Al-kremy NA, Shakir Al-hassnawi AT. The considerable evidence between latent toxoplasma infection with testosterone and total antioxidant among infertile women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):65-70.

An exploration of the relationship between interleukin 37, 8-ohdg and a number of anthropometric measurements in iraqi rheumatoid arthritis patients
Moslima M. Ismail, Shakir F. T. Alaaraji

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Abstract

Background: Anti-inflammatory intermediaries like interleukin-37 (IL-37) have a central function in the disease regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to explore the relationship between IL-37, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) and certain anthropometric measurements in RA patients, and to investigate whether there are any correlations between IL-37 and 8-OHDG. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 60 patients with RA and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCs). IL-37 and 8-OHDG serum concentrations were estimated by ELISA. The width of waist (W.W), hip (W.H), thorax (W.T) and neck (W.N) were calculated, along with body mass index (BMI) for all subjects. Results: IL-37 and 8-OHDG serum concentrations were significantly greater in patients with RA. Nevertheless, RA patients showed lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb). Elevated serum concentrations of IL-37 were found to be positively associated with waist to hip ratio (W/H), waist to thoracic ratio (W/T), waist to neck ratio (W/N), ESR and Hb, while raised serum concentrations of 8-OHDG were positively related with W/H, W/T, SBP, DBP, creatinine and total cholesterol (TC). IL-37 exhibited the highest ROC curve value in comparison to other studied markers. Conclusion: Both anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-37) and the marker of DNA impairment (8-OHDG) form part of RA’s pathogenesis. IL-37 and 8-OHDG may be used as possible biomarkers of active RA.

Keywords: interleukin-37, 8-OHDG, rheumatoid arthritis, anthropometric measurements

Citation: Ismail MM, Alaaraji SFT. An exploration of the relationship between interleukin 37, 8-ohdg and a number of anthropometric measurements in iraqi rheumatoid arthritis patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):71-9.

Breaking dormancy of seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieb) using AC water media
Sukariyan, Marjenah, Wawan Kustiawan, Wahjuni Hartati

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Abstract

Generative propagation using seed media, especially sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb), has many obstacles associated with low germination. Information about the right treatment of breaking the dormancy (PD) is very necessary. This study aims to describe the percentage rate of breaking dormancy. In this study, seed samples were treated by selecting seed weighting > 90 grams, seed solarization, soaking using AC water media with different length of time: PD 24 hours, PD 48 hours, PD 72 hours and PD 96 hours. Reaction of seed weight to media soaking time would be analyzed. The use of AC water media, different soaking time and seed weight resulted in a rate of percentage of seed dormancy breaking of 73%-87%, the best time to soak the seeds were 2-3 days and there was an increase in seed mass. The perfection of the physical shape of the seeds, the accuracy of the time to soak the seeds and the weight of the seeds had a positive effect for the rate of percentage of dormancy breaking.

Keywords: seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb, AC water, dormancy, seed mass

Citation: Sukariyan, Marjenah, Kustiawan W, Hartati W. Breaking dormancy of seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieb) using AC water media. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):81-3.

Ficus deltoidea leaves methanol extract promote wound healing activity in mice
Retno Aryani, Rudy Agung Nugroho, Hetty Manurung, Rani Mardayanti, Rudianto, Widha Prahastika, Auliana, Aulia Putri Bru Karo

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Abstract

Wound healing is a normal process in skin tissue in response to injury. Ficus deltoidea leaves contain phytochemicals, which can play a role in wound healing. This study aimed to assess the wound healing activity of methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves on artificial wounds in mice. In total 28 mice (2-3 months old, 20-30 g in weight) were randomly distributed into 7 treatment groups namely group I without treatment (negative control), group II were given povidone iodine 10% (positive control), group III was given a basic ointment and group IV-VII was treated with methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves with concentrations of 20, 40, 60 and 80% respectively. In all test animals, the wound was made with a length of 1 cm, and applied to the treatment according to the group, twice a day for 15 days. At the end of the treatment, wound healing activities were determined by measuring the percentage of wound contractions, Hydroxyproline estimates, and total new tissue DNA. Studies showed that the methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves was able to heal wounds starting at a concentration of 20%. Mice treated with 80% extract resulted in the highest DNA and hydroxyproline content. The higher the concentration of the extract, the greater the healing effect of the wound. In summary, methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves have potential for wound healing in mice.

Keywords: Ficus deltoidea leaves, wound healing, phytochemicals

Citation: Aryani R, Agung Nugroho R, Manurung H, Mardayanti R, Rudianto, Prahastika W, et al. Ficus deltoidea leaves methanol extract promote wound healing activity in mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):85-91.

Association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Amara city, Iraq
Nidhal Abdullah Hashim, Zainab A. J. R. Al-Ali, Ali A. Syhood

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Abstract

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is most common in aging men and causes actual adverse effects on health. Recently the researches have suggested that metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals’ may be exposure to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), this study aimed to evaluated the association between BPH and MetS. Methods: 66 men with BPH (43 without MetS and 23 with MetS) and 30 healthy individuals (as a control group) were included in this study. Sex hormones: Testosterone (T), Estradiol II (E2), Prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and lipid profile were all evaluated. Results: There were significant decreasing (p<0.01) in T and E2 level in BPH patients compared to control group, while DHT level had significant increase (p<0.01) in BPH patients compared to control group. No significant differences were found in T, E2, PRL, LH, FSH between BPH with MetS and without MetS except level of DHT had recorded significantly increase (p<0.01) in BPH with MetS compared to without MetS. In term of lipid profile, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL were no significant differences between the BPH with MetS and without MetS, while HDL level revealed significantly decrease (p>0.05) in BPH with MetS compared to without MetS. Conclusions: Our study confirmed on most the association between BPH and MetS related change in the sex hormones (DHT) and metabolic derangement in lipid profile.

Keywords: sex hormones, benign prostatic hyperplasia, metabolic syndrome

Citation: Hashim NA, Al-Ali ZAJR, Syhood AA. Association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Amara city, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):93-8.

Molecular detection of 16srrna gene in escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients
Widad Sameer Jaaz

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Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate and to diagnose of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli which caused (UPEC). From 75 isolation were collected from children whom caused UPEC during 2015. Fifty of total isolates diagnosis as E. coli and entirely were used to detect 16SrRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and DNA sequencing. Disc diffusion method was used to detect antibiotic sensitivity against of 8 antibiotics. The results of present study showed different in resistant percentage against Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazo, Nitrofuranation, Gentamycin, Nitrofuranation and Chloramphenicol. The resistant percentage of the isolates which: 50 (100%), 48 (96%), 47 (94.8%), 38 (76%), 30 (60%), 22 ‎‎(44%), 11 (22%), 9 (18%) respectively. The results of PCR showed all E. coli samples had the targeted gene and 28 samples recorded as new strains Wid which documented in NCBI.

Keywords: E. coli, 16SrRNA gene, PCR, DNA sequencing

Citation: Jaaz WS. Molecular detection of 16srrna gene in escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):99-104.

How to prioritize health policies by understanding a spectrum of complete health to death
Anita Taft, H. Rahavi, Alexander S Taft

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Abstract

The effect of various health and illness status on society, has always been a matter of interest to public health researchers and policy makers. Specific mortality rate is a simple image of overall burden of a disease, but it only considers the fatality of a disease. Regarding this lack of representativeness, other indices are developed to investigate the burden of various diseases. Two of the most commonly used include Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In both indices, in addition to mortality, other effects of a disease are introduced. Death is considered as zero quality or maximal disability but Weighting is used to quantify the non fatal effects of disease. QALY was developed earlier than DALY. This index is mostly used in cost utility studies to determine the necessity of a desired intervention. DALY index was introduced later to clarify calculations. DALY is calculated at the national and global level by the support of World Health Organization (WHO) regularly. However there are some different ways to calculate DALY, WHO promotes its standard method which has gone through some changes in years. QALY is an index of expected health (higher is better) but DALY is an index showing distance to an ideal health (lower is better). In this study we aim to investigate and compare the use of these two indices in public health studies.

Keywords: quality adjusted life years, disability adjusted life years, burden of disease

Citation: Taft A, Rahavi H, Taft AS. How to prioritize health policies by understanding a spectrum of complete health to death. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):105-10.

Comparing the ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume in supine and prone positions in patients under general anesthesia
Valiollah Hassani, Salume Sehat Kashani, Reza Farahmandrad, Mahzad Alimian, Pooya Derakhshan, Nasim Nikobakht

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Abstract

Introduction: The prone position in the surgery room provides the surgeon with access to the area of surgery in various types of surgeries. The effects of prone position on respiratory gas exchanges are complex. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 61 patients undergoing general anesthesia in prone and supine positions. Half an hour after intubation, 2 hours after anesthesia and before extubation in recovery, arterial blood gas changes, ETCO2, respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume ratio (VD / VT), and hemoglobin levels in both groups were measured and recorded. Findings: Sixty one patients (29 patients in supine and 32 patients in prone positions) were evaluated. There was no significant relationship between VD/VT ratio during anesthesia between the two groups (P = 0.16). In examining this ratio at different measurement times, the results showed that only in supine group, VD / VT relationship was statistically significant two hours after anesthesia onset and at the end of anesthesia (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in pH, PCO2, PECO2, Ppeak and PaO2 in the two groups at different time points. Hb levels were statistically significant in both groups at different time points; but the difference between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: The ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume and oxygenation in the prone position compared to supine position was not changed in patients undergoing general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation. The process of oxygenation changes in the prone position has improved over time.

Keywords: respiratory dead space, tidal volume, supine position, prone position

Citation: Hassani V, Sehat Kashani S, Farahmandrad R, Alimian M, Derakhshan P, Nikobakht N. Comparing the ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume in supine and prone positions in patients under general anesthesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):111-6.

Influence of lactic acid microorganisms on the formation of quality of dry sausages
Markhaba Sydykova, Gulnur Nurymkhan, Svetlana Gaptar, Rysgul Ashakayeva, Galiya Tumenova, Kulbaram Bayazitova, Oksana Zinina

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Abstract

In the production of meat products one of the promising areas is the use of microorganisms to improve the quality of the product. In this article the biotechnological potential of probiotic microorganisms Pediococcus pentosaseus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Bifidum longum 339M was studied. It was found that with an increase in salt concentration up to 4% the number of viable cells remains at a sufficiently high level and amounts to 1010-1011 CFU/cm3. With increasing doses of sodium nitrite, a higher antimutagenic activity of lactic acid bacteria was observed. The identified regularities serve as a scientific basis for reducing sodium nitrite toxicity.

Keywords: microorganism, sausage, antimutagenic activity, viable cells, revetrants

Citation: Sydykova M, Nurymkhan G, Gaptar S, Ashakayeva R, Tumenova G, Bayazitova K, et al. Influence of lactic acid microorganisms on the formation of quality of dry sausages. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):117-21.

Response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia
Heba Ali Abd EL-Ghaffaar, Jehad Khaled Mandour, Fatma Abed ElKadir Atia

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Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia is common in post-menopausal women, increasing their risk for cardiovascular, thyroid, kidney and liver diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus. The current study aimed to investigate the response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. Forty post-menopausal women, having hypercholesterolemia, were randomized into 2 equal groups. Group (A) received cupping therapy, once/month for 3 months, while group (B) didn’t receive any therapy. All women were evaluated pre- and post-treatment by measuring the serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C (P < 0.05), while there was a statistically significant increase in serum levels of HDL-C (P < 0.05) in favour of group (A). Cupping therapy is an effective method for improving serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic post-menopausal women through decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-C and increasing HDL-C.

Keywords: cupping therapy, hypercholesterolemia, post-menopausal women

Citation: Abd EL-Ghaffaar HA, Khaled Mandour J, Abed ElKadir Atia F. Response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):123-7.

The effect of aloevera phonophoresis on skin thickness in patients with psoriasis: a randomized controlled trail
Shaimaa A. Abbas, Mohamed M. Khalaf, Nermine H. El-Eishi, Shaimaa M. El Sayeh

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Abstract

Aim: The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aloe vera phonophoresis in the treatment of psoriasis. Methods: Thirty patients had psoriasis of the chronic plaque type, their ages ranged from 20-40 years. Patients were divided randomly into two equal groups. Group (A) received topical aloe vera that transmitted through the ultrasound, the ultrasound was delivered for 5 minutes with a frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 1.5w/cm2 with continuous mode, 3 sessions/week for two months as a total period of treatment. Group (B) received topical aloe vera once/day, massaged for 5 minutes, 3 times per week for two months as a total period of treatment. Method of evaluation was ultrasonography. Results: There was greater improvement in patients treated with aloe vera phonophoresis than those treated with topical aloe vera as evidenced by ultrasonography. Conclusions: The combination of ultrasound and aloe vera gel can be considered as an effective method to enhance the drug efficacy and penetration thus enhancing the treatment of psoriasis.

Keywords: aloe vera, phonophoresis, psoriasis treatment

Citation: Abbas SA, Khalaf MM, El-Eishi NH, El Sayeh SM. The effect of aloevera phonophoresis on skin thickness in patients with psoriasis: a randomized controlled trail. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):129-34.

Retrospective evaluation of hyperferritinemia and iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome
Mehdi Dehghani, Mozhdeh Sanei

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Abstract

Introduction: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of myeloid clonal disorders characterized by morphologic features, including hyper cellular bone marrow, unilineage or multilineage dysplasia and peripheral blood cytopenic. Anemia is the most commonly diagnosed cytopenic symptom in MDS patients. Regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is the often needed for the patients’ symptomatic anemia. Transfusion-dependent patient’s undergone tissue iron overload that may frequently be a prominent clinical feature. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum ferritin and iron levels in MDS patients and evaluation the outcome of the treatments received. Methods: In a retrospective study, the clinical and laboratory data were obtained of all patients with MDS referred to the clinic of Namazi hospital in Shiraz during 2017-2018 and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Of 76 patients who entered the study 48 (62.66%) were males with a mean age of 68.48 ± 9.33 years and 28 (37.34%) were women with a mean age of 70.42 ± 10.97 years. The mean of ferritin serum level among all patients was 601.13 ± 828.29 mg / l which 16 men and 6 women had > 500 mg / l ferritin concentration, and a direct and significant correlation found between male and serum ferritin level. 17.33% of patients received iron chelator. In addition 15 (19.7%) and 6 (8.00%) of patients intake erythropoietin alone or with GM-SCF growth factor, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the relatively low number of studies are employed the hyperferritinemia in MDS patients, the obtained data define the hyperferritinemia incidence in MDS depended transfusion and serum ferritin higher than 1000 mg/dl can help to good prognosis for patient survival.

Keywords: myelodysplastic syndrome, ferritin, increased iron load

Citation: Dehghani M, Sanei M. Retrospective evaluation of hyperferritinemia and iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):135-9.

Serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
Zahra Ranjbar, Farzaneh Golfeshan, Bijan Khademi, Azadeh Andisheh Tadbir, Seyed Ali Mosaddad, Mohammad Ali Ranjbar, Mahyar Malekzadeh, Maryam Mehrpoor

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Abstract

Aim: Understanding the process of tumor cell proliferation and metastasis will have a substantial influence on management of the aggressive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).The role of galectin-9 is well-known in several aspects of cancer progression, such as apoptosis, cell adhesion and immune system responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the serum levels of galectin-9 play a significant role in the pathogenesis of OSCC. Method and material: This was a cross sectional study. The data were obtained from 60 patients with histological confirmed OSCC who had medical document in Khalili hospital, Shiraz, Iran, and 28 healthy donors as control group who refer to Blood Transfusion Center, Shiraz, Iran. The levels of galectin-9 were measured by Elisa sandwich assay, following the manufacturer’s protocol. Student t test was used to identify significant difference between two groups according to age, sex and serum levels of galectin-9.To evaluate association between location and grade of tumor lesions with the levels of galectin-9, one way ANOVA was used. Results: The mean levels of galectin-9 in patients with OSCC (6.42± 2.08) were less than control subjects (6.65 ± 2.05), while there is not any significant difference between them (P value=0.0564).we did not find any significant relation between stage, grade and location of tumor lesions with the serum levels of galectin-9. Conclusion: Serum levels of galectin-9 do not seem to play any significant role in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Keywords: serum levels, oral squamous, cell carcinoma

Citation: Ranjbar Z, Golfeshan F, Khademi B, Andisheh Tadbir A, Mosaddad SA, Ranjbar MA, et al. Serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):141-7.

Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals
Tablo A. Ahmad, Dilshad G.A. Ganjo

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Abstract

In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of different strains of native soil fungi (isolated from oil-contaminated environments) in the restoration of oilfield water-based drill-cuttings. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of fungi. About 0.5 g of fungal hyphae containing fungal isolates (after special treatment) used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. PCR product sequencing and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of isolates were sent to GenBank for molecular evolutionary analyses. The evolutionary analyses and phylogenetic tree then was built by MEGA Version4. Out of 68 native hydrocarbon-degrading fungi; only four isolates were identified as the most potent strains, namely; Aspergillus niger-MK452260.1 (F1) A. fumigatus-KU321562.1 (F2); A. flavus-MH270609.1 (F4) and Penicillium chrysogenum-MK696383.1 (F3). Bio-augmentation (in-situ) experiments (individual/mixed cultures) were tested in 10 triplicates, excluding the control. Results (after two months of bioremediation) revealed that; F2+F4 isolates rendered the pH of drill-cuttings from strong alkaline to nearly neutrality level. F3+F4 isolates reduced chloride content by 25 folds. The isolate F2 showed the highest percentage in a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The isolate F3 showed the highest potential in the discount of lead, while the isolate F1 bioaccumulated arsenic more efficiently.

Keywords: Bioremediation, fungi, molecular characterization, drill-cuttings, pH, Cl, TPH, Pb, Hg, As

Citation: Ahmad TA, Ganjo DG. Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):149-60.

The synergistic effect of fungus filter Aspergillus terreus and aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus on some growth characteristics of the ocimum basilicum and its content of active substances
Abdul-Hameed M. Hamoody, Jwan. N. Abood, Batol I. Dheeb

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Abstract

This study included the synergistic effect of A. terreus fungi and aqueous extract of F. vesiculosus on some growth qualities of basil plant and its content of active substances. Three concentrations of (25%, 50% and 75%) were tested. The highest values ​​of germination and plant height were at the concentration 50% (89.6%, and 19.5cm respectively). The number of plants branches, soft and dry weight was 75%. The highest value was 6.3 branches, 1.6 g and 0.73 g respectively, and the use of the mixture at a concentration of 75% was best in increasing the plant content of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates and lipids, with the highest value of 9.7%, 542.8 mg / 100 g and 541 mg / 100 g, 89.4% and 4.7%, respectively.

Keywords: aspergillus terreus, aqueous extract of fucus vesiculosus, active substances

Citation: Hamoody AM, Abood JN, Dheeb BI. The synergistic effect of fungus filter Aspergillus terreus and aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus on some growth characteristics of the ocimum basilicum and its content of active substances. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):161-6.

Change of phytoalexins -stilbenoids of vine leave Tsitska variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Downy mildew
M. Bezhuashvili, L. Tskhvedadze, M. Surguladze, G. Shoshiashvili, L. Elanidze, P. Vashakidze

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Abstract

It is investigated change of phytoalexin-stilbenoids in the leaves of white grapevine Tsitska infected by Downy mildew. The Tsitska is cultivated in the west part of Georgia. Comparing the healthy and diseased grapevine leaves physiological concentrations of stilbenoids, in the infected grapevine leaves it is established following stress-metabolite stilbenoids: trans-resveratrol and ε- viniferin. The stress-metabolite stilbenoids in the conditions of the disease with Downy mildew is a scientific novelty for the vine leave Tsutska variety. The results of the research are important for determination the correlation of the vine immunity with the phytoalexins-stilbenoids.

Keywords: phytoalexin-stilbenoids, Tsitska, Downy mildew

Citation: Bezhuashvili M, Tskhvedadze L, Surguladze M, Shoshiashvili G, Elanidze L, Vashakidze P. Change of phytoalexins -stilbenoids of vine leave Tsitska variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Downy mildew. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):167-1.

Treatment of dyspepsy in calves with an innovative drug – iodpropionix
A. A. Aliev, M. G. Khalipaev, B. M. Gadzhiev, Sh. S. Dibirov, I. M. Azizov, N. M. Dzhamaludinov

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Abstract

In recent years, for the prevention and treatment of acute gastrointestinal diseases (AGID) of newborn calves, many methods and schemes have been proposed using various drugs, both domestic and imported. At the same time, there are very few affordable, cheap, environmentally friendly drugs for the effective treatment of this pathology. One of such agents with a combined effect is a new effective way to treat calf dyspepsia - the combined use of an innovative drug - Iodpropionix, which is a product of biotechnological production (concentrated biomass of propionic acid bacteria P. freudenreichii subsp. Shermanii KM-186 in a living active form (1010-1011 CFU/cm3) (Khamagaeva and Badlueva 2007), containing 20 μg of iodine in 1 ml in combination with an immunostimulant - Stimadent. This article presents the results of scientific studies showing the effectiveness of the use of the innovative drug - Iodpropionix - with an immunostimulator - Stimadent - in the treatment of dyspepsia of newborn calves in a comparative aspect. It was established that the effectiveness of the treatment of newborn calves with dyspepsia using the innovative drug Iodpropionix with Stimadent was 20% higher than with Sulfa - 480. The use of Iodopropionix in combination with Stimadent significantly increased the concentration in the blood of the experimental group of calves on the 10th day of treatment: hemoglobin, red blood cells, total protein, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, protein-bound iodine (PBI), and alkaline reserve, respectively, by 14.61; 14.12; 15.64; 7.14, 17.70; 50.35; and 11.50% compared with the control group. Drug treatment of calves of the experimental group with dyspepsia with innovative drug Iodopropionix in combination with an immunostimulant Stimadent increases their recovery rate, average daily gain in live weight and reduces the duration of the disease by 20.0; 20% and 2 times, respectively, compared with calves of the control group.

Keywords: calves, innovative drug iodpropionix, stimadent, blood, dyspepsia, immunoglobulins, effectiveness

Citation: Aliev AA, Khalipaev MG, Gadzhiev BM, Dibirov SS, Azizov IM, Dzhamaludinov NM. Treatment of dyspepsy in calves with an innovative drug – iodpropionix. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):173-6.

Features of age-related conditions of the Crambe tataria Sebeók in Western Kazakhstan
A. N. Kupriianov, B. A. Turalin, N. V. Kurbatova, M. S. Kurmanbaeva, K. T. Abidkulova, A. A. Bazargalieva

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Abstract

The study of age-related conditions is necessary to assess the state of populations and develop the measures for its protection. C. tataria is rare throughout the range, its habitats are often destroyed and the plant needs widespread protection. Despite the high degree of rarity and threat of plant destruction in natural populations, there is extremely little information about the characteristics of age-related states of C. tataria. The aim of our research was to study the age-related states of C. tataria in the northwestern part of Kazakhstan. Three periods and 8 age-related states were distinguished in the ontogenesis of C. tataria. The duration of ontogenesis from seedlings to the old generative state makes from 12 to 30 years. In the most arid conditions, plants remain in a virgin state indefinitely without starting to bloom, forming invasive-regressive cenopopulations. Vegetative buds on a shortened shoot are formed only among young generative species; they are not formed among middle-aged and old generative species. The incompleteness of age-related conditions does not provide population stability decrease and indicates a high plasticity of the species under extreme conditions of Cretaceous hills.

Keywords: Crambe tatarica Sebeók, Western Kazakhstan, age-related states, ontogenesis

Citation: Kupriianov AN, Turalin BA, Kurbatova NV, Kurmanbaeva MS, Abidkulova KT, Bazargalieva AA. Features of age-related conditions of the Crambe tataria Sebeók in Western Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):177-82.

Shiitake mushroom, Japanese fragrant mushroom (lentinula edodes (derk.) pegler) in primorsky territory: distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, artificial reproduction, mushroom status
G. V. Gukov, P. A. Komin

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Abstract

This mushroom comes from Japan and is known under various names (Shiitake, Shiang-gu) and has amazing properties that have not yet been fully studied. Shiitake mushrooms are one of the most popular mushrooms in the world. They are valued for their rich taste and useful properties, which are now actively used in medicine and pharmaceuticals; they have an antitumor and excellent immunomodulating effect, and some even call these mushrooms the “elixir of life”. Siitake was discovered and brought into use more than 2 thousand years ago, but in Russia it became known only in 1988 thanks to mycologist E.M. Bulakh. She discovered a previously unknown mushroom on the linden tree, and confirmed with numerous studies that it grows mainly in the southern regions of the Primorsky Territory and in the Far East. In 2008, the mushroom was listed in the “Red Book of Primorsky Territory”. However, in the course of field studies, we obtained new information and made conclusions regarding the exact range of the mushroom in the territory of the Primorsky Territory. This allows us to raise the question of changing the “red” status of shiitake and transferring it to the low risk category in order to popularize it among the population and efficiently use its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. In addition, the assignment of a new status will enable people to grow mushrooms in their greenhouses, on personal plots. Under favorable weather conditions, the mushroom yields a good harvest for 7-8 months a year, which allows expanding the range of winter harvestings.

Keywords: primorsky territory, wood-destroying mushrooms, nutritional and medicinal properties, mushroom status

Citation: Gukov GV, Komin PA. Shiitake mushroom, Japanese fragrant mushroom (lentinula edodes (derk.) pegler) in primorsky territory: distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, artificial reproduction, mushroom status. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):183-9.

Improving the fertility of the salted lands of the Western Caspian region by cultivating sorghum crops
Z. I. Magomedova, M. R. Musaev, A. A. Magomedova, Z. M. Musaeva, G. M. Mustafaev, Sh. Sh. Omariev, F. P. Tsakhueva, Sh. M. Khashdahilova

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Abstract

The article presents the studies conducted in the Tersko-Sulak sub-province of the Republic of Dagestan aimed at phytomelioration of medium-salted meadow-chestnut soils by cultivating varieties of grain sorghum. The following was revealed. The duration of the growing season of early ripe varieties ranged from 99-101 days, and mid-ripening - 113-115 days. When treated with growth regulators, a decrease in the growing season was noted. Higher values of photosynthetic potential were noted in Khazine 28 and Zernogradskoe 53 varieties. The applied growth regulators contributed to the increase of these indicators. Among the studied early ripe varieties, Khazin 28 provided the highest yield, and among the mid-ripening varieties - Zernogradskoe 53. The same varieties provided the maximum removal of harmful salts from the soil. Against the background of processing by growth regulators, an increase in the yield of grades of grain sorghum was recorded, which, in turn, led to an increase in salt removal.

Keywords: arid zone, tersko-sulaks sub-province, secondary salinization, phytomelioration, grain sorghum, varieties, adaptation, productivity, desalination

Citation: Magomedova ZI, Musaev MR, Magomedova AA, Musaeva ZM, Mustafaev GM, Omariev SS, et al. Improving the fertility of the salted lands of the Western Caspian region by cultivating sorghum crops. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):191-4.

The effect of aloe vera on apoptosis of periodontal ligament cells
Maryam Roayaei Ardekani, Bahar Houshmand, Seyed Mohammad Razavi

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Abstract

Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects. There is not enough data regarding application of Aloe Vera as storage media for periodontal ligament (PDL) preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this material at different concentrations and different time points on PDL cell vitality and apoptosis. In this study PDL cells were treated at different concentrations of Aloe Vera (25%, 50% and 100%), HBSS and water in- vitro. Cell Vitality was studied by Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT assay at 2, 6,12, 24 and 48 hours. Apoptosis assay was performed at 12, 24 and 48 hours. There was no significant difference in the number of viable and apoptotic cells in 100% Aloe Vera group compared to HBSS. The minimum number of viable cells and maximum number of apoptotic cells were observed in cells exposed to 25% Aloe Vera.

Keywords: aloe vera, storage medium; periodontal ligament cell, apoptosis

Citation: Roayaei Ardekani M, Houshmand B, Razavi SM. The effect of aloe vera on apoptosis of periodontal ligament cells. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):195-200.

Formation of a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes
I. R. Shegelman, A. S. Vasilev

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Abstract

Preparation, storage and efficient use of planting stock are the most important operations of end-to-end procurement technologies - transportation of agricultural products for the production of functional products. Among the most significant agricultural products for consumption by the population of many countries of the world are potatoes. This led to many years of research and development by scientists in the field of preparation, storage and efficient use of seed potatoes. However, these problems have not been completely resolved, which, for example, in Russia is largely caused by the destruction of the potato industry during the years of perestroika. In Russia, a significant factor hindering the growth of productivity and quality of potatoes is the low quality of planting stock. Of about 400 varieties of potatoes in the domestic market, about half are foreign breeding. There is an underestimation of the importance of potatoes for the production of functional foods. The authors believe that the most important condition for assessing the state and development trends of innovative research is the formation of a knowledge base in the field of technology and technology for the procurement and use of seed potatoes. A systematic scientific-informational and patent search made it possible to give such an assessment and form a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes for the production of high-yielding agricultural products.

Keywords: knowledge base, information and patent search, tubers, preplant planting, seed potatoes, physical effects, potato storage

Citation: Shegelman IR, Vasilev AS. Formation of a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):201-2.

Developing the formulation and method of production of meat frankfurters with protein supplement from meat by-products
Bolat Kabulov, Samat Kassymov, Zhanar Moldabayeva, Maksim Rebezov, Oksana Zinina, Yuliya Chernyshenko, Fluza Arduvanova, Georgy Peshcherov, Sergey Makarov, Anna Vasyukova

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Abstract

y-products and horse meat are presented. The formulation of meat frankfurters is calculated by mathematical modeling. The physico-chemical characteristics and sensory properties of meat frankfurters satisfy the requirements for meat products. Sodium chloride and nitrite are not exceeded 1.7 and 0.0005%, the moisture content is varied from 70 to 75%. The concentration of toxic elements is far below the allowable concentration by regulation standards. The pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms are not detected. The meat frankfurters produced by the developed method enables a more rational use of meat by-products and can lead to meat product-line expansion.

Keywords: meat frankfurters, horse meat, protein supplement, modeling, toxic elements, technology

Citation: Kabulov B, Kassymov S, Moldabayeva Z, Rebezov M, Zinina O, Chernyshenko Y, et al. Developing the formulation and method of production of meat frankfurters with protein supplement from meat by-products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):213-8.

Biomechanics of the deformity of septal l-struts
P. V. Pimanchev, I. V. Reshetov, D. A. Sidorenkov, N. C. Sukortseva, K. B. Lipsky, G. A. Aganesov, Yu. P. Zezin, P. V. Chistyakov

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Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis. During septoplasty, an L-shaped septal strut is often preserved or created. The main goal here is to straighten the nasal septum and to provide the required stiffness of the same. Insufficient stiffness of the septum leads to exceeding the maximum permissible value of its deformation and or its excessive deviation, that could result in functional or aesthetic complications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical shape of an L-shaped strut on its stiffness. Designed and testing tools. With the use of means of computer simulation, we developed L-strut cartilage models featuring an improved stiffness and resistance to deformation. On this basis, we developed L-strut models of various shapes from a material simulating the mechanical properties of cartilage tissue. All the models were tested under the same conditions using a multipurpose instrument ZWICK Z100 and a special device simulating the septum loading conditions. Methods. At the first stage of the study, a five-sided septum model was created based on computed tomography scans of human subjects. Then, based on this model, we developed a series of models with various combinations of L-struts, with or without the use of arcs of cartilage. It was assumed that the edges of the septum, connected with the bone support, are fixed, whereas the nasal tip is relatively free-supported. L-strut models were tested under the same loading conditions using a multipurpose instrument ZWICK Z100 and a special device simulating the septum loading conditions. The loading of the models was effected by applying a distributed load along the outer contour, that is the same for all the studied models. On the basis of an experimental data analysis, we assessed the stiffness of the modeled septa. Results. We obtained experimental “Force – Travel” dependence for nasal septum models with different geometry. Is shown that a septum with a wider dorsal strut is characterized by the greatest stiffness. Conclusions. It is found that a septum with a wider dorsal strut is characterized by the greatest stiffness and a higher resistance to deformation. The preservation of an arc of cartilage and a wider dorsal strut increase the overall stability of the structure.

Keywords: nasal septum, septal l-strut, septal deviation, stiffness, physical modeling, experiments

Citation: Pimanchev PV, Reshetov IV, Sidorenkov DA, Sukortseva NC, Lipsky KB, Aganesov GA, et al. Biomechanics of the deformity of septal l-struts. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):219-25.

Study of factors influencing the distribution and quality of non_finfish aquatic in Shamkir and Mingechaur reservoirs of Azerbaijan
L. V. Kuliyeva, F. R. Guliyeva, N. O. Mamedova, A. M. Jafarova

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Abstract

There is information about the quantitative distribution of Palaemon elegans shrimp at different stages of ontogenesis in Shamkir and Mingecheaur reservoirs. There is a General high density of shrimp in the Mingechaur reservoir, compared with Shamkir, which is explained by the large eutrophication of water. The data on the daily dynamics of the distribution of different stages of shrimp in the surface water layers of both reservoirs are presented.

Keywords: palaemon elegans, ontogenesis, shrimp, eutrophication, crustaceans, marine plankton

Citation: Kuliyeva LV, Guliyeva FR, Mamedova NO, Jafarova AM. Study of factors influencing the distribution and quality of non_finfish aquatic in Shamkir and Mingechaur reservoirs of Azerbaijan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):227-32.

Evaluating bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene toward expression of cd4+cd62l+, cd8+cd62l+, and cd4+ifnÿ in the biology of measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mice
Suwoyo, Muhaimin Rifa’i, Widodo, Sasmito Djati

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Abstract

Current prevention strategies suggest that immunization is still the best option against measles and can manipulate the biologic characters of these viruses. However, immunization is often ineffective in a number of children because of the biological trait of different ages. To a significant extent, this phenomenon is caused by internal and external factors that influence children’s immunity. One of the external factors in this regard is the benzo[a]pyrene pollutant, both directly and indirectly. Accumulated benzo[a]pyrene can infiltrate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to form benzo[a]pyrene and AhR bonds (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor). Such bonds affect the differentiation of immune cells, resulting in immunosuppressive activity. This study aims to analyze the bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene with respect to the expression of CD4+CD62L+, CD8+CD62L+, and CD4+IFNŸ in a measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mouse. Approximately 20 mg/kg BW of benzo[a]pyrene was injected using an intramuscular approach twice per week for one month. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine immune cell expression. The results showed that mice under-vaccination and benzo[a]pyrene treatment suppress the expression of CD4+CD62L+ naïve T cells, increases the expression of CD8+CD62L+ naïve T cells, and reduces the expression of CD4+IFNŸ. Controlling internal and external factors enhanced the effectiveness of measles immunization in children.

Keywords: Benzo[a]pyrene, measles paramyxovirus vaccine, CD4+CD62L+, CD8+CD62L+, CD4+IFNŸ

Citation: Suwoyo, Rifa’i M, Widodo, Djati S. Evaluating bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene toward expression of cd4+cd62l+, cd8+cd62l+, and cd4+ifnÿ in the biology of measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):233-8.

Holter monitoring in the assessment of physiological systems in patients with cervical cancer
V. G. Nesterov, V. N. Dmitriev, S. V. Igrunova, E. V. Nesterova, M. A. Surushkin, G. V. Emelianova

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Abstract

The article sets the task to consider the effectiveness of Holter monitoring during electrocardiographic monitoring of the state of the heart as a pivot factor in the functional state of the body during specific treatment of patients with cervical cancer. As a result, the authors prove that Holter monitoring of myocardial bioelectrical activity in the treatment of cervical cancer can detect heart rhythm disturbance both in individuals being examined according to indications, and in patients who had no indications for electrocardiographic monitoring at more early stages of the examination. Based on this, using Holter electrocardiographic monitoring as a mandatory test is advisable to ensure proper monitoring of the myocardium in patients with cervical cancer.

Keywords: physiological systems, electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, cervical cancer

Citation: Nesterov VG, Dmitriev VN, Igrunova SV, Nesterova EV, Surushkin MA, Emelianova GV. Holter monitoring in the assessment of physiological systems in patients with cervical cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):239-41.

Change of Phytoalexins- Stilbenoids of grape skin Tsolikouri variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Grey mildew
M. Bezhuashvili, L. Bavaresco, L. Tskhvedadze, M. Surguladze, G. Shoshiashvili, L. Elanidze, L. Gagunashvili, P. Vashakidze

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Abstract

It is investigated change of phytoalexins-stilbenoids in the Skin of white grapevine Tsolikouri infected by Grey mildew. The Tsolikouri is cultivated in the west part of Georgia (Zestafoni region). Vineyards are located raw humus calcareous-rendzic-leptosols type of soil 30 years of vine. Comparing the healthy and diseased grapevine Skins physiological concentrations of stilbenoids, in the infected grapevine Skin it is established following stress-metabolite stilbenoids: trans-resveratrol, ε-viniferin, trans-piceid, cis-piceid, trans-piceatannol. The stress-metabolite stilbenoids in the condition of the disease Grey mildew, is a scientific novelty for the grape skin Tsolikouri variety. The results of the research are important for determination the correlation of the vine immunity with the phytoalexins-stilbenoids.

Keywords: grape, stilbenoids, phytoalexins

Citation: Bezhuashvili M, Bavaresco L, Tskhvedadze L, Surguladze M, Shoshiashvili G, Elanidze L, et al. Change of Phytoalexins- Stilbenoids of grape skin Tsolikouri variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Grey mildew. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):243-7.

The analysis of the Dongyztau chink flora (Aktobe region)
Zhaidargul I. Kuanbay, Sardarbek A. Abiyev, Margarita Yu. Ishmuratova, Gulnur B. Admanova, Zhalgas Zh. Kukenov, Gulzhanat T. Maksutbekova

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Abstract

This article provides analysis of the Dongyztau flora. The result of floristic analysis found out that 314 species of vascular plants belonging to 170 genera and 40 families grow on the territory of Dongyztau chink. The analysis of the family-species spectrum reveals that the 5 leading families make up 78.3 % of the total species composition, or 246 species. The leading families in this area are Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. The leading position is occupied by the Amaranthaceae family represented by 67 species that makes up 21.3 % of the species composition of the flora. The second position is occupied by the Asteraceae family including 40 species (12.7 %). The predominance of these families in the flora of the area characterizes it as a continental territory with arid habitat conditions. The presence of 5 endemic and 18 relict species was noted. Life forms are represented by 7 groups, among which the perennial herbaceous plants are dominant. The analysis of rare and endangered species of Dongyztau chink plants showed the growing of 21 species, of which 5 ones are listed in the Red book of Kazakhstan; 16 species are recommended for protection in the region.

Keywords: flora, Dongyztau chink, vascular plants, taxonomic analysis, endemic and relict species, life-form, rare and endangered species of plants

Citation: Kuanbay ZI, Abiyev SA, Ishmuratova MY, Admanova GB, Kukenov ZZ, Maksutbekova GT. The analysis of the Dongyztau chink flora (Aktobe region). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):249-54.

Relations of the imago of Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) and large mammals in natural biogeocenoses of the Northern Urals of Russia
Yuri V. Glazunov, Larisa A. Glazunova

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Abstract

The active role of ticks Ixodes persulcatus in the reservation and transmission of many dangerous diseases for humans and animals requires knowledge of the relationship of adults of this type of parasite with animals that feed tick populations in a specific area. The objective of the research was to study the composition of the hosts of adult Ixodes persulcatus living in the Northern Urals of Russia and to determine their significance in the life of these parasites. The study was carried out from April to October throughout 2001 to 2015 in subtaiga and forest-steppe climatic zones of the Northern Urals of Russia. During the observation period, 5416 heads of animals were examined, including 5218 farm animals, 157 domestic animals, and 41 representatives of the wild fauna which had 14,010 adult ticks removed therefrom, 6,708 of which are Ixodes persulcatus. It has been established that interspecific relations of ixodid ticks are close with all animals living in their biomes. In the taiga-forest zone, where I. persulcatus prevails, all large animals participate in its feeding, and a particularly close interaction is established with wild animals living throughout their habitat: the dominance of the taiga tick in some animals reaches 100%. Farm animals are also involved in the feeding of I. persulcatus, but since their grazing sites, for the most part, are confined to natural pastures, these animals actively feed the ticks of the genus Dermacentor. In the forest-steppe zone, the species ratio of adult ixodid ticks depends on the ethology and location of the food supply of animals participating in feeding. Thus, cattle, which prevails among the animals examined by us and whose food base is located on dry pastures, feeds a significant amount of ixodids, while I. persulcatus (ID - 43.9%) is just subdominant, giving way to ticks of the genus Dermacentor. Wild animals in this zone are most closely associated with the taiga tick I. persulcatus, which is explained by the coincidence of their preferences in settlement, although such domestic animals as dogs and horses also actively feed the adult taiga tick, which perhaps relates to their behavior.

Keywords: Ixodid ticks, Ixodes persulcatus, farm animals, wild mammals, ethological features

Citation: Glazunov YV, Glazunova LA. Relations of the imago of Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) and large mammals in natural biogeocenoses of the Northern Urals of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):255-8.

Screening, extraction and purification for tannase produced from Iraqi Klebsiella pneumonia isolates and molecular detection of tanA gene
Ahlam Khaleefah Abdal, Sawsan Sajid Al-jubori, Sahira Nsayef Muslim

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Abstract

In this study, tannase enzyme was produced from an Iraq Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. K. pneumoniae were identified by Vitek system and confirmed by housekeeping 16s rRNA gene (amplified size 155 bp). Tannase was genotpically detected by amplification tanA gene (amplified size 210 bp) followed by sequencing. The tannase activity reached its maximum level when this isolate was cultivated under the optimal conditions, which is consisted of using 2.8 g of nutrient agar containing 2% (w/v) tannic acid as a carbon source at pH 5.5 and temperature of 37°C for 24 h. The Tannase had been purified by using three methods: ammonium sulphate, ion exchange and gel filtration. The first method leads to gain a tannase precipitation at 70% ammonium sulphate which is considered as a partial purification where tannase activity was 80U/ml. In comparison, 300 U/mg tannase activity had been gained by using ion exchange with 4.31 fold of purification and a yield of 21.4%. Finally, a tannase activity of 500 U/mg is gained by using gel filtration with 5.75 fold of purification and a yield of 21.4%. The purified tannase is a single peptide with approximate molecular mass of 46.5 kDa as assessed by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: klebsiella pneumoniae, tannase, tannase purification, 16srrna gene, tannase gene

Citation: Abdal AK, Al-jubori SS, Muslim SN. Screening, extraction and purification for tannase produced from Iraqi Klebsiella pneumonia isolates and molecular detection of tanA gene. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):259-63.

Determine anti human cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG) and heat shock protein 70 in aborted women
Shayma’a Jabbar Raisan, Saad S. Mahdi Al-Amara

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to identify cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG), heat shock protein 70 and to affect contact with animals on aborted women. This is Iraq’s first study, no other studies to determine the relationship between CMV infection and HSP70 concentration in aborted women have been conducted. Method: During the duration from July to December (2018), 160 blood samples were obtained from women suffering from repeated embryo predictions, which were used by reviewers in privatelaboratories in the province of Basrah, Iraq to estimate the levels of cytomegalovirus (IgM, IGg) and heat shock protein 70. Result: The results showed that level IgM had higher rates in age (26-30) year at a rate of 26.7% with significantn difference compared to other age groups, whereas level IgG had higher rates in age (31-35 & 36-40) at rate of 100%. Also we found in this results significant relationship between IgM and primary abortion at rate 16.7% in the age group (26-30). But the results show that IgG had a higher rat in the age group (31-35) at rate 68.1% with significant diffrents compared with Primary abortion woman. In addition, the study showed that HSP70 concentration in aborted women was high rate of 38% and a higher concentration show in the 4th age group at rate of 56.3% in 320 ng/ml concentration. The study showed also that HSP70 concentration in aborted women was high rate of 38% and a higher concentration show in the 4th age group at rate of 56.3% in 320 ng/ml concentration, also we found that two and more abortions had the highest rate of 62 %, with significant differences relative to other abortions. The study also showed that aborted poultry breeders women were 42.6% higher with significant difference compared to other groups. Conclusion: Observed that the first age group is more vulnerable to HCMV infection during pregnancy in thistudy relationship between HSP70 and Poultry Breeders with abortion, too.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, hsp70, infection, anti human cytomegalovirus (igm, igg)

Citation: Raisan SJ, Al-Amara SSM. Determine anti human cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG) and heat shock protein 70 in aborted women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):265-8.

Epidemiological study of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al –diwaniyah province, Iraq
Ali B. M. Al-Waaly, Habeeb W. Kadhum Shubber

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Abstract

The study included examining 4276 people who visited Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate Center and its county areas. The disease was diagnosed clinically by a dermatologist in the hospital and excluded all cases similar to Cutaneous leishmaniasis. The study showed that the mean prevalence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis was 34.82%, the rural areas were more prevalent for this disease (40.57%) compared to the areas within the city (18%). The months, December, January, and February, recorded the highest infection rate of 48.98%, 57.62%, and 51.16%, respectively. The incidence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis was 43.33% at the age of 1-14 years and 21.45% at the age of 55 years. Males were more susceptible to infection (48.05%) than females (26.39%). The arms and legs were more susceptible to infection (58.70%) than head ulcers (58.70%). Multiple ulcers showed more prevalence in the body (60.44%) compared to a single ulcer. Wet ulcers were more prevalent (82.94%) compared to dry ulcers (17.06%).

Keywords: baghdad boil, flagellata, blood and tissue, sandfly, tropica, major

Citation: Al-Waaly ABM, Kadhum Shubber HW. Epidemiological study of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al –diwaniyah province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):269-73.

Distribution of macrozoobenthos of Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea
G. S. Mirzoev

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Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the species composition and distribution of macrozoobenthos in the coastal zones of the Azerbaijani sector of the southern Caspian Sea. The study (2008-2009) found 56 species belonging to seven systematic groups. The maximum number of species was observed in the spring and summer season (from 33 to 54 species), and the minimum - in the autumn season (from 25 to 30 species). The average annual biomass of macrozoobenthic organisms varied in the range of 63.33-67.69 g / m2, and the number of 306-323 ex/m2. The maximum development of organisms was observed in summer (81.07 g / m), the minimum-in autumn (48.10 g / m2). In terms of species and quantity, the fauna of the silt - shell biotope is the richest, where the total biomass ranges from 93.24 to 94.83 g / m2, with a population of 275-285 species/m2.

Keywords: South Caspian, macrozoobenthos, distribution, biomass, abundance

Citation: Mirzoev GS. Distribution of macrozoobenthos of Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):275-81.

The effect of trimetazidine on histological and myocardial disorders in rats
Hadeel Jabar Neama Almuoswi

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Abstract

Cardiac muscle anemia affects the functions of mitochondria that results in ion disparity. The condition called cardiac arrhythmia. The research aims to study the effect of antianginal medication of trimetazidine on myocardial disorders in rats. The study was conducted on the rats. They were fed with 10 mg trimetazidine per Kg weight of mice each day for seven days. Tests were done for the effect of the moderator on mitochondrial metabolism in severe cardiac muscle anemia affected rats. Acute cardiac muscle anemia results in an injury to mitochondrial functions. So, when anemia cluster without trimetazidine treatment was observed, a major reduction within the infarction range was ascertained in trimetazidine-treated anemia cluster (31±3% vs. 52.8±4.89%). Trimetazidine maintained the mitochondrial organization. And, thus, better the metabolic process management, magnitude relation, and sophisticated activity. Moreover, the mitochondrial biosynthesis and division or fusion of the cells improved. The indubitable Promote the activated receptor gamma peroxisome proliferator (PPARγ), the Joint Co-1α (PGC-1α), mitofusins one (Mfn1), dynamin-related super molecule one (Drp1), Optic nerve atrophy one (OPA1) emerge in rats with acute cardiac muscle anemia. Therefore, the incontestable heart defending effects of trimetazidine was shown to preserve mitochondrial metabolic process, increased biogenesis, and split/union of cells. And, thus, this rat model of cardiac muscle anemia may be effectively used along with other cardioprotective agents.

Keywords: trimetazidine, myocardial disorders, rats

Citation: Neama Almuoswi HJ. The effect of trimetazidine on histological and myocardial disorders in rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):283-6.

The impact of restricted substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies
I Nengah Kencana Putra, I Putu Suparthana

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Abstract

The feasibility of wheat flour substitution with tannia flour in the production of cookies was investigated. The tannia flour studied were native tannia flour (NTF) and pregelatinized tannia flour (PTF). NTF was made by drying the sliced tannia tuber at 70oC and then milled and sieved through a 60 mesh sieve. PTF was made using ahydrothermal technique that was by boiling sliced tannia tuber in hot water (95oC) for 10 minutes before drying. Partial substitution of wheat flour with NTF or PTF was done at the level of 50%. The physical, chemical, sensory, and microstructural properties of the cookies produced were evaluated. Microstructural studies were performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour had a significant effect on sensory properties (texture); physical properties (hardness, color, and microstructure); and chemical properties (protein, carbohydrate, ash, and curd fiber content). Replacement of 50% wheat flour with PTF produced cookies that compete well with 100% wheat flour cookies (control) in term of sensory, physical, and chemical aspects. The PTF substituted cookies had lower protein level compared to the control cookies, but it had higher crude fiber content. Moreover, the PTF substituted cookies contained 5.94% protein, 24.52% fat, 63.10% carbohydrate, and 1.92% crude fiber, and it was a low-gluten and fiber-rich cookie.

Keywords: tannia tuber, pregelatinized flour, wheat flour substitution, low-gluten cookies

Citation: Putra INK, Suparthana IP. The impact of restricted substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):287-92.

Prospects for growing juveniles and rearing fingerlings of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in cages in the conditions of fish farming of Almaty region
Gulmira M. Ablaisanova, Saule Zh. Assylbekova, Adilkhan Ab. Sambetbaev, Piotr J. Gomulka, Kuanysh B. Isbekov, Nina S. Badryzlova, Saya K. Koishybayeva

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Abstract

This article presents the results of scientific research on the growing juveniles and the rearing fingerlings of pikeperch in cages. The conditions for growing larvae, juveniles, and fingerlings of pikeperch are described, and the dynamics of hydrochemical indicators of temperature, active reaction of the aquatic environment, oxygen content in water, and the state of the natural food supply in the experimental pond are presented. The data of a comparative analysis of fish-cultivation and biological indicators for three stages of growing larvae, juveniles and six stages of growing fingerlings of pikeperch in cages are presented. Prospective planting densities of fish planting material for pikeperch have been determined. The data on the use of live and artificial feed for feeding pikeperch are presented.

Keywords: pikeperch aquaculture, larvae, juveniles, fingerlings, pond cages technology, breeding and biological indices of fish

Citation: Ablaisanova GM, Assylbekova SZ, Sambetbaev AA, Gomulka PJ, Isbekov KB, Badryzlova NS, et al. Prospects for growing juveniles and rearing fingerlings of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in cages in the conditions of fish farming of Almaty region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):293-9.

Anthropogenic load on water resources of Kazakhstan
A. R. Medeu, S. K. Alimkulov, A. A. Tursunova, A. B. Myrzakhmetov, A. A. Saparova, G. R. Baspakova, K. M. Kulebayev

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Abstract

In the article the main factor affecting water resources – irrevocable water consumption in the main river channels and administrative regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the degree of its impact on water resources is considered. Quantitative assessment of water resources use was carried out on the basis of data analysis of the statistical form of the departmental statistical observation 2-TP (water farm) and basin inspections. The most complete annual data are available only since 1992. For earlier years, water consumption accounting is not systematic and data are sometimes incomplete and contradictory. In this regard, this study uses data for the period 1992-2015. Anthropogenic changes in river flow at reference points in the main river channels draining the waters of a certain water collection were determined, channel water balances were compiled, transformations of water balance elements in each section were studied and compared with real water-intake facilities, and the share of irrevocable water consumption in certain sectors of the economy was determined. Using data on water consumption, the impact of water consumption on water resources was assessed by comparing the water resources available in the region with the volume of water used according to the so-called water load criterion. It is characterized by the capacity factor of water resources Ccap, equal to the ratio of the percentage of total water consumption to renewable water resources. This assessment was carried out for each WMB, as well as for all administrative regions of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: water resources, anthropogenic changes, water consumption, method of hydrological analogy, method of water balance, anthropogenic load, projected estimates of water resources

Citation: Medeu AR, Alimkulov SK, Tursunova AA, Myrzakhmetov AB, Saparova AA, Baspakova GR, et al. Anthropogenic load on water resources of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):301-7.

Quality of milk-raw materials at different level of solar activity and methods and practices of detecting milk quality
A. Norezzine, A. A. Nikishov, V. G Plushikov, N. Y. Rebouh, Yu. A. Vatnikov, N. V. Babichev, E. V. Kulikov, A. A. Terekhin, M. I. Shopinskaya, M. V. Bolshakova, E. A. Kostitsyna

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Abstract

The history of dairy farming goes back thousands of years, evolving from a traditional small-scale production to the industrialized manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Commercialization of milk and its derived products has been very important not only as a source of nourishment but also as an economic resource. However, the dairy industry has encountered several problems that have to be overcome to ensure the quality and safety of the final products, as well as to avoid economic losses. The results of studies of the relationship between cosmophysical activity and animal productivity are presented. obtained the following results, the synchronization of milk yield in cows of black-motley breed in the years of high solar activity was 76%; 5. The synchronicity and rhythm of milk yield of cows was established, regardless of the phase of lactation of cows, approximately 33% of the time the milk yield increases, 33% decrease and 34% remain at the same level (р0.99); An increase in the relationship between the studied indicators was observed when the animals achieved maximum productivity. With an increase in milk yield from to 8500 kg, the correlation coefficient was + 0.52. It was noted that all the components of milk decreased on days of increasing solar activity. The correlation coefficients for protein and milk fat content with Wolf (sunspot) numbers were r = –0.34 and r = –0.22, P ≥ 0.95. Correlation analysis revealed a reliable correlation of bacterial contamination and the number of somatic cells r = +0.28 and r = +0.31 (at P ≥ 0.95), respectively, with the Wolf (sunspot) numbers. In the collection milk, the negative correlation by fat content r = –0.12, density r = –0.18, acidity r = –0.17, protein content r = –0.19, sugar content r = –0.14, minerals r = –0.17 was observed with an increase in solar activity. Prospects for further research. The results of studying the effect of solar activity on milk productivity and the quality of raw milk provide the basis for predicting the productivity of cows and the possibility of using cosmophysical changes, to increase productivity and improve the quality of milk, by technological methods.

Keywords: dairy cattle, milk, chemical composition, acidity and density of milk

Citation: Norezzine A, Nikishov AA, Plushikov VG, Rebouh NY, Vatnikov YA, Babichev NV, et al. Quality of milk-raw materials at different level of solar activity and methods and practices of detecting milk quality. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):309-16.

Praziver® and Ivermek® effectiveness for horse helminthiase prevention
E. G. Kalughina, О. А. Stolbova

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Abstract

After the examination of horses in various horse breeding farms, including the hippodrome, schools, clubs, private stables and the horses of various ages, sex, and breeds, a wide spread of parasitic diseases was found, most often manifested in the form of helminthic infections and causing horse discomfort, preventing the development of young animals, reducing the working capacity and productivity of the adult population, as well as a number of different deviations. In order to protect animals from the harm caused by mixtinvasions, a hematological and biochemical study of horse blood was carried out. 32 animals infested with helminths were selected for the experiment. Blood was taken from experimental animals and examined in the laboratory. Studies have shown that invasions negatively affect the functional state of animals, while reducing the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, basophils, platelets, total protein, urea, glucose, micro and macro elements, and increasing white blood cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase, alananaminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin.
They studied the effectiveness of the drugs Praziver® and Ivermek® for horse helminthiasis. The drug “Praziver®” showed 100% therapeutic efficacy, used by the dose of 0.04 ml/kg against mixtinvasion of horses.

Keywords: horse, parasites, infestations, helminths, strongylatosis, oxyurosis, parascaridosis, deworming, praziquantel, ivermectin, blood, biochemistry

Citation: Kalughina EG, Stolbova ОА. Praziver® and Ivermek® effectiveness for horse helminthiase prevention. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):317-22.

Infusion of beta vulgaris seeds: protective action in experiment in vivo
A. Konkabayeva, G. Tykezhanova, A. M. Pudov, D. Yu. Sirman

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Abstract

This paper shows the positive effect of the infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds in the experiments in vivo. Due to the significant contamination with the copper compounds of some industrial regions and their accumulation in living systems, methods of health improvement are necessary, in this regard, the use of plant-based food preparations as detoxifiers is promising. In the experiment on rats, the high efficiency of prescribing the infusion of common beetroot seeds was shown in subacute and chronic poisoning of rats with copper acetate in high concentrations. It was found that the use of the infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds in combination with copper acetate poisoning leads to a significant decrease in copper accumulation in parenchymal organs (liver, kidneys and spleen). Simultaneous biochemical analysis of rat blood showed a decrease in the activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, a decrease in bilirubin, cholesterol. Therefore, the infusion of Beta vulgaris seeds of the family Amaranthaceae can be recommended for development as an effective means for the health improvement.

Keywords: infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds, hepato- and nephroprotective effect, copper acetate, chronic poisoning, accumulation of copper

Citation: Konkabayeva A, Tykezhanova G, Pudov AM, Sirman DY. Infusion of beta vulgaris seeds: protective action in experiment in vivo. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):323-8.

Productive-biological features of aday breed kazakh horses
M. T. Kargayeva, D. A. Baimukanov, A. K. Karynbayev, O. Alikhanov, A. M. Zhunusov

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Abstract

Milk mares of Aday breed Kazakh horses have an average live weight of 389.2 kg, a height at the withers of 139.2 cm, an obliquus body length of 142.1 cm, a chest girth of 167.6 cm and a pastern girth of 17.5 cm. In stud getters of Aday breed Kazakh horses, the live weight averaged 438.7 kg and in the Mangistau population 449.8 kg. The measurements of the body were 145.2 - 147.5 - 169.8 - 18.5 cm in the Aday breed, and in the Mangistau population, respectively, were 145.6 - 148.1 - 172.2 -18.5 cm. Mares of the Aday breed with an average live weight of 389.2 kg produce 1617.0 l, and the Mangistau population, respectively, 415.3 kg – 1413 l of milk. It was found that 2.5-year-old stallions of the Aday breed are characterized by a higher bone ratio in comparison with peers of the Mangistau population, the difference was 1.7%. On the contrary, the yield of flesh is lower in stallions of the Aday breed in comparison with the Mangistau population by 10.6 kg or 6.7%. So, for 1 kg of bones, the flesh was obtained from stallions of the Mangistau population of 5.76 kg, and Aday breed of 5.05 kg. The population-genetic structure of the Aday breed Kazakh horses shows the differentiation of the population as a whole. The total number of alleles found in 17 microsatellite loci was 122, including informative alleles - 122, effective alleles - 99.28, and private alleles - 0. Indicators of the average expected heterozygosity range from 0.7235 to 0.8695. According to the Fis coefficient (individual fixation index), an excess of heterozygotes was found in all loci. Expected heterozygosity is He =0.8677, observed heterozygosity is Ho =0.8600. The analysis of the studied parameters of the population-genetic structure of the Aday breed Kazakh horses confirmed the presence of intra-population differentiation of animals in the conditions of the Mangyshlak peninsula.

Keywords: exterior, live weight, milk yield, fattening, slaughter yield, alleles, microsatellite loci

Citation: Kargayeva MT, Baimukanov DA, Karynbayev AK, Alikhanov O, Zhunusov AM. Productive-biological features of aday breed kazakh horses. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):329-35.

Mathematical modeling of biodiesel production process
N. M. Orynbayev, Mikho Yankov Mikhov, M. K. Aldabergenov

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Abstract

The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of transesterification of vegetable oils with methyl alcohol, the material balance is determined, and the molecular weights of the components involved in the process of transesterification as input and output products are established. The influence of temperature and changes in the critical mixing rates on the acceleration of the process of transesterification of vegetable oils with methyl alcohol, the results of an experimental study of the processes of biodiesel production by mobile equipment.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification processes, biodiesel production, diesel internal combustion engines, reduction of emissions from diesel engines

Citation: Orynbayev NM, Mikhov MY, Aldabergenov MK. Mathematical modeling of biodiesel production process. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):337-42.

Selection method of karakul sheep of gray color by viability
Nurzhan N. Azhimetov, Zhanibek A. Parzhanov, Bakytzhan A. Azhibekov, Taubassar A. Mustiyar, Erubay Baibekov

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Abstract

The developed selection method of homozygous Karakul sheep of gray color by viability makes it possible to reduce the yield of albino gray lambs by homogenous selection of animals in gray color by 2.1% in offspring of rams with intensive pigmentation of the hair covering in comparison with the parameters of rams with weakened pigmentation.

Keywords: homozygous, albino, pigment, viability, gray color

Citation: Azhimetov NN, Parzhanov ZA, Azhibekov BA, Mustiyar TA, Baibekov E. Selection method of karakul sheep of gray color by viability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):343-5.

The ecological status of irrigated saline soils of the Shaulder massif of the Turkestan region
A. S. Vyrakhmanova, A. Otarov, A. S. Saparov, M. Suska-Malavska, S. N. Duisekov, M. N. Poshanov, S. I. Tanirbergenov

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Abstract

Despite the wide variety of soil cover of the irrigated areas of the Republic, the problem of establishing regional background levels of heavy metals and other pollutants in the irrigated soils remains unresolved. The study and systematization of data on heavy metals in irrigated soils at the regional level is very relevant and necessary for assessing the resilience and stability of irrigated ecosystems to global and regional anthropogenic impacts. In this regard, the content of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in the irrigated soils of the South Kazakhstan region (on the example of the Shaulder Irrigation Massif) was investigated. The study determined the percentage of total forms of Zn (44.6%), Ni (28.9%), Cu (16.3%), Pb (8.6%), Cd (1.7%) and mobile forms of Ni (43.4%), Pb (21.7%), Zn (17.7%), Cu (10.3%) and Cd (6.9%). Consequently, the process of irrigation of these soils leads to an increase in the mobile forms Cd, Pb, and especially Ni, and the proportion of the mobile forms Cu and Zn decreases. By statistical processing of the obtained analytical data (n = 348) the concentrations of the studied heavy metals (mg/kg) in soil of the area were determined: Zn – 3.4 ± 0.05; Cu - 1.7 ± 0.02; Pb - 4.7 ± 0.10; Cd – 1.3 ± 0.01; Ni - 8.4 ± 0.12. These values are proposed by us for adoption as background levels of heavy metals in the studied soils and will be used in monitoring the soil of the Shaulder Irrigation Massif.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, irrigated soils, soil information system (GIS), heavy metals, background concentration

Citation: Vyrakhmanova AS, Otarov A, Saparov AS, Suska-Malavska M, Duisekov SN, Poshanov MN, et al. The ecological status of irrigated saline soils of the Shaulder massif of the Turkestan region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):347-54.

Development of a recipe and technology for the production of drinking yogurt from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition based on the enzyme, probiotics and nutrient additive
E. Zh. Zhaxybayeva, F. Т. Dikhanbayeva, Zh. P. Dimitriev, Zh. К. Imangalieva, А. R. Asenov

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Abstract


Despite extensive research and development of technology for fermented milk products from camel milk, until today its position in the form of a geroprotector has not been considered. This study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of fermented milk product from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition and conducting a study of the developed samples, analysis of the results. As a result of research and development of technology for the production of fermented milk product, by enriching camel milk with various nutrient and other additives, it was possible to obtain drinking yogurt for gerodietetic nutrition with certain properties that meet the requirements of regulatory documents. The addition of enzyme (transglutaminase), prebiotic (fructooligosaccharide) and nutrient additive (apple pectin) to camel milk positively affected such properties as organoleptic, viscosity, and moisture-retention capacity of the product. And also, for the production of drinking yogurt in order to identify the most acceptable type of lactic acid starter cultures, a combination of different lactic acid starter cultures and its application in fermentation were carried out, as a result of which it was possible to obtain reasonable indicators of suitable lactic acid starter cultures for the production of drinking yogurt for gerodietetic nutrition.

Keywords: gerontology, camel milk, drinking yogurt, pectin, prebiotic, enzymes, healthy aging, prevention

Citation: Zhaxybayeva EZ, Dikhanbayeva FТ, Dimitriev ZP, Imangalieva ZК, Asenov АR. Development of a recipe and technology for the production of drinking yogurt from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition based on the enzyme, probiotics and nutrient additive. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):355-63.

Manipulating the biological character of red algae extract (kappaphycus alvarezii) administration on the total cholesterol levels of wistar strain male rats (rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet
Herin Setianingsih, Edgar Noya Cosa Arand

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Abstract

Background/aim: Cholesterol is recycled in the body. The liver excretes cholesterol into biliary fluids, which is then stored in the gallbladder, which then excretes it in a non-esterified form (via bile) into the digestive tract. Typically, about 50% of the excreted cholesterol is reabsorbed by the small intestine back into the bloodstream Cholesterol is one of several biological problems that can result in death, especially for high-risk groups, such as older people and those with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and can lead to atherosclerosis and reduce work productivity as well. Red algae extract (Kappaphycus alvarezii) affects the total cholesterol level because the content of β-carotene reduces the formation and oxidation from low-density lipoprotein proteins (LDL cholesterol). This study aimed to determine the effect of red algae extract (Kappa hycusalvarezii) administration with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW on the total cholesterol levels of Wistar strain male rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet. Materials and methods: This research used 30 rats that met inclusion requirements, and they were divided randomly into three groups: the normal group (K0), feed group (K1), and Kappaphycus alvarezii group (K2). An examination of cholesterol levels was done for each group on the 31st day. The sample was analyzed using the CHOD-PAP (Cholesterol oxidase para aminophenazone) method. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Statistics based on Mann-Whitney U tests for significance levels between the group that had not been given and the other group that had been given the extract of red algae (Kappaphycus alvarezii) with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW for rats that had been given a high-fat diet were less than 0.05 (Sig<0.05), resulting in 0.001. Conclusions: Administering the extract of red algae (Kappaphycus alvarezii) with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW affected the total cholesterol level of Wistar strain male rats (Rattus norvegicus) inducted with a high-fat diet.

Keywords: cholesterol, cholesterol oxidase para aminophenazone, red algae extract

Citation: Setianingsih H, Cosa Arand EN. Manipulating the biological character of red algae extract (kappaphycus alvarezii) administration on the total cholesterol levels of wistar strain male rats (rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):365-70.

Growth and yield of potato in relation to application of Alphylax and fish oil as organic fertilizers
Wafaa Ali Hussein, Nafisa Elmahi Ahmed

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Abstract

This study aimed to examine the activity of Alphylax and Fish oil fertilizers on growth and production of Potato (Everest variety) in the central regions of Iraq. The experiment was conducted in two seasons of 2017 using randomized complete block design with eleven treatment with three replicates including: control (T0), Alphylax (1, 2, 3 ml L-1) symbolized T2, T3, T4, fish oil (1, 2, 3 ml L-1) symbolized T5, T6, T7 and an interaction between Alphylax and fish oil (1+1, 2+2, 3+3, 1.5+1.5 ml L-1) symbolized T8, T9, T10, T11, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences of T10 in producing the highest values of aerial stem number, leaf number and plant dry weight for two seasons of 2017. T7 and T9 increased nitrogen (N%) in leaf for two seasons, while T10 increased percentages of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) for two seasons. T10 and T4 increased plant yield to 0.871g and 426g for two seasons, respectively. Plant tuber number increased at 5.90, 2.60 tuber plant-1 in T10 and T5 for two seasons, respectively. T10 and T6 increased tuber weight at 198.1g and 203.7 g tuber-1, respectively. It is concluded that plants fertilized by Alphylax and fish oil had higher growth rates in compared to control group. The organic materials can be considered as an applicable fertilizer in the growth and yield performance of organic potato.

Keywords: eureka, stimulator, potato production, natural compound

Citation: Hussein WA, Ahmed NE. Growth and yield of potato in relation to application of Alphylax and fish oil as organic fertilizers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):371-5.

Review of pathogenicity and virulence determinants in Salmonella
Hadaf Mahdi Kadhim

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Abstract

Salmonella are widely distributed and can be survived in contaminated food and water which are considered a real health hazard. The genus Salmonella that associated with human infection cause food-borne and water-borne by consumption of contaminated meat, milk, eggs and water. These organisms grow on mainly nutrient media, the growth of most Salmonella strains require minimal media containing sulphate phosphate, ammonium salt for nitrogen, as well as glucose as a source of energy and Carbone. Salmonella infections are commonly increased in low income countries. The aim of this review is to review the characteristics of Salmonella, the virulence properties of Salmonella, pathogenesis and Salmonella infection.

Keywords: Salmonella, enteric fever, virulence factors, pathogenicity

Citation: Kadhim HM. Review of pathogenicity and virulence determinants in Salmonella. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):377-81.

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients
Haider A. Alghanmi, Aqeel Shanan Omran

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Abstract

Microalgae play a significant role in the development of new products for medical and pharmaceutical research due to their ability to generate different biologically active metabolites. They are target organisms in the search for new antibiotic molecules to deal with antibiotic resistance. In addition, the use of natural antibiotics could satisfy consumer demand to avoid the side effects of chemicals. Our results showed antimicrobial activity of two algal species Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris against nine human pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Seven concentrations of algal extract (10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/ml) were used. It was observed that ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis was most effective against Streptococcus agalactiae with maximum inhibition zone of 21.6 mm, while the minimum inhibition zone (8.5mm) was found in case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentration 300 mg/ml. In the case of ethanolic extract of Chlorella vulgaris, the inhibition zone was the highest (31.6 mm) against Staphylococcus lentus, while the lowest inhibition zone (20.6 mm) was in case of Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 300 mg/ml. While the concentrations less than 300 mg/ml showed varying inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, some bacterial isolates showed resistance to low concentrations of algal extracts. The results of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the two algal extracts showed that chemical composition analysis consisted of terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes)

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Bioactive compounds, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibacterial activity, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

Citation: Alghanmi HA, Omran AS. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):383-94.

Bioaccumulation of some heavy elements in different tissue of Cotugnia polycantha and two parasites (Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis) infected with birds
Nuha Jabbar Abed Alrikaby, Afrah A. Maktoof, Alyaa A. Hafedh

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Abstract

Heavy metals tend to bioaccumulation in living organisms. Their aggregation has been a noteworthy concern. The present investigation assessed the concentration of five heavy metals in the cestode Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis and in its host Cotugnia polycantha gathered from local market of Al-Nassiriyia City/south of Iraq. Samples (Liver, Kidney, muscle, intestine and two parasities) of 60 infected were chosen for heavy metals examination which achieved by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the bio concentration factors (BCF) in Raillietina tetragona is more than in Streptopellia senegalensis. The obtained results illustrated the probability of the utilization of birds and two parasites as markers of environmental pollution.

Keywords: heavy elements, Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis, Cotugnia polycanth and Bioaccumulation factors

Citation: Abed Alrikaby NJ, Maktoof AA, Hafedh AA. Bioaccumulation of some heavy elements in different tissue of Cotugnia polycantha and two parasites (Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis) infected with birds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):395-9.

Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet on some blood parameters for broiler chickens
Alaa K. Mohammed, Nihad A. Ali, Chassan R. Mousa

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the field of Poultry birds belonging to Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University in order to study the effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological traits for blood. A 180 unsexed broiler chickens (ross 380 strain), with one-day age were used, where they were randomly divided into four treatments, with a rate of 45 birds per treatment and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatments of experiment were as follows: First treatment (control) without adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet, second treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (1 g / kg feed), third treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (2 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (3 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: Red blood cell count, white blood cell count, Haematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, White Blood Cell Differential Count, estimating the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The results indicated that adding laurel leaves with the rate of (2 and 3 g / kg feed) led to significant improvement (p <0.05) in the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, Haematocrit, the value of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio). From the present experiment, it is concluded that adding laurel leaves with the rate of (2, 3 g / kg feed) to the diet can lead to improve some blood parameters for broiler chickens.

Keywords: laurel leaves, blood parameters, broiler chickens

Citation: Mohammed AK, Ali NA, Mousa CR. Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet on some blood parameters for broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):401-5.

Impact of using dried bread residue as substitution of energy source for cereals on milk production and its ingredients of Awassi ewes
Mozhir K. K. Almahdawi, Ali A. T. Altalib

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Abstract

In order to know effects of dried bread residue used as partial substitution of energy source by barley grains in fodder of Awassi ewes on milk production and its ingredients and growth of lambs.Twenty Awassi ewes and their lambs were used during this study. This study included two experiments, the first was conducted on Awassi ewes group, which extended from benefiting, gestation, milk production until the weaning of lambs. The second experiment was conducted on lambing from birth until reaching the age of weaning. The dried bread residues was using with different percentages (0,12,24 and 36%) as energy source instead of barley grains in the control fodder. The ewes and their newborns were randomly distributed into four treatments was mentioned above. The results of the first experiment in this study showed a significant superiority(P≤0.01) on rates of ewes performance, milk production and its composition, concentrations of blood proteins and glucose sugar were in favor of ewes groups which were fed on experimental diets (different percentages of dried bread residues) compared to the control group. As well as the results of the second experiment appeared a significant improvement on rates of daily and total weight gain and most blood traits of lambs which was in favor of lambs groups that consumed experimental diets containing different levels of dried bread residues compared to control group. We conclude there was a significant improvement on weight gain, daily milk production, percentages of milk protein and milk fat that were in favor of ewes groups which were consumed an experimental diets. This was reflected on improvement of lambs growth during lactation period until they reached weaning due to the computational improvement on milk intake during this period. Also, the results indicates a significant improvement on blood protein concentrations of ewes and neonates who were treated with experimental diets compared to the control group.

Keywords: dried bread residue, milk production, productive traits, blood proteins, Awassi lambs

Citation: Almahdawi MKK, Altalib AAT. Impact of using dried bread residue as substitution of energy source for cereals on milk production and its ingredients of Awassi ewes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):407-16.

Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens
Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali, Alaa Khudhair Mohammed, Mohannad M. AL-Rekabi

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Abstract

This experiment aimed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) on the immune responses and microbial content of gut in broiler chickens. A total of 180 unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into four treatments (45 birds per treatment) and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatment groups were: control; without adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet, second treatment; Adding 1 g/kg feed crushed laurel leaves to diet, third treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (2 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (3 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: antibody titer against Newcastle disease, investigating sensitivity against Newcastle disease, the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, bursa of Fabricius index, estimating the total number of bacterial, estimating the total number of coliform bacteria and estimating the total number of Lactobacillus bacteria. The results indicated that adding the crushed laurel leaves significantly improved cellular immunity and antibody titer against Newcastle disease as well as relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and bursa of Fabricius index. A significant decrease in the logarithmic numbers for the total aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria with a significant increase in the logarithmic numbers for Lactobacillus bacteria in the duodenum contents for the small intestine as well as in the ceca compared to the control treatment. It is concluded that the addition of crushed laurel leaves to the diet can improve the immune response and microbial content of digestive tract in broiler chickens.

Keywords: broiler chicken, immune response, laurel leaves, microbial content

Citation: Abdul-Lateef Ali N, Mohammed AK, AL-Rekabi MM. Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):417-21.

Effect of biologically active supplement feeds on the quality of broiler chicken meat
Gauhar Moldahmetova, Shokhan Аlpeisov, Zhanar Kussainova, Soo-Ki Kim

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Abstract

To determine the biochemical composition of the meat of broiler chickens raised on mixed feed with the addition of biologically active supplements, studies were conducted at the “Sary-Bulak” poultry farm in the Almaty region. The object of the study was broiler chickens of the “Cobb 500” cross. As a result of scientific research, the effectiveness and expediency of the complex use of the supplement feed “Suvar” and the probiotic “Acidophilin B-143” in feeding broiler chickens and their impact on the safety of livestock, live weight gain, slaughter and meat quality were determined. It was found that the optimal dose of the supplement feed “Suvar” is 0.25 ml/kg, and the probiotic “Acidophilin B-143” is 0.13 ml/l of feed during the entire growing period. It was found that the combined use of supplement feeds and probiotics improves the growth and development of pectoralis of broilers in the experimental group. There was also an improvement in the taste of broiler meat based on the results of the tasting.

Keywords: broiler, live weight, supplement feed, probiotic, meat tasting

Citation: Moldahmetova G, Аlpeisov S, Kussainova Z, Kim S. Effect of biologically active supplement feeds on the quality of broiler chicken meat. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):423-6.

Genetic diversity among pishdar dog in sulaimani governorate using RAPD-PCR technique
Israa Hameed Abd Alsada Alwaeily, Yousif M.S. AL-Barzinji, Bahjat Taifor Abbass

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Abstract

Present study aimed to characterization Pishdar shepherd dogs which is a native breed specified in Kurdistan- Iraq. For this purpose the RAPD markers were used to study genetic diversity among nine geographical locations in Suliamani governorate. A total of 74 samples were typed using twenty RAPD primers. Moreover, fourteen out of the twenty primers had clear bands. A total of 709 bands were scored, of which 57 bands (51.48%) were polymorphic and 15 of polymorphic band were unique bands. For all regions, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon index, percentage of polymorphic loci and unique bands are in the range of 0.19 to 0.49, 0.34 to 0.68, 10 to 100, and 1 to 5, respectively. The UPGMA dendrograms showed three clusters, the 1st cluster branch consisted of the Sitak and Halabja, the 2nd cluster was include both of the Qala-Diza and Rania and the 3rd one included constitutes four sub-clumps the 1st branch consist of (Dokan and Suliamani) region, the 2nd branch harbored the Huwana region only. The 3rd one covers the Sangasar region. Finally, the 4th sub-cluster possesses the Pishdar group. The results indicated that impressive logical result, showed low genetic distance between the Dokan and Suliamani population, in addition to small genetic distance between Qala-Diza and Rania, and moderate genetic distance between Sitak and Halabja. Which means there was no genetic variation in between these populations according to the near geographical distance between these areas. Thus, the inbreeding mating among these areas records high value. Meanwhile, the Huwana, Sangasar and Pishdar sub-clusters population documented a moderate genetic distance between them. Nevertheless, the high genetic distance that recorded (56.13%) among the region’s population of Pishdar dog showed ample ground for mating within this breed in suliamani province.

Keywords: RAPD-PCR, pishdar dog, polymorphism, genetic distance

Citation: Alsada Alwaeily IHA, AL-Barzinji YM, Abbass BT. Genetic diversity among pishdar dog in sulaimani governorate using RAPD-PCR technique. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):427-33.

Electron microscopic changes in mitochondria in central nervous system of neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) in adult hen
Methaq A. Abd Alsamad, Aula E. Hadi, Mohammed A. Hasan

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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) of acute single dose for 21 days and sub chronic of daily doses of 90 days. All of the following mitochondria of cerebellum and midbrain, and also mitochondria of axoplasm of myelinated nerve fibers of sciatic nerve and spinal cord, showed that treatment related changes of neurotoxicity of TOCP characterized by dark stained, lamellated degenerate mitochondria. This indicated that mitochondria can be affected by the neurotoxicity of TOCP resulting in degeneration. Electron microscopic study of nervous system demonstrates very strong evidence of degeneration of mitochondria in myelinated axon. Further than presence of degenerate mitochondria even in the cytoplasm of neuron TOCP ultra-structurally showed degenerate myelin as lamellated body formation with auto phagocytosis of degeneration myelin by oligo dendrocytes. Mitochondria in axoplasm of myelinated axon in association with degenerate myelin. Morphologically degenerate mitochondria showed loss of formation of lamellated degenerate mitochondria, it neurons there was complete loss of the neuronal morphology of mitochondria, in severe cases the degeneration of mitochondria associated with calcium deposits. The presence of degeneration of mitochondria in association with neurotoxicity of TOCP indicated the serious of the damage which was caused by the TOCP.

Keywords: mitochondria, electron microscope, hen

Citation: Abd Alsamad MA, Hadi AE, Hasan MA. Electron microscopic changes in mitochondria in central nervous system of neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) in adult hen. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):435-9.

Technology of formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in conditions of fish farms in Kazakhstan
Nina Badryzlova, Saya Koishybayeva, Saule Assylbekova, Kuanysh Isbekov

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Abstract

The article presents biotechnical measures for harvesting spawners and individuals of different ages of pikeperch from a natural reservoir and transporting pikeperch from fishing sites to a fish farms. The values of body weight, minimum allowable length and fatness of spawners and younger age groups of pikeperch are given. Comparative characteristics of fish-breeding and biological indicators of males and females with statistical processing of indicators are given. The characteristic of the production capabilities of wild pikeperch spawners during spawning, incubation of eggs and obtaining larvae is given. The article describes the biotechnical methods of conducting pikeperch spawning in spawning cages on nests in pond conditions of fish farms, incubation of eggs in “Amur” devices. Data on the culturing pikeperch juvenile in cages and the cultivation of fingerlings and two-year-old pikeperches in ponds are presented. The characteristic of fish-breeding and biological indicators of fingerling and two-year-old pikeperch cultured in a polyculture with cyprinid fish is given. The data of statistical analysis of indicators of weight final values, minimum allowable length and fatness of fingerlings and two-year-old pikeperches cultured in ponds for selection in the formed replacement-brood stock of pikeperch are presented. The dynamics of the main hydrochemical indicators of ponds is presented. The developed biotechnical standards for the formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in the conditions of fish farms in the South of Kazakhstan are recommended.

Keywords: domestication, pikeperch, spawners, larvae, fingerlings, two-year-olds, replacement-brood stock, spawning, incubation, ponds, fish-breeding and biological indicators, polyculture

Citation: Badryzlova N, Koishybayeva S, Assylbekova S, Isbekov K. Technology of formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in conditions of fish farms in Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):441-7.

Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological blood traits
Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the field of Poultry birds belonging to the Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University to investigate the effect of adding different amounts of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to feed broilers on some chickens’ physiological blood traits. 180 unsexed broiler chickens (ross 380 strain) one-day old were used, randomly divided into four treatments at a rate of 45 birds per treatment, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The experimental treatments included the first treatment (control) in which no crushed laurel leaves were added to the food, the second treatment in which crushed laurel leaves were added in an amount of (1 g / kg of feed), and the third treatment in which crushed laurel leaves in an amount of (2 g / kg of feed) and the fourth treatment in which crushed laurel leaves in an amount of (3 g / kg of feed) were added. The experiment included the concentrations of glucose albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, ALT enzyme, AST enzyme and uric acid, and also globulin/albumin (G / A) ratio and total protein. The results indicated that the addition of crushed laurel leaves (2-3 g / kg of feed) led to an increase in the concentration of high-density lipoproteins and globulins as well as a significant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins. The present experiment indicated that adding laurel leaves can improve some physiological blood traits in broilers.

Keywords: broiler chickens, laurel leaves, physiological blood traits

Citation: Abdul-Lateef Ali N. Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological blood traits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):449-52.

Use of domestic starter feeds for culturing clarid catfish and tilapia
Alyona Mukhramova, Saule Assylbekova, Adilkhan Sambetbaev, Tomáš Policar, Kuanysh Isbekov, Saya Koishybayeva, Nina Badryzlova

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Abstract

The article presents the results of scientific research on testing domestic starter feed for larvae of clarid catfish and tilapia when cultured in cages installed in ponds and basins with natural thermal regime in the conditions of the fish farm of “HalykBalyk” LLP (Almaty region). The data of comparative analysis of fish-rearing and biological indicators of fish larvae during the experiment are presented. Feed ratios for starter mixed feeds were determined, which amounted to 0.93 units for clarid catfish and 1.3 units for Nile tilapia.

Keywords: nile tilapia, clarid catfish, artificial starter feeds, recipes, fish-rearing and biological indicators, feed ratio

Citation: Mukhramova A, Assylbekova S, Sambetbaev A, Policar T, Isbekov K, Koishybayeva S, et al. Use of domestic starter feeds for culturing clarid catfish and tilapia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):453-8.

Consortium of starter cultures with lactose-utilizing and probiotic properties technology of production of delactosed sould - milk products
Raikhan A. Arynova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Madina K. Imanbayeva, Bekmukhambet K. Zhaimayev, Laura K. Kadyrbekova

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Abstract

The main purpose of the study was to develop technologies for the production of lactose-free fermented milk products based on active strains of lactose-utilizing microorganisms. As a result, 12 consortiums were created, which include lactic acid bacteria and yeast. To determine the starter properties of the created compositions, the biocompatibility of microorganism cultures was evaluated using the perpendicular streak technique on a dense nutrient medium. The viability score was checked by the Miles&Misra method, the antagonism score with the block, hole, prick, and stroke methods. All cultures of the consortium members: C136, C198, C196, C190, DK26, C237, LB4, LB24, LC59, LR 12, L98, LB24, LC70, LC90, LR 12, LC 58, LB4, L98 - are biocompatible, antagonists to opportunistic microorganisms such as: E. coli, S. marc., S. typh. With high viability, having the ability to utilize milk sugar - lactose, which was confirmed by us in previous scientific studies.

Keywords: lactose intolerance, lactose-free dairy products, lactic acid bacteria, probiotic properties

Citation: Arynova RA, Muslimov NZ, Imanbayeva MK, Zhaimayev BK, Kadyrbekova LK. Consortium of starter cultures with lactose-utilizing and probiotic properties technology of production of delactosed sould - milk products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):459-65.

Evaluation of the habitat state of the Zhaiyk River Ichthyofauna in modern conditions and its influence on the impacts of anthropogenic factors
Saule Assylbekova, Kuanysh Isbekov, Damir Zharkenov, Yevgeniy Kulikov, Yerbolat Kadimov, Olga Sharipova

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Abstract

The article presents data from a comprehensive study of the current state of the habitat and its impact on hydrobionts and fish populations in the area within the Atyrau city, where an environmental disaster occurred in December 2018, which led to the mass mortality of partial and sturgeon fish in the Zhaiyk river. In the course of research in the summer-autumn period of 2019, the hydrological regime, hydrochemical and hydrophysical parameters, the content of heavy metals, phenols, pesticides and petroleum products in water, hydrobionts and fish were studied. The state of the fish food supply (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos), and the quality of the habitat for indicator species were assessed. The analysis of the composition and state of the ichthyofauna and the conditions of natural reproduction of fish were carried out. Pathological changes in fish organisms, the presence of parasites, viral pathogens, and the state of fish internal organs were studied. The state of the ichthyofauna and the habitat of hydrobionts were analyzed, and scientific recommendations were made to reduce the negative impact of anthropogenic factors on ichthyocenosis.

Keywords: hydrology, hydrochemistry, toxicology, food supply, ichthyofauna, histology, pathology, parasitology, virus, fish stocks, fisheries, anthropogenic factor

Citation: Assylbekova S, Isbekov K, Zharkenov D, Kulikov Y, Kadimov Y, Sharipova O. Evaluation of the habitat state of the Zhaiyk River Ichthyofauna in modern conditions and its influence on the impacts of anthropogenic factors. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):467-3.

Technology of cultivation of feeder fish for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan
Z. T. Bolatbekova, S. Zh. Assylbekova, B. T. Kulatayev, T. Policar, K. B. Isbekov, S. К. Koishybayeva

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Abstract

The article presents the results of cultivation of nekton-benthic crustaceans of the species of mysid (Paramysis) and shrimp (Palaemon modestus) for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan. Cultivation of feeder fish was carried out in basins on artesian water with heating. Both cultures developed rapidly during cultivation. When evaluating and comparing these cultures, the shrimp (Palaemon modestus) showed the best properties when feeding fish with them in terms of such indicators as palatability, gain and feeding ratio. The calculation of economic efficiency was performed on juveniles of clarid catfish, as it is more demanding to feeder fish. The lowest primary cost values for the “price - quality ratio” indicator were noted when using shrimp (Palaemon modestus) as a feeder fish.

Keywords: cultivation, mysid, shrimp, aquaculture, tilapia, clarid catfish, gain, feeding ratio

Citation: Bolatbekova ZT, Assylbekova SZ, Kulatayev BT, Policar T, Isbekov KB, Koishybayeva SК. Technology of cultivation of feeder fish for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):475-81.

Development of technology for producing gluten-free dry mixes for confectionery products based on Kazakhstani raw materials
Zhanar T. Botbayeva, Tolkyn M. Koptleyova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Kadyrbek A. Baigenzhinov, Aidana E. Zhanaidarova

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Abstract

The article presents data on the production of gluten-free dry mixes. At the beginning, gluten-free crops of corn and rice grains were selected, which were refined according to the climatic conditions of our country. All selected crops were tested for the presence of gluten using the IFA analyzer of Rider Multiscan FC. Before setting the temperature conditions in three parameters on the extruder, the degrees of gelatinization are considered and investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) equipment. Based on the thermodynamic melting parameters, the optimal extrusion mode for rice and corn flour is selected. Extrusion was performed on a double-screw extruder, DS32-II – Double-screw testing extruder. The morphology of extruded corn and rice flour was studied, and micrographs revealed that extrusion destroys their granular structure and creates a link between starch and free lipids in the raw material. The ratios of dry mixtures for obtaining gluten-free products based on mathematical modeling have been developed. Based on the study of quality characteristics, the ratios of dry mixes for cakes were worked out (rice flour - X1-24,25%, corn flour - X2-59,5%, extrusion flour - X3-16.25%). As a result of the study of the gluten content in dry mixes from grain crops and obtained confectionery products, it was revealed that gluten does not exceed 20 mg/kg. During the experiments, the energy value of gluten-free cakes (406,66 kcal) was studied.

Keywords: gluten-free extruded rice, corn, mathematical modeling of dry mixes, confectionery products

Citation: Botbayeva ZT, Koptleyova TM, Muslimov NZ, Baigenzhinov KA, Zhanaidarova AE. Development of technology for producing gluten-free dry mixes for confectionery products based on Kazakhstani raw materials. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):483-91.

Efficiency of bioecological features of soybean in increasing soil fertility and its productivity in the conditions of south-east Kazakhstan
Elnara Kuandykova, Naziya Suleimenova, Meruyert Kurmanbayeva, Baglan Makhamedova, Baktigul Raimbekova, Aisulu Zhanibekova

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Abstract

In order to increase soil fertility and crop productivity in the conditions of South-east Kazakhstan, we have studied the effectiveness of resource-saving technology in soybean cultivation. The bioecological - nitrogen-fixing features of soybeans were also considered. The experimental study conducted in accordance with the scheme of the full factorial experiment in 2012-2017 on meadow-chestnut soils in South-East Kazakhstan. The article discusses the results of the application of the bioecological potential of culture in the ecologization of technological processes in the agricultural sector (agricultural economics), as a result of which the doses of nitrogen fertilizers are reduced (up to 50%), financial costs for growing crops are reduced, which makes it possible to solve pressing environmental problems. In the experiment, various soybean varieties were studied on the following backgrounds: without fertilizer (control); inoculation of seeds with soybean nitragin; with fertilizer N60Р180К90. The duration of the growing season, plant height, mass of air-dry matter, the number and mass of active nodules on the roots, elements of the structure of plant productivity and productivity were determined. It was proved that agro-inoculation of seeds with nitragin can significantly improve the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of soybeans (increases the number of nodules from 16.2 to 35.1 from 21.0-38.0 pcs / 1 plants.). As a result, soybean productivity increases to 34-36%. With such a crop, the ratio of soybeans to terrestrial and underground biomass is ½, which proves the large accumulation of organic roots and residues after harvesting (leaf tops) in the soil, which reduces the dose of nitrogen fertilizers used and contributes to an effective increase in soil fertility. In turn, the structure of the arable soil will stabilized at optimal soil density, which contributes to the normal growth and development of soybean culture. It proved that the minimum technology of tillage is the best agricultural practice providing preservation and improvement of qualitative and quantitative indicators of soil resource and productivity of soybeans.

Keywords: bioecological feature, soybean, inoculation, soil fertility

Citation: Kuandykova E, Suleimenova N, Kurmanbayeva M, Makhamedova B, Raimbekova B, Zhanibekova A. Efficiency of bioecological features of soybean in increasing soil fertility and its productivity in the conditions of south-east Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):493-500.

Cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds
Margarita Yulaevna Ishmuratova, Saltanat Ushkempirovna Tleukenova, Sairan Nikolayevna Atikeyeva, Аlmagul Kaliyevna Auelbekova, Gulmira Okibayevna Zhuzbayeva, Zharkyn Zharkeyevna Zhumagaliyeva

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Abstract

The article presents the results of cryopreservation of seeds of the medical plant Calendula officinalis. Cryopreservation is a highly promising direction of biology, allowing deep freezing of objects with full preservation of life properties. Calendula seeds have different size and weight. The best survival rates are observed for large seeds (germination rate - 77.5%, energy of germination - 55.0%). Assessment of seed survival in the storage rate showed a linear decrease in germination rate and energy of germination during storage. After 1.5 years of storage, germination decreased to 30.0%.As part of the research, the container was optimized for cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds, defrosting conditions, seed humidity and the use of different cryoprotectors. The results showed that the optimal container for freezing in liquid nitrogen was plastic cryotubes; defrosting should be carried out at room temperature; the best survival rates were found at seed humidity 5-6%; the use of cryoprotectors was not feasible. The results of the studies can be used to organize long-term storage of Calendula officinalis seeds at extra low temperatures (liquid nitrogen).

Keywords: Calendula officinalis, cryopreservation, germination, liquid nitrogen, seed material

Citation: Ishmuratova MY, Tleukenova SU, Atikeyeva SN, Auelbekova АK, Zhuzbayeva GO, Zhumagaliyeva ZZ. Cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):501-5.

The state and possibilities of ecotourism development within the National Nature Parks of Kazakhstan
F. Zh. Akiyanova, R. K. Temirbayeva, K. B. Yegemberdiyeva, A. Atalikhova, A. Simbatova, A. Nazhbiyev

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Abstract

Kazakhstan has developed a system of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) which encompasses the most important habitats. The system includes 117 protected areas covering 24.5 million hectares (8.9 % of the country’s area), including thirteen state national nature parks. They are designed to preserve and restore the unique natural areas that have a special ecological, scientific, cultural and recreational value. Six national nature parks are located within insular low-hummocky tracts of the steppe zone; one is located in the semi-desert zone; and the rest in the desert area in the medium and highland areas with pronounced altitudinal zoning. National nature parks thus cover a wide range of landscapes. 19 of the 25 are classified as areas of national importance. This article analyzes the potential possessed by the national nature parks of Kazakhstan to contribute to the development of ecological tourism. It is shown that the diversity of the national nature parks in terms of their landscape and biology is associated with the particular nature of the natural and climatic conditions found in the zones of high altitude. Demographic analysis shows that there is potential for growth in terms of the economically active population. Within or in close proximity to national nature parks, the number of those who are economically active stands at 1021,0 thousand at present; but less than five percent of this number take part in the development of ecological tourism. 150 existing ecological routes are the main way in which tourists become familiar with the typical and rare landscapes, natural features and picturesque landscapes of untouched nature within the national nature parks.

Keywords: ecological tourism, national nature park, biodiversity, tourist route, Kazakhstan

Citation: Akiyanova FZ, Temirbayeva RK, Yegemberdiyeva KB, Atalikhova A, Simbatova A, Nazhbiyev A. The state and possibilities of ecotourism development within the National Nature Parks of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):507-14.

Biochemical and hormonal study in women infected with Toxoplasma gondii
Balkeas A.A. Jwad, Zainab A. M. Al- Haboobi, Nawras M. Al-Khafaji

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is one of the causative agents of miscarriage or birth defects in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess liver function in women with toxoplasmosis who experience repeated miscarriages. Common biochemical markers were measured to extrapolate the effects of toxoplasmosis on liver function. In total, 37 women were diagnosed with Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and another 20 uninfected women were selected as a control group. The results demonstrated a dramatic increase in the serum levels of ALT and IgG in patients compared with the control group. In addition, a Pearson’s Coefficient Correlation test revealed positive correlations between ALT and ALK, LH and FSH (at p < 0.01 for both) and patient age and LH (p < 0.05). Preliminary tests indicate that LH and FSH levels are lower in infected groups, but statistical significance was not established. Nevertheless, the current study clearly demonstrates that liver function is affected in patients with Toxoplasma gondii parasites.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, ELISA, apportion, hormones

Citation: Jwad BA, Al- Haboobi ZAM, Al-Khafaji NM. Biochemical and hormonal study in women infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):515-9.

Relationship of levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) to the levels of ferritin in blood of transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients with growth retardation: A case-control study
Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Al-Hindy, Mazin J. Mousa, Asseel K. Shaker, Raghdan Z. Al-Saad, Widad Hamzah Shakeer AL-Dujaili

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Abstract

Introduction: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic polypeptide member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines that has multicellular functions. Thalassemias are the most common genetic disorder worldwide. Severe forms are termed thalassemia major characterized by repeated blood transfusions with the elevation of iron levels and progressive multi-organ failure mainly involving endocrine glands and other major organs. It is common to find stunted growth in advanced cases especially among teenage patients. Ferritin is an iron-binding protein can store iron in a safe formula that reflects iron state; conversely, the free-iron concentrations can control intracellular ferritin levels. Serum ferritin is a valuable monitoring marker for iron-overload in thalassemias. This study is designed to assess the relationship of levels ferritin to the TGF-β1 in the sera of β-thalassemia patients and their association to growth retardation. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study included 196 subjects; 147 children identified as β- thalassemia major and 49 healthy controls. The thalassemic patients were on consistent follow-up, had received repeated blood transfusions and on iron-chelation therapy. The forty-nine healthy control group were free of any blood disorders or growth abnormalities. The height, weight, and BMI of the studied groups were compared on both standards from WHO and CDC growth charts to evaluate their growth status. In accordance with their growth, the patients were stratified into three groups: those with mild growth impairment, stunted growth, and normal growth groups. Moreover, all subjects’ sera concentrations of both ferritin and TGF-β1 were evaluated. Results: The mean age showed no significant differences among the 4 groups. The male: female ratio, as well as BMI, were nearly the same amongst the study groups despite both height and weight were significantly differed between normal thalassemics and controls. There were no definite impression of gender on the distribution of ferritin and TGF-β1 individually among the involved subjects. There was a significant correlation of both mean serum ferritin and TGF-β1 mutually, with the four groups being higher in mild and stunted growth patients (2142 ng/ml & 271.3 pg/dl) and lower in normal thalassemics (1005 ng/ml & 76.9 pg/dl) and control group (60.6 ng/ml and 291.7 pg/dl) consequently. The mean ferritin and TGF-β1 levels were significantly correlated only among stunted thalassemics even with levels of ferritin higher than 1000ng/dl. The analysis of linear-regression revealed significant strength of the relationship between levels of ferritin with TGF-β1 in sera of mild and stunted growth patients, while there was a poor insignificant relationship in normal thalassemics and controls. The correlations of ferritin and TGF-β1 with height ZScore and weight ZScore were significant together in 1st and 2nd groups of thalassemia, on the other hand, it was insignificant among third and fourth groups apart from their correlation with height ZScore. Conclusions: 1-thalassemia with mild and stunted growth show higher serum levels of TGF-β1 and ferritin than normal thalassemia and healthy subjects. 2-Higher TGF-β1 levels in thalassemics might be an extraordinary cause of disturbing iron metabolism, expressed by elevated serum ferritin levels. 3- Higher TGF-β1 levels correlate well with growth stunting in thalassemic patients.

Keywords: β-thalassemia, TGF-β1, ferritin, growth retardation

Citation: Makki Al-Hindy HA, Mousa MJ, Shaker AK, Al-Saad RZ, AL-Dujaili WHS. Relationship of levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) to the levels of ferritin in blood of transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients with growth retardation: A case-control study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):521-7.

The relation between maternal age with placental weight: Histological study
Riadh Lafta Meteeb, Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy

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Abstract

This study shows the effect of age of women on placental barrier thickness, fetal and placental weight. The work was done on total 25 human full term placentas of multiparous healthy pregnant women obtained from department of Obstetrics and Gynecology unit in Al-Zahra hospital in Najaf. The women in this work were classified into two groups; the control group consisted of 10 placentas from pregnant women between age of 20-34 years and experimental group consisted of 15 placentas from pregnant women of 35 years old and more. Stereological and histological studies were done to determine the effect of advanced maternal age on placental barrier and fetal and placental weight. The results showed: 1. Increase in the mean of placental barrier thickness of the placenta of mother ˃ 35 years than that of placenta of control group (20-34 years). 2. Increase in the mean placental weight of mother ˃ years in comparison to that of the control. 3. Decrease in mean birth weight of mothers ˃ 35 years in comparison of that of the control. 4. Extensive morphological changes in the structural component of terminal villi (capillaries, stoma and trophoblast). The results showed that there is an increase in the placental barrier of placenta, decrease in vascularization of the terminal villi and increase in the stroma and fibrin deposition in the placenta of mothers more than 35 years of age regarding to normal group.

Keywords: stereology, histology, placenta, maternal age, stroma

Citation: Meteeb RL, Al-Dhalimy AMB. The relation between maternal age with placental weight: Histological study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):529-33.

Biological disinfection of sugar beet at storage bacteria-antagonists of pathogens of sugar beet root rot
Rayhan A. Arynova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Bekzat S. Atabayeva

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Abstract

The search for antagonistically active cultures of bacilli to fungal and bacterial pathogens of sugar beet root rot was carried out. Mycelial fungi are represented by genera such as Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Mucor spp. et al. The study involved 44 cultures of bacilli to 10 microscopic fungi, 5 bacteria, 5 yeasts and 5 enterobacteria. We selected 14 working bacilli for further work, which have good antagonistic properties.

Keywords: sugar beet, kick rot, storage, microorganisms, bacteria, lactobacilli, microscopic fungi, yeast, enterobacteria, antagonistic activity, biocompatibility

Citation: Arynova RA, Muslimov NZ, Atabayeva BS. Biological disinfection of sugar beet at storage bacteria-antagonists of pathogens of sugar beet root rot. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):535-43.

The relationship between some electrolyte levels and MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism in premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis Iraqi women
Adnan F. AL-Azzawie, Wasan N. Husain, Maan H. Salih, Akeel H. AL-Assie

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Abstract

Gene polymorphism related to osteoporosis plays a significant role in the development of osteoporosis, therefore, this study aimed to detect the MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism and evaluate its relationship with biochemical parameters in Iraqi women with premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Salah Al-din province. Blood samples were collected from one hundred women (53 premenopausal and 47 postmenopausal) with osteoporosis diagnosed by specialist doctors and seventy healthy women with identical ages. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were estimated and genomic DNA was extracted that used to detected MTHFR C667T polymorphism employing Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The results showed a significant decrease in the calcium and phosphorus concentrations (p-value <0.001) for the osteoporosis group compared with controls. Frequency of T allele and TT genotype were high significant (p-value < 0.001) in osteoporosis patients compared with controls. But there were no significant differences in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between patients group. On the other hand, there was no correlation between the decrease of calcium and phosphorus levels and presence of T allele in the genotypes of patients (p-value > 0.05). Conclude that calcium and phosphorus levels and frequency of normal CC genotype were decreased while the frequency of mutant TT genotype was higher in women with osteoporosis compared to healthy women, this indicates that TT genotype and T allele can be considered as an indicator of osteoporosis in Iraqi women.

Keywords: MTHFR C667T, Iraqi Women, osteoporosis

Citation: AL-Azzawie AF, Husain WN, Salih MH, AL-Assie AH. The relationship between some electrolyte levels and MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism in premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis Iraqi women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):545-1.

Antibacterial screening for five local medicinal plants against nosocomial pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Amal Talib Al-Sa’ady

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Abstract

Introduction: The continuous increasing in the emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to the development of new alternatives that are active against the pathogens. In Iraq, many plant components have been extensive attention as alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: Punica granatum, Mentha pulegium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Piper nigrum are five Iraqi medicinal plants were studied in this study. The plant samples were extracted in by three types of solvents, ethanol, methanol and hot boiled water. The plant extracts were examined as antibacterial agents against both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae in four concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 mg/ml) by using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: All assayed plant extracts have antibacterial activity in different concentrations and this activity was varied depending on some factors: the species of bacteria, the type of plant, the type of solvent and the concentration of extract. Depending on the species of bacteria, Gram negative bacteria has higher sensitivity than Gram positive against most studied plant extracts. The type of solvent has a clear effectiveness on the antibacterial activity, the ethanolic extract has the highest antibacterial activity of most studied plants, while the aqueous extract has the lowest activity. On the other hand, the increasing of extract concentration has been associated with increasing of the diameter of inhibition zone. Depending on the type of extracted plant, the maximum diameter of inhibition zone was yielded from Punica granatum extract regardless with the type of the solvent.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Iraqi plants, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis

Citation: Al-Sa’ady AT. Antibacterial screening for five local medicinal plants against nosocomial pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):553-9.

The antibacterial efficacy of the secondary metabolites extracted from (Melia azedarach L.) leaves against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis infections
Hussein J. Hussein, Ali H. Al-Marzoqi

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Abstract

The current investigation was accompanied to assess the antibacterial efficacy of secondary metabolites compounds, such as: phenolic, terpenoids, and alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L., Family: Meliaceae) counter to pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. by using agar well diffusion method. The aimed of this investigation was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of Phenolic, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.) against some pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. The data collected from the study revealed that, secondary metabolites compounds, such as: phenolic, terpenoids, and alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree had a range of antibacterial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus were exhibited fully unaffected to phenolic and terpenoids secondary metabolites extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.). Escherichia coli were fully resistant to terpenoids compounds. Staphylococcus aureus were fully resistant to alkaloids compounds. In conclusion, secondary metabolites compounds extracted leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.) considered a good source for make drugs against microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases especially alkaloids compounds.

Keywords: antibacterial, secondary metabolites, melia azedarach, pathogenic microorganisms

Citation: Hussein HJ, Al-Marzoqi AH. The antibacterial efficacy of the secondary metabolites extracted from (Melia azedarach L.) leaves against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):561-5.

Effect of Thymoquinone on some biochemical and hormonal indices and their protective effect on the genital organs of rats after cancer induction in Laboratory
Sundus W. Alabdullah, Shaimaa A. Alsamir, Iqbal A. AlRufaei

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of Thymoquinone as a treatment for cancer tumors and to indicate whether it has a negative effect on the male genital organs. For this purpose, 18 adult males of white rats were divided into three groups (A: control group, B: group treated with carcinogen (AOM) only, C: group treated with Thymoquinone after treatment with carcinogen (TQ+AOM)). Each group included six rats and induced colorectal cancer. By injecting Azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for groups B, C except group A was considered as a control group. The tumor was detected by examining the tissue in the AOM-injected groups compared to the control group and CEA concentration. Group treated by TQ obsorbed decreased in CEA concentration was response to the treatment used. The weights of the animals and genital organs were measured before and after the experiment where the carcinogen caused weight changes compared to the control group while the TQ did not show changes in the weight of animals and is evidence of resistance to this substance of oxidative stress due to carcinogens, also been conducted some tests for testicular functions such as measurement of the concentration of testosterone hormone, serum acid phosphatase and concentration of sperm living has been observed significant differences (P <0.05) between these totals and for all tests. Amicroscopic examination of the sperm forms was performed notice the distortions in the sperm in AOM group, while TQ group these abnormalities were not observed. The histomicroscopic examination of the testicular, prostate gland and seminal vesicle by using light microscopy for all rats showed pathological changes in the group treated with AOM such as sperm cell degeneration , appearance of sperm ghosts, breakdown of the walls the Hyperplasia, and presence dermal infiltrating glandular cavities, infiltration Inflammatory cells around the Hyperplasia, while the TQ group showed no effect on these tissues. The current study aimed at showing the effect of TQ which is an antioxidant on the proliferative system and used as a treatment for tumors without causing any side effects on this tissue.

Keywords: Thymoquinone, cancer, azoxymethane

Citation: Alabdullah SW, Alsamir SA, AlRufaei IA. Effect of Thymoquinone on some biochemical and hormonal indices and their protective effect on the genital organs of rats after cancer induction in Laboratory. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):567-3.

Research of the oxalic acid effectiveness in the treatment of biodegradable organic waste from livestock complexes
E. A. Gribut, M. A. Kulikova, O. A. Surzhko, T. A. Kolesnikova, D. I. Monastic

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Abstract

The article presents the results of studies of the process of reagent treatment of biodegradable organic waste of livestock complexes for the purpose of their agricultural use. The basic laws of the process of separation into liquid and solid fractions using oxalic acid are determined and analyzed; optimal doses of reagents; the dependence of changes in the properties of the fraction at various stages of treatment with calcium carbide slurry, comparing them with indicators obtained using lime milk, superphosphate and phosphogypsum.

Keywords: biodegradable organic waste, processing, parameters of the process of fractionation into liquid and solid fractions, oxalic acid

Citation: Gribut EA, Kulikova MA, Surzhko OA, Kolesnikova TA, Monastic DI. Research of the oxalic acid effectiveness in the treatment of biodegradable organic waste from livestock complexes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):575-9.

Chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in human-to-human sphere workers, factors contributing to formation and its impact on health
Nadezhda N. Petrishcheva, Natalya B. Smirnova, Olga V. Parfenova, Irina M. Ryazantseva, Alla V. Ivanova, Olga A. Khoraskina, Marina Yu. Deryabina, Elena B. Pokaninova

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is to study such a social phenomenon as chronic fatigue syndrome in social work professionals. Any work activity in the man-man sphere has its own professional risks. The specificity of the social work specialist’s activity leads to the appearance and formation of chronic fatigue syndrome, and the lack of effective means of its prevention contributes to its significant spread and perception by social service employees as an inevitable concomitant effect of their professional activity. It is easier to prevent the occurrence and development of chronic fatigue syndrome than to deal with its consequences. The aim of the article is to study the problem of prevention of chronic fatigue syndrome in social work professionals and identify means of prevention; to identify the relationship between the specifics of social work as a professional activity, professional requirements for a social work specialist and the risks that provoke chronic fatigue syndrome. As a research method, we used a questionnaire survey as a method of collecting primary information that allows us to quickly and effectively investigate the features of the manifestation of chronic fatigue syndrome. The article considers the essence and features of the manifestation of social work professionals’ chronic fatigue syndrome. Means of prevention of chronic fatigue syndrome in social services are indicated: organization of consultations of specialists in social work with an independent psychologist, conducting psychological training; conducting preventive examinations in social sphere organizations, issuing sanatorium vouchers for treatment and rehabilitation; organization of cultural events outside the institution, visiting theaters, concerts; formation of corporate culture for team cohesion and creating a psychologically comfortable microclimate. It is shown that managers of social services underestimate the importance of the psychologist’s work with the workforce as a means of preventing chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, one need to take into account such a moment that the social work specialists themselves do not feel very comfortable in consultations with a psychologist, an employee of the organization. They would rather have individual sessions with an independent psychologist. They would be interested in group sessions with a psychologist who does not work with them in the same organization.

Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, social worker, prevention

Citation: Petrishcheva NN, Smirnova NB, Parfenova OV, Ryazantseva IM, Ivanova AV, Khoraskina OA, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in human-to-human sphere workers, factors contributing to formation and its impact on health. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):581-6.

Social representations of the metropolis residents on the ecology of women’s corporeality in the structure of civil identity
Elena A. Sorokoumova, Elena I. Cherdymova, Tatiana I. Shulga, Olga V. Suvorova, Lyubov V. Kochneva

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Abstract

Relevance of this article: it consists in the study of current trends and prospects for the development of the ecology of women’s corporeality in the civil identity structure. On the one hand, at present, there is an increase in both public and scientific interest in the ecology of corporeality, one of the facets of which is the problem of social representations of men and women about female beauty; and, on the other hand, the lack of development of this problem within the framework of civil identity, although the idea of a certain standard of beauty can significantly affect the assessment of the attractiveness of a person and the formation of its civil identity. The purpose of the study: is to analyze the social representations features of men and women of the megalopolis about female beauty as one of the corporeal ecology sides in the civil identity structure. Research methods: as a research method, we used a questionnaire survey that allows us to quickly and effectively explore the core and periphery of the social representations of megalopolis residents about female beauty. Results of the research: the article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of the corporeal ecology in the civil identity structure. The core and periphery of social ideas about a woman’s beauty are revealed. The advantages and disadvantages of female beauty in certain areas of her life are determined. The relationship between a woman’s character traits and her appearance is established. It is shown what respondents pay attention to when communicating with a first place woman. The degree of influence of external attributes on female beauty is determined. A comparison of men’s and women’s opinions about The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that a theoretical and methodological analysis of the ecology of a woman’s body in the civil identity structure, was carried out in the context of social representations of megalopolis residents about female beauty. It is determined that the core of social representations includes such features as: attractive appearance, femininity, developed mind, self-confidence, health and kindness. It is shown that the core represents stable personality characteristics. It is revealed that the following features can be distinguished in the periphery of social representations: loyalty in love, a sense of humor, expressive eyes and energy. It is shown that the periphery represents the changeable characteristics of a beautiful woman, i.e. For respondents, these qualities are important, but their absence will not play a big role in recognizing the beauty of a certain girl. It is determined that the majority of respondents include the physicality ecology concept, in the context of female beauty definition: a woman’s appearance, physical data, appearance, figure, correct facial features, a proportional body, healthy hair, skin and nails. It is shown that the respondents support the point of view that women should pay attention to the care of their appearance, but also not forget about the spiritual component, develop their mental abilities, and have a female trick to emphasize all their advantages. It is revealed that in modern society, the fundamental factor in evaluating the beauty of a person is the reference images of a man and a woman broadcast by various media. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, environmental psychology, human ecology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology of corporeality, civic identity, megalopolis residents, social ideas about beauty

Citation: Sorokoumova EA, Cherdymova EI, Shulga TI, Suvorova OV, Kochneva LV. Social representations of the metropolis residents on the ecology of women’s corporeality in the structure of civil identity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):587-92.

Formation of new food market segments and features of its functioning under modern conditions
Nikolay V. Tumalanov, Irina N. Urusova, Tatyana A. Zerfos, Artem S. Evseev, Elena A. Antonovskaya, Iraida P. Ivanytskaya, Galina N. Sokolova

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The research showed that the food market is changing in structure and in product quality. The concentration coefficient of firms in the industry market is growing, and with the growth of the market for high-quality products, the elasticity of demand is increasing. The market is differentiated by product quality. It is forms segments of high-quality products. It means that competition has changed. Accordingly, regulatory methods and mechanisms must be brought into the system. In the regulation of pricing, the main attention should be paid to purchase prices, at which direct producers are forced to sell goods. In the regulation of product quality, along with market it has to be applied clear institutional rules, norms, restrictions. In price regulation, it is often necessary to use carefully developed and refined methods of influencing demand and supply, based on those changes that occur in the market structure and nature of demand.

Keywords: food market, market regulation, food quality, pricing, institutions, market structure, nature of demand

Citation: Tumalanov NV, Urusova IN, Zerfos TA, Evseev AS, Antonovskaya EA, Ivanytskaya IP, et al. Formation of new food market segments and features of its functioning under modern conditions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):593-9.

Urban space ecology as modern direction of urban environment research
Liya V. Faleeva, Tatyana I. Baklanova, Natalya A. Galchenko, Alexey A. Chistyakov, Sergey V. Illarionov, Lyudmila P. Illarionova, Gulfayruz G. Erkibayeva, Valentina P. Smorchkova

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The relevance of this article is to understand the problem of studying the visual images of graffiti in the socio-cultural space of the city. The article substantiates the relevance of the appeal to the ecology of urban space as one of the modern directions of urban environment research. Nowadays graffiti has become an integral part of modern culture and way of life, a special kind of art, which can be both an art object and an act of vandalism, violating the ecology of the city space. The aim of the study is to analyze the features in the use of different styles of graffiti in the urban environment in the aspect of the ecology of urban space. The leading method for the study of this problem is the method of analysis of photographs, which contributes to the effective identification of types of graffiti and their impact on the ecology of urban space. The article analyzes the ecology of urban space and the impact of graffiti on it. The basic styles of graffiti are allocated; the dominating and less used graffiti in social and cultural space of the city are defined. The features of the location of graffiti on the streets of the metropolis are considered. The most commonly used size of graffiti in the city is shown. Graffiti in different areas of the urban environment are analyzed. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that for the first time the eco-psychological problems of space organization associated with the use of graffiti are analyzed (visual images in the urban environment, deforming or decorating the visual space of the city). The importance of graffiti for the city as one of the factors influencing the ecology of urban space is revealed. It is revealed that using graffiti in the urban space contributes to social interaction between man and the ecology of the city. It is shown that the introduction of harmonious colors details on the flat ends of buildings, their implementing into the subject forms and lines, in most cases, makes a positive contribution to the ecological space of the metropolis and helps people to distract from their internal worries. The styles of graffiti, which are most famous and popular in the course of graffiti, affecting the ecology of urban space (Writing, Bombing, Tagging, Scratching, Street art, and 3D graffiti) are considered. It is shown that the most popular in use are three styles: Tagging, Writing and Street Art. The styles of Tagging and Writing negatively affect the ecology of the socio-cultural space of the city, the style of Street Art influences positively and is often perceived as an art object. It is revealed that the least popular styles in the city are Bombing, Scratching and 3D graffiti. It is shown that the styles of bombing and Scratching have a negative impact on the ecology of the socio-cultural space of the city, the style of 3D graffiti has a positive impact and is considered an art object. It is shown that according to the size of drawings graffiti artists prefer works in small and medium sizes. It is revealed that graffiti works in a large format are much fewer. It is determined that on the outskirts of the districts graffiti is found much more than in the center of the metropolis. The data obtained in this work can be used in environmental psychology, visual ecology, labor psychology, social psychology, pedagogy, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology of space, urban environment, perception, graffiti

Citation: Faleeva LV, Baklanova TI, Galchenko NA, Chistyakov AA, Illarionov SV, Illarionova LP, et al. Urban space ecology as modern direction of urban environment research. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):601-6.

Some aspects of evaluation of vaccine prophylaxis organization in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics
K. E. Moiseeva, A. V. Alekseeva, V. K. Iurev, L. A. Fedorova, Sh. D. Kharbediya, Kh. E. Rustamova

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Properly organized vaccination in medical organizations is a guarantor of infectious diseases control and serves as a protective barrier to the spread of childhood infections. In order to assess the organization of children’s vaccination in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics by random sampling on the basis of 7 children’s polyclinics in St. Petersburg a survey of 1724 mothers who had 1 year old children born in 2016-2017 was conducted. Evaluation of children’s vaccination coverage in the first year of life showed that 84.3% are vaccinated according to the National calendar of preventive vaccinations. In general, 15.7% of children had vaccination disorders, 4.9% of them were not vaccinated completely, and 10.8% - partially. The main reason why children are not vaccinated both in maternity institutions and in children’s polyclinics are medical contraindications associated with the health of the child in more than 75% cases. Subjective reasons for violations of vaccination status in most children are the belief of parents in the absence of risk of infection with some children’s infectious diseases and fear of possible post-vaccination complications. The highest proportion of children was vaccinated against rubella (91.5%), the lowest - against pneumococcal infection (68.5%). Less than a third of mothers (30.5 %) indicated that they had received detailed information from their doctor about the vaccine, the disease for which the child would be vaccinated and the possible consequences of immunization.At most of the respondents, monitoring of the child’s condition after immunoprophylaxis was not carried out in accordance with the instructions. The main source of information for 91.1% of parents is the Internet. Only 31.4% of respondents identified health workers as the main sources of information on vaccine prophylaxis. Thus, despite the relatively high vaccination coverage of children of the first year of life, there are a number of significant shortcomings in the vaccination organization. There is a need to optimize the organization of vaccination in medical organizations of St. Petersburg.

Keywords: vaccination, children, national calendar of preventive vaccinations, obstetric hospital, children’s polyclinic

Citation: Moiseeva KE, Alekseeva AV, Iurev VK, Fedorova LA, Kharbediya SD, Rustamova KE. Some aspects of evaluation of vaccine prophylaxis organization in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):607-12.

The effect of biofuel crops cultivation on food prices stability and food security-A Review
Jalal Omer Ahmed

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Biofuel is the subject of increasing attention in most area of the world especially in the developed countries and some newly developed countries. It has become a controversial issue for the following reasons, rising commodity prices, a negative impact on food security and finally the issue of climate change. An increase in the uses of agricultural land in countries exporting food crops such as wheat, barley and rice and focus to grow oilseeds to produce biofuel, this change leads to food shortages, and rising prices due to a decline in production of basic crops and increasing demand for this type of crops, which is mainly used for food. Obviously high crop prices in this way could lead to an increase in the proportion of famine in the world and adversely affect food security. The cultivation of biofuel crops have many positive aspects including the use of agricultural land, which was left without cultivation and use for long periods of time, as well as providing employment opportunities and thus improve the living conditions of the farmers.

Keywords: biofuel, energy, crops cultivation, food security, food prices stability

Citation: Ahmed JO. The effect of biofuel crops cultivation on food prices stability and food security-A Review. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):613-21.

Profiling of phenolic compounds in the grains of the genus Secale L. using HPLC technique
Ruqayah Manoon Hasan Alnomani

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Background: Secale is an annual or perennial grasses from the Poaceae family represented in Iraq by three wild species, from which Rye (S.cereale) grew as a weed in Wheat fields. Rye represented a grain crop in the world used for different purposes such as alcoholic beverages, food, grazed forage. Methodology: This paper outlines the differences in concentrations of 10 different compounds determined by HPLC technique in three species of the genus Secale L. in Iraq. The content of most compounds are variable in the species. Results: High content of Gentisic acid are recorded in S.montanum Guss. and S.cereale while less content are observed for Luteolin-7-glucopyranoside. S.afghanicum (Vav.) Rozhev. reveals high content of Coumaric acid and less content of Anthocyanins. So the results indicate that the three species of the genus Secale represent a valuable source of biologically active constituents which can enhancing the separation of species by means of chemotaxonomic techniques. Conclusion: The situations of differences in concentrations of phenolic compounds play an important role in identification and separation between species studied which can be easily used as a chemotaxonomic tool.

Keywords: Secale, HPLC technique, chemotaxonomy

Citation: Hasan Alnomani RM. Profiling of phenolic compounds in the grains of the genus Secale L. using HPLC technique. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):623-7.

To develop dental prostheses and improve the addition of polymers (Atridox, Fort Collins) in dental procedures
Husam Ekrayyem Salman, Zena Natheer Rajab, Bassam Ibrahim Khalil

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The majority of the studies analyzed show modest beneficial effects of pulsed lasers (Er: YAG or Er, Cr YSGG) compared to conventional therapies (with manual and / or ultrasound instrumentation) in the initial treatment of patients with peri-implantitis. OHLLT photodynamic therapy, using penetrating and super-pulsed lasers (980 nm), thanks to the biological hypotheses that support it, and by the preliminary results obtained with this study, seems to be a good complement to the surgical treatment of the perioperative -implantite. The effectiveness of the proposed protocol highlights the possibility of acting on the site in the least traumatic way possible, but with efficiency capable of offering a real improvement of the bacterial flora condition. The reduction of inflammation of the peri-implant tissues, with a decrease in the sounding depth, the rate of bleeding and a massive reduction of the bacterial load, especially for aggressive strains very often found in affected sites, refractory to conventional protocols, are tangible elements as to the potential effectiveness of this protocol for the treatment of peri-implant disease. It will be necessary to complete this pilot study with RCTs or other forms of research referenced in the pyramid of scientific evidence in dentistry.

Keywords: dental prostheses, polymers, Atridox, Fort Collins, dental procedures

Citation: Salman HE, Rajab ZN, Khalil BI. To develop dental prostheses and improve the addition of polymers (Atridox, Fort Collins) in dental procedures. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):629-43.

Effect of Zamzam’s water and magnetized water on E. coli o157: h7 growth compared to other pathogens
Angham Jabbar Alwan

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The current study aims to evaluate the effect of Zamzam’s water and Magnetized water on the growth of E. coli O157: H7 compared to a group of other pathogens including Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aurginosa, proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus fecalis, Bacillus and Enterobacter. Chemical analysis of water samples from different sources was carried out (Zamzam’s water, magnetized water, hot water, distilled water and tap water). The physical properties were determined for Zamzam’s water in Long intervals which was stored in room temperature. Trybtose soy broth was prepared with different water samples with different types of bacteria. Growth density was measured by UV Spectrometer. The results showed that the water samples were different in support of growth. The highest value of bacterial growth in distilled water (0.6 nm) was compared with the lowest value for bacterial growth in case of Zamzam’s water (0.1 nm) In supporting growth between these two values. As for the types of germs used, E. coli O157: H7 was the best developed bacterium using different water samples with (0.6 nm) distilled water, (0.5 nm) hot water compared to the other microbes studied (0.6 nm) for tap water for Enterobacter, Bacillus.

Keywords: Zamzam’s water, Magnetized water, E. coli O157: H7, other bacteria

Citation: Alwan AJ. Effect of Zamzam’s water and magnetized water on E. coli o157: h7 growth compared to other pathogens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):645-0.

Study and analysis of the properties of organic and hydrocarbon aromatic metals
Hayfaa A. Mubarak, Hussein Abdulkadhim Al-khafaji, Wisam Abdul Jaleel Jawad

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Organic minerals are naturally occurring organic compounds with both a defined chemical composition & crystallographic properties. Their presence reflects the high concentration of certain organic compounds in natural environments. Therefore, the origin & the processes of formation of organic minerals will allow us to undress & the fate & behavior of organic molecules in the lithosphere. In order to contribute to the development of new developments in mineralogy, we divide organic minerals into two groups: (1) ionic organic minerals, in which organic anions & various actions are linked by ionic bonds, & (2) molecular organic minerals, in which organic electron molecules are linked to each other by weak intermolecular interactions. This overview includes four main themes. The first section deals with the general definition of organic minerals & the two groups named above. The second deals with the crystallochemistry & geochemistry of oxalates, the most typical ionic organic minerals. We first discuss the role of (H2O) 0, because most minerals in this group incorporate (H2O) 0 in their crystal structures. Then, we describe the phase relationships among oxalated calcium minerals, hydrated & anhydrous, & in particular their structural hierarchy, these compounds being the most abundant organic ionic minerals. In addition, we describe by way of example the weak effect of Jahn-Teller caused by the Fe2 + ion in humboldtin, [Fe2 + (C2O4) • 2H2O]. The Fe2 + ion causes a distortion of the octahedra of this organic mineral, although the effect is barely detected in inorganic minerals. The third theme deals with crystallochemistry & the formation process of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) minerals, which are the most typical of the class of molecular organic minerals. In particular, we examine the case of karpatitis (C24H12) & idrialite (C22H14). We conclude with a summary of the characteristics of organic minerals & a discussion of their contribution to the earth sciences & planets.

Keywords: Organic minerals, hydrocarbon, ionic, molecular

Citation: Mubarak HA, Al-khafaji HA, Jaleel Jawad WA. Study and analysis of the properties of organic and hydrocarbon aromatic metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):651-7.

Effect of grain size and shape on some characteristics of the development of young stage corn
Azhar Taher Sleibi

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In previous work (Bourdu and Gregory 1983), we showed that several parameters of the beginning of maize growth could be used for an intervarietal comparison. The same type of analysis was used to compare the effect of grain size and shape of the same corn variety (LG 11) on the characteristics of early growth. Seedlings from larger grains are found to exhibit higher growth rates; it is the same for those from round grains. However, if most characters are affected, there is one that remains constant: it is the one that measures the efficiency of use of seminal reserves for the construction of functional photosynthetic equipment. This characteristic can therefore be considered as a varietal constant.
The effect of seed size and shape on early development in maize.
In a previous paper in this series, we showed (Bourdu and Gregory 1983) that several parameters of early growth could be useful for intercarietal comparisons. We have used the same type of analysis to study the effect of grain size and shape in a variety of maize (LG 11). We found that large grains are associated with higher growth rates and that production forms better seedlings than flat ones. Most of these characters are affected by grain size and shape, but they are constant in the four-dimensional grain categories, ie the efficiency of utilization of maternal reserves for the photosynthetic apparatus. Thus this criterion can be considered as a genotypic characteristic.

Keywords: zea mays, germination, germination vigor, Zea mays, germination, seedling vigor

Citation: Sleibi AT. Effect of grain size and shape on some characteristics of the development of young stage corn. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):659-63.

Used satellite images and GIS to study the degradation lands in the western desert upper Euphrates, Anbar Province, Iraq
Raad M. Wafur Abdulrazzaq

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The study explained the state of land degradation in Western Desert, Upper Euphrates, which located in Anbar province/Iraq, assessed in relation to the productive capacity of the land, through the interpretation Land sat TM and many different satellite, and image processing by a GIS for the area, which associated with a database, and the visual and numerical interpretation of satellite images and topographic maps, various, thematic maps and many field checks. Beforehand, standards states of reference have been established in order to evaluate the various states of degradation observed. The study explained the uses of remote sensing for direct identification of degradation in the area, and study the loss of organic matter in the upper layer of soil, and how we can make classification for isolated the degradation areas from other healthy areas. The study discovered, the heavily degraded areas cover about 5% of Western Desert, Upper Euphrates, while the little or no degraded part still occupies the other area.one reason of weakly production potential agricultural is the degradation of soil in the area of study. Therefore must produce a map, for classification the areas of degradation for area of study, and published a map in future, to serve as a baseline for soil monitoring and the environment in the coming decades for all country.

Keywords: western desert, upper euphrates, land degradation state, remote sensing

Citation: Wafur Abdulrazzaq RM. Used satellite images and GIS to study the degradation lands in the western desert upper Euphrates, Anbar Province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):665-70.

Role of IL-18 and caspas-9 polymorphism in disease susceptibility in prostate cancer
Ibrahim A. Altamemi, Adnan H. Aubaid, Thaer Ali Hussein

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Backgrounds: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd utmost global prevalent male cancer and major cancer in economically developed countries. Environmental factors and person having genetic polymorphism might have a function in prediction and consequently treatment strategies for a particular disease in a particular or a group of patients. This emerging approach has the potential to improve prediction of susceptibility to prostate cancer and disease progression, thereby minimizing the development of metastatic disease and allowing the ability to tailor therapeutic intervention. Objective: The present study aimed to examine whether the prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients have distinctive IL-18 and capsase 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that could have an effect on disease susceptibility. Material and Methods: A case control study has been steered to attain this goal which is based on three groups include 50 patients with PCa (group 1), 50 patients with BHP (group 2) and 50 healthy (non BHP & non prostate) volunteers (group 3, control). Patients were under observation in the Thi Qar Oncology Center from the period of January 2018 till February 2019. Moreover, the supervision of specialists of oncology was also incorporated in this research. For the extraction of DNA, 2mL blood was directly collected to the EDTA comprising sterile tube. Then, amplification refractory mutation-PCR system (ARMS-PCR) technique is used to study interleukin-18 (IL-18) and caspase 9 polymorphism. Results: there was no significant difference among the BHP patient’s mean age and patients with prostatic cancer (P=0.093; 60.04±10.47 vs. 63.04±8.35 years, respectively); however, patients in both BPH and cancer groups were found to be significantly older as compared to the subjects of control group (P<0.001). IL-18 genotypes homozygous CC and heterozygous GC genotypes were significantly more frequent in patients with prostatic carcinoma in comparison with control group (P=0.002) and in comparison with BPH group (P=0.030). Caspase genotypes homozygous GG and heterozygous AG genotypes were significantly more frequent in patients with prostatic carcinoma in comparison with control group (P=0.003) and in comparison with BPH group (P=0.018); however, there was no significant difference in caspase 9 genotype frequency distribution between control and BPH groups (P=0.842). Conclusions: We can speculate that population who have AC, CC genotype for IL-18, and AG, GG genotype for caspase 9 could be at risk for malignant tumor formation, and this could emerging an approach which has the potential to improve prediction of susceptibility to prostate cancer and disease progression.

Keywords: IL-18, caspas-9, polymorphism, prostate cancer

Citation: Altamemi IA, Aubaid AH, Hussein TA. Role of IL-18 and caspas-9 polymorphism in disease susceptibility in prostate cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):671-6.

Resistance of E.coli isolate from patient suffering from UTI toward Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug
Hadi Hussein Abbas, Israa Mamdooh Subhi, Eman Thamer Garallah

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Pathogenic bacteria of Escherichia coli (35 isolates) had been obtained from persons suffered from UTI from Baghdad Medical City hospital among the time between first December/2015 until first April. The samples had been detection by growth on MacConkey medium and blood agar, then identification by doing some morphology and biochemical parameters. In current study 22/35 (62.8%) of the samples were taken from patient woman and 13/3 (37.1%) take from patient man. Antimicrobial sensitive test for 2 antimicrobial was achieved by using disc diffusion method. The persistence isolates of E.coli was highest percentage 28.5% (10/35) to Ciprodar® while it was 14.2% (5/35) of Trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole. determined the resistance rates in relation to the gender patients showed great different for resistant to Ciprodar® in male 17.1% (6/35) in comparison with 14.2% (5/35) in patient woman and for Co-tri in also female 5.7% (2/35) in comparison with 8.5% (3/35) in patient man.

Keywords: E.coli, patient of UTI, Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug

Citation: Hussein Abbas H, Subhi IM, Garallah ET. Resistance of E.coli isolate from patient suffering from UTI toward Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):677-82.