EurAsian Journal of BioSciences (Eurasia J Biosci, e-ISSN 1307-9867) is an international, refereed electronic journal. It publishes the results of original research in the field of biological sciences especially related to morphology, physiology, genetics, ethnobiology, ethnobotany, taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Advantages of publishing in Eurasia J Biosci

  • Independent, rigorous peer review
  • Rapid publication
  • Open access – gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. 
  • Quality: Eurasia J Biosci applies the professional copyediting and typesetting processes.
  • Indexed in major databasesEurasia J Biosci is indexed by AGRICOLA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, SCOPUS, SCImago, Zoological Record (Thomson Reuters) etc. All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI)- CrossRef. 

Current Issue (Volume 14, Issue 2, August-December 2020)

(In Progress)

The distribution of lethal Holstein haplotypes affecting female fertility among the Russian Black-and-White cattle
Abdulrahman Khatib, Alexander M. Mazur, Egor Prokhortchouk

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Abstract

Background: Many genetic defects have been discovered and proved to be associated with the decrease of female fertility of dairy cattle. These defects are now selected against in many countries. The occurrence of these defects among the Russian dairy cattle has never been extensively screened before. In this study, we will investigate the occurrence of 10 lethal recessive Holstein haplotypes HH0 (BY), HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5, HCD, HHC (CVM), HHB (BLAD) and HHD (DUMPS) among the Russian Black-White cattle, and we will determine the carrier frequency and the frequency of the mutant alleles for these haplotypes. 
Materials and Methods: 1991 animals (1500 bulls and 491 cows) of the Russian Black-and-White cattle were included in the study. Two methods were used for identification of carriers of mutations. The first one is genotyping the animals using the bovine DNA chips that contain the mutations and the second one is the polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Results: The results clearly showed the presence of these defects among the Russian Black-and-White animals. The occurrence was relatively high for some defects such as BY, HCD, HH1 and HH3 with a carrier frequency of 4.11, 5.66, 2.96 and 2.88%, respectively. No carriers were detected for DUMPS.
Conclusions: This work represented an important attempt for extensively screening the occurrence of various genetic defects among the Russian dairy cattle. This has a significant importance in breeding programs. It helps breeders to make an appropriate mating decision by mating only carriers to non-carriers. Such management leads to avoid the economic losses and to decrease the frequency of the mutant alleles in the cattle population.

Keywords: cattle, fertility, genetic defects, Holstein haplotypes

Citation: Khatib A, Mazur AM, Prokhortchouk E. The distribution of lethal Holstein haplotypes affecting female fertility among the Russian Black-and-White cattle. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2545-2.

Microbial study of Trichophyton rubrum isolated from various Tinea infections
Raed Ali Hussain Shabaa

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Abstract

Dermatophytes infections, especially those affecting the keratinized tissues, are a major concern worldwide and are increasing on a global scale. Dermatophytosis is an infection of the skin, hair, and nails as a result of colonization of the Keratin layers in the body. The factors causing dermatomycosis are classified in three distorted genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This study was aimed to isolate and identify Trichiphyton rubrum from different Tinea infection using morphological features including scanning electron microscope examination and to evaluate its sensitivity towards several antifungal drugs. Seventy-three Tinea infections specimens were included in this study. All the clinical specimens were cultured onto sabouraud dextrose agar plates and potato dextrose agar plates and identified using cultural and microscopic features. The positive specimens for Trichiphyton rubrum were tested for susceptibility towards different antifungal drugs. The results showed that from all the clinical specimens (73), included in this study 25 (34.2%) were positive for Trichiphyton rubrum. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical type of Trichiphyton rubrum infection with incidence of 9 (36%). All of the Trichiphyton rubrum isolates were sensitive to Nystatin (NS 100 IU), Amphotericin-B (AP 100 IU) and Itraconazole (IT 10µg), and resistant to Clotrimazole (CC 10µg), Ketoconazole (KT 10µg), and Fluconazole (FLC 10µg). In Conclusion Tinea corporis is the most dermatophytosis caused by Trichiphyton rubrum and Nystatin is the most effective antifungal drug towered it.

Keywords: Trichiphyton rubrum, Tinea Infections, dermatophytes

Citation: Shabaa RAH. Microbial study of Trichophyton rubrum isolated from various Tinea infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2553-8.

The association between genetic polymorphisms of Il-6 gene and susceptibility of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iraqi population
Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussein Al-Husseini

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Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that affects many organs and is characterized by cytokine imbalance and hereditary factors that give a predisposition to the diseases development. The present study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of IL-6 gene (-174G/ C) plays an important role in the SLE in Iraqi population. Blood samples of 103 SLE patients and 100 healthy individuals were collected. Serological test of serum anti-dsDNA was assayed, and it was very efficient in diagnosis of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-dsDNA was 96.2% and 100%, respectively, with high predictive value. The Genotyping of IL-6 gene SNP was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The genotype distribution showed significant difference (P<0.05) between controls (GG: n= 69, 69%; GC: n=22, 22%; CC: n=9,9 %) and SLE patients (GG : n= 38, 36.89 %; GC : n=41, 39.80 %; CC : n=24, 23.3%). C allele frequency was significantly increased in SLE patients than in controls (X2=25.204; P<0.05; OR=3.043, 95% CI=1.954-4.738). In conclusion, the frequency of C allele (heterozygous and /or homozygous) in Iraqi SLE patients may indicated that it may be play a big role in pathogenesis of SLE and it can be considered as a major cause of local tissue inflammation that involved in all certain complication of SLE disease.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, Promoter of IL-6 gene, SNP, Iraq

Citation: Al-Husseini RMA. The association between genetic polymorphisms of Il-6 gene and susceptibility of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iraqi population. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2559-67.

Some questions about Teae folia (Thea sinensis L. seu Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) as а medicinal raw material
Оlena V. Grechana, Anatoly G. Serbin, Sergiy D. Trshecinskiy, Olexandr I. Panasenko, Lina Yu. Klimenko, Tetyana V. Oproshanska, Olena O. Saliy

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Abstract

Background: One of the most popular plant and beverage is a Thea sinensis or Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) also known as Theae Folia or Green Tea. There are some reasons for it, such that the sensory properties, prices are relatively cheap, stimulant effects, and their potential health benefits. Motherland of this plant is considered the China. This is where people have paid attention to the ability of a decoction of the leaves have a tonic effect on the human body and the first to grow this plant. Tea folia as a medicine are made from unfermented tea leaves and young shoots. This process is fast in special drying machines. Objective: European Pharmacopoeia have monograph Green Tea and the herb that we know as a food drink have as medicine herb now. The objective of research of herbal medicine is the quality and safety of natural products. Materials and Methods: Macroscopical and microscopical features of the leaf and shoots have been analysis using an optical microscope. Phytochemical and physico-chemical analysis were evaluated. The observation of the spectrum profiles is done by interpreting the typical peak that appears. Results: Theae Folia have actinocytic stomata, unicellular trichomes, heterogenous mesophyll which is characterized by the presence of calcium oxalate crystals and sclereid cells. Phytochemical analysis indicated resources the presence of purine alkaloids caffeine and theabromine and many other drugs. The content of caffeine from Teae Folia ethanolic and water extract is differ to time. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic and phytochemicals features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard, which can play an important role in its standardization.

Keywords: medicinal plant, microscopic, caffeine

Citation: Grechana ОV, Serbin AG, Trshecinskiy SD, Panasenko OI, Klimenko LY, Oproshanska TV, et al. Some questions about Teae folia (Thea sinensis L. seu Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) as а medicinal raw material. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2569-75.

Study the relationship between Interleukin-35 and clusterin with Mda, Gsh, Cat and Sod among male Iraqi chronic Hepatitis C patients
Shakir F. T. Alaaraji, Shakir M. S. Alfahdawi, Majid A. Mohaisen

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Abstract

Background: Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) disease is known as a main public health problem through the world. CHC disease might lead to fibrosis of hepatocytes. In present paper, we attempted to measure whether there is any association among IL-35 and CLU with MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD, and several biochemical variables such as AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, T. BIL, and albumin. Methods: This study has included 44 patients from the Al-Fallujah Teaching Hospital, who was having CHC disease, and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were registered. Serum AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, T. BIL, albumin concentrations were estimated by colorimetric methods, IL-35 and CLU, MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD levels were estimated by ELISA technique. Results: Compared with healthy controls, the serum IL-35 and CLU, GSH, CAT and SOD concentrations were lower of patients with CHC and the serum MDA values were higher (P<0.0001, all), the serum IL-35 and CLU concentrations related positively with serum GSH, CAT, SOD and albumin, and negatively correlated with MDA, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and T. BIL concentrations (all P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of serum for MDA, CLU, SOD, CAT, IL-35 and GSH levels were 0.9904, 0.9403, 0.9274, 0.9246, 0.8515 and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Correlation among IL-35 and CLU with MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD may be attractive markers to predict disease development in CHC patients.

Keywords: Interleukin-35, clusterin, oxidative stress, chronic Hepatitis C

Citation: Alaaraji SFT, Alfahdawi SMS, Mohaisen MA. Study the relationship between Interleukin-35 and clusterin with Mda, Gsh, Cat and Sod among male Iraqi chronic Hepatitis C patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2577-86.

A survey study for aborted women toward cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma in Babylon City
Ashwaq M. S. Al-Jbouri, Nagham Adil Ghani Chabuck, Rasha Fadhel Obaid, Samah Ahmed Kadhum Al-Jebory

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Abstract

The study was directed to detect correlation between demographic data and the abortion then Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) roles in cases of abortion as well as study the possible association between the two infections. The blood samples were collected from 100 aborted women who have consulted Imam Sadiq Hospital in AL-Hilla city, and tested for being there of IgM and IgG regarding CMV and Toxoplasma gondii during the period from October 2018 to May 2019. The information were taken for each aborted women included: the age, habitant, history of abortion, occupation, education state, single or recurrent, history of contact to domesticated particularly cats animals, eating history of undercooked meat, fruits, vegetable and drinking unpasteurized milk. 100 blood samples from aborted women were collected and tested for antibodies detection (IgM and IgG) specially for CMV and T. gondii by means of Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The sera of all blood samples were taken. A total of 100 sera obtained from aborted pregnant women, 75 of aborted women were cytomegalovirus, while 18 of aborted women were toxoplasma and 7 was negative result. The highest infections prevalence of T.gondii and CMV has been indicated in the age groups (21-25) years old. For aborted women, showed that rural-urban ratio was higher in rural than in urban. From aborted pregnant women, 82% of housewives carry specific anti-T.gondii antibody, while only (18%) of employed women were with specific anti-T.gondii antibody. As well as, depending on repeated abortion of 100 aborted women found 82 were with 1-2 repeated abortion, 11 with 3-4 repeated abortions, 7 with more than four abortions. The infection of CMV and Toxoplasmosis were more prevalent in aborted women. The highest cases of abortion has been showed in the age groups (21-25) years old as well as decrease cases of abortion with increase age. Depending on habitant, prevalence rate of CMV and T.gondii infections were higher in rural than urban for aborted women. As well as, depending on occupation was found that the housewives women had infection higher than employees women.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma gondii, abortion

Citation: Al-Jbouri AMS, Chabuck NAG, Obaid RF, Al-Jebory SAK. A survey study for aborted women toward cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma in Babylon City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2587-90.

Environmental monitoring plan for marine ports, case study Shuwaikh Port, Kuwait
Ahmed Al Rashed, Hossam Mostgab, Ahmed Gad

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Abstract

Shuwaikh port is considered the main commercial port in Kuwait. It is located in west Kuwait. The total area of the port is about 4.4 million squares meters. It was established in 1961 after the independence from England. The port is considered the major one in the country. Rapid growth in population urbanization and life style has led to enlargement of infra structures of the port. This paper provides comprehensive environmental monitoring assessment issues associated with the port operations, terminal consideration and construction and aeration and its effect on the port and the surrounding area.

Keywords: Shuwaikh, port, assessment, environment

Citation: Al Rashed A, Mostgab H, Gad A. Environmental monitoring plan for marine ports, case study Shuwaikh Port, Kuwait. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2591-600.

The association between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles
Wasan Adnan Abdulhameed, Nahlah Abdulmajeed Hasan, Ali Ibrahim Rahim, A. H. Mohammed

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Abstract

Background: Among the environmental factors, diet has received much attention because of growing bulk of data that discloses significant and substantial role for dietary elements, particularly, micronutrient in fertility pathophysiology. One of the major dietary elements that have been recently under focus is dietary folate. A number of vital cellular events, such as transfer RNA, synthesis of DNA, methionine and cysteine, require folate as an essential molecular participant. A number of previous studies have documented that folate supplementation can improve fertility outcome; whereas, other studies have denied such an association between folate supplementation and fertility outcomes.
Aim of the study: to study a possible correlation between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles.
Patients and methods: The present study was done on 65 infertile couples who were chosen from those attended the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies who were subjected to an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Their ages ranged from 18 to 42 years. Both primary and secondary types of infertility were involved, with heterogeneous causes. From each woman, venous blood sample and follicular fluid sample was obtained for folate concentration determination using ELISA technique. 
Results: The biochemical pregnancy rate was 32.3 %. There was significant association between plasma folate level and positive pregnancy outcome (P < 0.05), when comparing the pregnancy rate of deficient group, lower normal group and high group with that of normal group. The highest pregnancy rate was observed in women with normal plasma folate and it equals 56.7 %, therefore it was considered a reference group for purpose of comparison. Pregnancy rate of deficient folate group was significantly lower than that of normal folate group, 11.1 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.043). In addition, pregnancy rate of lower normal folate group was significantly lower than that of normal folate group, 10.0 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.028). Moreover, pregnancy rate of high folate group was significantly lower than that of normal group, 12.2 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.004). 
Conclusion: Both high and low plasma folate are associated with low pregnancy rate; therefore, it should be recommended that serum folate should be monitored when prescribing folate to infertile women and that it should be discontinued once its level reaches the maximum normal plasma range.

Keywords: pregnancy outcome, plasma and follicular fluid folate, ICSI cycles

Citation: Abdulhameed WA, Hasan NA, Rahim AI, Mohammed AH. The association between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2601-8.

Evaluation of oxidative stress and growth status in molecular diagnostic patients with entamoeba histolytica
Rasha Amer Nouri Al-Tufaili, Rasha Shakir Nima

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In the developing world, amoebiasis is a widespread parasitic disease in which Entameoba histolytica is the causative agent for a human. The aim of this study is to evaluate the end products of oxidative stress include; serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum levels of total protein carbonyl (POC) in Entameoba histolytica patients. In addition to estimate the growth retardation of children infected with this parasite. In the current study the sera and stool of 37 patients with Entameoba histolytica infection and 37 healthy children in the control group were diagnosed by Molecular detection techniques. Growth status were calculated and oxidative stress were analyzed. The mean age of the patient was 5.16 ± 4.811 years. There were significant lower differences between the mean of z-score for high and mean z-score for weight in patient than that of controls. T-test demonstrated markedly higher MDA levels, and POC levels were spotted in serum of patients as matched to the patients with control group. It is concluded that the Entameoba histolytica infection was associated with significant oxidative stress and growth retardation.

Keywords: Entameoba histolytica, malondialdehyde, total protein carbonyl, growth status

Citation: Al-Tufaili RAN, Nima RS. Evaluation of oxidative stress and growth status in molecular diagnostic patients with entamoeba histolytica. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2609-12.

Investigation of cytokines and herpes simplex virus in recurrent abortion in pregnant women
Hashem Mohammed Hashem AL-Aaraje, Huda Jameel Baker AL-Khilkhali

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the existence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 and type 2 in abortion women as well as to detect the role of cytokines in the induction of abortion. Over the period from November (2019) to February (2020), a total of 68 cases of abortion women Collected from Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in AL-Najaf city, and the women’s generating of children teaching hospital Kerbala. Furthermore, the control group relied on 20 healthy pregnant women without any evidence of chronic inflammatory disease, two types of cases with ages ranging from 16-40 years. Blood samples were obtained from abortion women and healthy controls were tested for HSV-1 and HSV-2 tested first on Rapid ICT Kits. Of the 68 samples, 9(13%) were positive, and 59(87%) were negative in Rapid Immunochromatographic Test (ICT), While the results of pregnant women’s investigation showed Nil(0%) negative result for every 20 samples these findings were then verified by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique to investigate HSV type1 and type 2 where attained 38(56%) positive samples in the aborted women and 8(40%) positive samples in the pregnant women respectively. Collected samples from abortion women and control estimate immunological level (IL-2, IL-10 & TFN-α, C3) Used the ELISA and radial immunodiffusion method. The results revealed the sensitivity of rapid (ICT) compare to the ELISA technique was 11 %. This ratio indicates the true positive HSV infection and the specificity was 92% indicate to the true negative infection with HSV. And the positive cases of HSV-1and HSV-2 in aborted women were recorded 27(40%) at the first trimester. In another side, the other cases of abortion occurred in the second and third trimester were reached (16/68) and (1/68) respectively. The Cytokine tests. High significance (p<0.05) of IL-2 in aborted + HSV women (3.994±0.9354) and aborted -HSV women (4.655±1.423) compared to control pregnant women (2.903±0.7484) whereas there was a non-significant difference between aborted + HSV women and aborted -HSV women. The results of this study revealed a high level of IL-2 in the serum of aborted women as positive and negative for HSV compared with pregnant women. While the result of IL-10 level showed great significance (p<0.05) in aborted +HSV women(2.709 ± 0.3877),aborted -HSV women(2.905 ± 0.3368) compared with control (pregnant) women (2.267 ± 0.2332) But there is no -significant difference (p<0.05) among aborted +HSV women and aborted –HSV . On the other hand Results showed great significance (p<0.05) of TNF-α level in aborted +HSV women(4.859 ± 0.6083),aborted -HSV women(4.770 ± 0.4548) compared with control (pregnant) women (4.841 ± 0.4153) while there was non-significant difference (p<0.05) among aborted +HSV women and aborted –HSV women. In the present study, the results detected high significance (p<0.05) in the levels of C3 for aged group ≥ 42 (85.80±24.63 mg/dl)in comparison to the control(79.10 ±4.890 mg/dl).

Keywords: Abortion women, Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and type2, cytokines, ELISA, Rapid (ICT)

Citation: AL-Aaraje HMH, AL-Khilkhali HJB. Investigation of cytokines and herpes simplex virus in recurrent abortion in pregnant women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2613-24.

Antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation of Lactobacilli spp. isolated from healthy and infected women with bacterial vaginosis
Zeena Adnan Shalash, Farah Tariq Abdul-Ridha

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Abstract

Background: The vaginal microbiome harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, known as vaginal flora which has an important impact on women s health as well as that of their newborns Bacteria that colonize the vaginal microbiota of women play an important role in health and homostasis that exist in a dynamic balance and establishing with each other and with the host. In healthy reproductive- aged women, the vaginal microbiome ,generally shows a predominance of Lactobacillus genus,and most women display the prevalence of one species among L., crispatus, L., iners, L., jensenii and L., gasseri. Lactobacilli promote the maintenance of the vaginal homoestasis and prevent the colonization and growth of adverse microorganisms,especialy pathogens. Methodology: 150 high vaginal swabs were collected from 100 specimen from women suffering from vaginitis and 50 specimen from healthy women. Each specimen were cultured on UTI chromogenic agar under aerobic conditions and on MRS agar under anaerobic conidion Antibiotics susceptibility performed according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standereds).Biofiilms formation were assayed by TCP. Results: Results revealed that a total 150 specimens, 90 were gave positive cultured with single bacterial growth on UTI chromogenic agar as following: Escherichia. coli (42/90), Staphylococcus aureus (27/90), Enterobacter (13/90), Klebsiella pneumonia (8/90), 30 specimens were gave mixed culture and 30 others specimens were no growth. Out of 150 specimens also cultured on MRS agar ,30 specimens were gave positive culture with pure bacterial isolates of Lactobacillus spp. 20 isolates of Lactobacillus (10 isolates from healthy women and 10 isolates from infected women with vaginitis) were selected to study the effect of antibiotics. It has been found that all Lactobacillus isolated from healthy women specimens resistant for chloromphincol and amikiacin. 50% resistant for ceftriaxone , 40% resistant for ciproflaxcin, gentamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 30% resistant for nitrofurantoin, 20% resistant for levofloxacin, and all Lactobacillus isolates sensitive to imipenem while all Lactobacillus isolates of women with vaginitis were sensitive to all antibiotics used in this study. Also 20 Lactobacillus isolates were selected to study the ability of them to produce biofilm formation. The Lactobacillus isolates from healthy women produce strong and moderate biofilm former 50%, while Lactobacillus isolates from vaginitis women produce (0%, 40%, 40%, 20%) strong, moderate, weak and non-biofilm former respectively. Conclusion: Most vaginal infections are treated by antibiotics but frequent recurrences and chronic infections are common due to the adverse effect on the indigenous lactobacilli . Probiotics have the potential to optimize , maintain and restore the microflora of the vaginal ecosystem hence the alternative approach to reducing vaginal infections and promoting consumer health by using biotherapoeutic with pre- and probiotic.The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must not to kill the beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of probiotic bacteria.

Keywords: Lactobacilli, healthy, women, vaginitis

Citation: Shalash ZA, Abdul-Ridha FT. Antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation of Lactobacilli spp. isolated from healthy and infected women with bacterial vaginosis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2625-9.

Heat resistance of introduced apple-tree varieties due to water status and seasonal development under arid conditions Of Mangistau
O.N. Kossareva, D.N. Zharassova, N.A. Tolep

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Abstract

Excess heat has a negative effect on the growth and development of fruit plants, their productivity, so the success of introduction under conditions with a hot climate is determined by the plants resistance to overheating. The article presents for the first time the results of the heat resistance study of 10 introduced apple-tree varieties in seasonal dynamics due to their water content, transpiration rate and seasonal development. It was found that the heat resistance varied in different varieties and changed during the growth, decreasing in August-September in all varieties. Maximum values of water content in the leaves was observed in May and minimum in August-September. The maximum transpiration rate was from June to August, depending on variety. High heat resistance, water content and low transpiration rate were observed in all varieties at the end of May, against the background of a drop in the growth rate of shoots. At the completion time of shoot growth and the beginning of fruit ripening, the water content decreased in all varieties, transpiration rate varied in different directions, and heat resistance decreased in all varieties except the most stable ones (Stolovka, Renet Burkhardta). After fruit ripening and shoots lignification, water content, transpiration rate and heat resistance decreased in all varieties. The most productive varieties were characterized by high heat resistance.
The work was carried out on the topic of the Grant Project “Introduction of prospective apple-tree varieties for introduction into culture in the arid regions of West Kazakhstan”.

Keywords: apple-tree, varieties, introduction, arid conditions, heat resistance, water content, transpiration rate, phenological phases, productivity

Citation: Kossareva O, Zharassova D, Tolep N. Heat resistance of introduced apple-tree varieties due to water status and seasonal development under arid conditions Of Mangistau. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2631-41.

IL-23/IL-17 axis and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients
Tri Yanti, Yuliasih, Lita Diah Rahmawati

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Abstract

Introduction: The latest paradigm proposes that imbalance of Treg and Th17 cells play a significant role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. The influence of IL-23 and IL-17 on the pathogenesis of SLE remains controversial. This study aimed to observe the role of IL-23/IL17 axis in the pathogenesis of SLE as disease activity using Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) index.
Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed thirty blood serum specimens taken from female patients with SLE diagnosed by the 1997 ACR criteria. All samples were analyzed for IL-23 and IL-17 serum level using ELISA method. Pearson’s/Spearman’s correlation test and Path analysis were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Thirty female subjects aged 31.3±10.46 years all manifested with hematology abnormalities and arthritis posed as the most common clinical manifestation. Both IL-23 and IL-17 levels increased at 625.33 pg/mL and 34.53 pg/mL, respectively. Disease activity resulted in a high mean SLAM score of 29.3±3.9. No correlation was found between serum IL-23 and serum IL-17 (r=0.089; p>0.05). Furthermore, IL-17 and IL-23 did not significantly correlate to disease activity (r=0.026; p>0.05); (r=0.116; p>0.05).
Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between IL-23 and IL-17 with SLE disease activity.

Keywords: SLE, disease activity, IL-23, IL-17

Citation: Yanti T, Yuliasih, Rahmawati LD. IL-23/IL-17 axis and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2643-9.

Factors affecting potential overpayment claim of government health insurance in naval hospital
Ahmad Samsulhadi, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: There are the potential overpayment claims performed by hospital. The aims of the study were to find out what the factors causing potential overpayment. 
Methods: This study was descriptive analytic to all document after audited by internal oversight unit for national health insurance (BPJS). The population was all claim documents after audited by internal audit BPJS in 2018.
Results: The results showed that there were 3881 (1.33%) potentially overpaid documents found during 2018. The value of overpayment was approximately IDR 4,066,938,800 (1.18%) of total claim BPJS in 2018. Factors affecting overpayment claim of BPJS insurance were: readmission, double billing for inpatients and outpatients on the same day, differences in perception of diagnoses and procedures in coding, different classes of care with patient rights, billing of died patient, and chemotherapy patients.
Conclusion: The potential for overpayment can be resulted from both hospital and BPJS sides associated with difference of perception.

Keywords: health insurance, claim document, claim audit, potential overpayment

Citation: Samsulhadi A, Chalidyanto D. Factors affecting potential overpayment claim of government health insurance in naval hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2651-6.

Factors affecting the occurrence of low birth weight
Sesotianingsih Madiyaning Utami, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Introduction: Low Birth Weight (LBW) occurs in babies born with a weight of fewer than 2.500 grams. The prevalence of low birth weight in Sidoarjo Regency tends to increase. This study aimed to provide an overview and analysis of risk factors affecting Low Birth Weight. 
Methods: This study used literature review by collecting literature from various sources obtained from Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencdirect.com, e-books, and SAGE Journal, Scientific Caries 
Results: The results of this study were supported the previous study stating that beside gestational age, specific factors associated with geo-demography were maternal age, kinship/incest, and citizenship. Anemia and abortion had a significant relationship to the incidence of LBW according to data taken from four hospitals in Peshawar.
Conclusion: Other risk factors causing LBW issues are premature birth, inbreeding, maternal age during pregnancy, and a reduction in the burden of activity during pregnancy in mothers who are at risk medically.

Keywords: low birth weight, Infant mortality, low birth weight prevention, low birth weight incidences

Citation: Utami SM, Wulandari RD. Factors affecting the occurrence of low birth weight. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2657-61.

The relationship of nurse characteristics with prevention behavior and control of pulmonary tuberculosis infection
Tintin Sukartini, Ahmad Eko Wibowo, Abu Bakar

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Abstract

Nurses who work in the Tuberculosis (TB) room are at great risk of contracting the disease. This study aimed to analyze the relationship of nurse characteristics with the prevention behavior and control of Tuberculosis infection. This research used a cross-sectional design. The population was all the nurses who work in the TB room. The number of the population taken was 40 respondents who have met the inclusion criteria. The dependent variable was the prevention behavior and control of Tuberculosis infection, while the independent variable was the nurse characteristics. The data were taken using questionnaires and observations towards nurses. Then, the data were analyzed using Chi-Square. The result showed no relation between education level with prevention behavior and tuberculosis infection (p=0.525). Training has no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.316). Working time has no relation to the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.190). Knowledge has no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.798). Attitude and motivation have no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=1.000). It can be concluded that there is no relation between nurse characteristics and prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection. The nurse behavior has implemented four pillars of prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection. Further research is suggested to research things related to the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection such as compliance, workload, and self-efficacy of nurses.

Keywords: control of tuberculosis infection, nurses’ characteristics, prevention behavior

Citation: Sukartini T, Wibowo AE, Bakar A. The relationship of nurse characteristics with prevention behavior and control of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2663-8.

Factors associated with student snacking consumption
Oktavina Batubara, Yuni Sufyanti Arief, Ilya Krisnana

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Abstract


Snacks and food are sold in school, mostly consumed by students. The unhealthy random snacking may cause them at risk of health problems. This study was aimed at analyzed factors that are related to students in snack consumption. Correlation design was applied in this study. The population in this research was children who are in grades second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth in elementary school. The total sampling was 258 respondents that qualified inclusion with stratified random sampling. The independent variables were student’s knowledge, student’s attitude, mother’s role, teacher’s role, and peer’s role. The dependent variable was student snacking consumption. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Then, it was analyzed using the Spearman rho correlation test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Result showed that student knowledge (ρ = 0.000), student attitude (ρ = 0.000), mother’s role (ρ = 0.009), teacher’s role (ρ = 0.000), and peer’s (ρ = 0.01) do have correlation with student snack consumption. In conclusion, student’s knowledge, student’s attitude, mother’s role, teacher’s role, and peer’s role correlate with student snack consumption. Students’ snack consumption is supported by predisposing factors; good knowledge and attitude of the student. Then, the good roles of mother, teacher, and peer are reinforcing factors. Further studies enabling the factors of snack consumption can be used to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: attitude, knowledge, mothers, peers, snacking consumption, teachers

Citation: Batubara O, Arief YS, Krisnana I. Factors associated with student snacking consumption. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2669-73.

Relationship between attitude, motivation, and workload with officers’ performance of finding leprosy patients early
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Ernawaty, Yeni Rahmah Husniyawati

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is not only a complex issue. This study aimed to identify the impacts of attitude, motivation, and workload on officer performance in finding leprosy patients early. 
Methods: This research was a correlative study with cross-sectional approach. Total sampling was used as the sampling technique. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution and multiple linear regression test. 
Results: The performance of primary healthcare leprosy officers in making early leprosy findings was not good (<20%) due to the weak of attitude about the implementation of leprosy findings (B: 0.206). In addition, because of the weak motivation of the officers responsible for the implementation of leprosy findings, the performance of early leprosy findings was not good ≥20% (B: 0.488). The officers’s performance was not good <20% due to the low workload (B: 0.490).
Conclusion: Workload has the biggest impact compared to motivation and attitude.

Keywords: attitude, motivation, workload, performance, leprosy

Citation: Setyantari RD, Ernawaty, Husniyawati YR. Relationship between attitude, motivation, and workload with officers’ performance of finding leprosy patients early. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2675-9.

Constraints in provision time of hospital medical record documents
Ajeng Fauziah Kurniawati, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Djazuly Chalidiyanto, Eka Nurul Hidayah Puspa Seruni

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Abstract

Waiting time in the provision time of hospital medical record documents remains to be an issue to be solved. This study aimed to analyze the long-time provision for outpatient medical records based on the theory of constraints (TOC). An observational study with cross-sectional design used the TOC method. The constraint was found in the process of medical record document provision, the longest average time on the process of provision of outpatient medical records document was the medical record document examination process with an average of 48.91 minutes, and a total time of provision of medical record document was 54.86 minutes. The TOC considers a problem as an opening way for the rest of the system to be managed. An overall management system in accordance with the constraints on the system would reach a steady groove.

Keywords: medical record, waiting time, theory of constraint

Citation: Kurniawati AF, Rochmah TN, Chalidiyanto D, Seruni ENHP. Constraints in provision time of hospital medical record documents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2681-5.

Learning organization to maintain full accreditation of public health center
Anna Wijayanti, Reinaldis Sara, Amalia Putri Handayani, Widy Tri Windy, Miftahul Sulaiman, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Background: In the Primary Health Center (PHC), accreditation process must support to all members regarding the learning process. This study aimed to determine the application of learning organization in effort to maintain the accreditation performance. 
Methods: This study used descriptive research method with cross-sectional approach. The population in this study was all employees of Sememi PHC in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Results: Based on the survey results using a questionnaire on the Sememi PHC accreditation team, it was found that 74% of respondents stated that the learning organization process was good. The implementation of learning organization in Sememi PHC where the employees were directed to continually learn through every activity carried out created new innovations in problems solving and forming good teamwork in proven too able to maintain accreditation performance.
Conclusion: PHC with full accreditation status should maintain their status and improve learning organization for the success of organizational change and performance.

Keywords: accreditation, learning organizational, primary health center

Citation: Wijayanti A, Sara R, Handayani AP, Windy WT, Sulaiman M, Wulandari RD. Learning organization to maintain full accreditation of public health center. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2687-92.

Implementation of lean management to reduce waiting time for drugs in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya
Halimah Salim Ahmad, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Budhi Setianto

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Abstract

Introduction: Outpatient pharmacy services in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya, still have problems regarding the length of waiting time. This study aimed to reduce the length of waiting time for outpatient pharmacy services by implementing lean management. 
Methods: A quantitative study was carried out in the outpatient pharmacy service unit at Islamic Hospital of Surabaya from January to March 2018.
Results: This study showed that the average time at each stage of the process for non-concoction drugs, for the process of the insurance debtor was 56.86 minutes, followed by the (National Health Insurance Board) BPJS debtor with the time was 54.50 minutes and the cash debtor with time a total of 50.67 minutes. It showed non-concoction drugs with working time before the intervention with an average of 60.546 minutes to 33.474 minutes. 
Conclusion: The implementation of lean management can reduce the length of waiting times for pharmacy services in outpatient units from non-concoction and concoction drugs.

Keywords: waiting time, lean management, waste

Citation: Ahmad HS, Rochmah TN, Setianto B. Implementation of lean management to reduce waiting time for drugs in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2693-6.

The effect of health education through brainstorming and booklet method on behavior in prevention of pulmonary Tb transmission
Tintin Sukartini, Sri Kurniawati, Makhfudli Makhfudli

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The transmission of pulmonary Tuberculosis can be caused by poor patient behavior. This behavior is influenced by the TB client’s low level of knowledge about Tuberculosis and how to prevent transmission. This study aims to analyze the effect of health education through brainstorming and booklets on client behavior in preventing TB transmission. The population in this study were tuberculosis patents recorded from January to March 2017 with a sample of 30 respondents. The sampling technique of this study was purposive sampling. The independent variable of this research was health education through brainstorming and booklets method. The dependent variable of this study was the client’s behavior in preventing tuberculosis transmission. The data collection used questionnaires and analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney with significance α=0.05. Wilcoxon’s statistical test results in the treatment group showed the influence of health education on knowledge (p=0.001), attitudes (p=0.001), and actions (0.001). The results of the Mann Whitney statistical test after the intervention showed a significant effect on the application of brainstorming and booklets on client knowledge (p=0.000), attitudes (0.000), and actions (0.000). This study concluded that health education through brainstorming and booklets could improve the client’s knowledge, attitudes, and actions in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis transmission. Health education through brainstorming and booklets become an alternative method of health education in preventing TB transmission.

Keywords: attitudes, booklet, brainstorming, transmission prevention, tuberculosis

Citation: Sukartini T, Kurniawati S, Makhfudli M. The effect of health education through brainstorming and booklet method on behavior in prevention of pulmonary Tb transmission. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2697-02.

Analysis of perceived health care quality on patient satisfaction
Ester Mariana, Wilda Apriyani, Stefanus Supriyanto

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Abstract

Background: Perceived health care is influenced by patient satisfaction favorable to the hospital and positive impact on patient satisfaction. This study aimed to make recommendations for increasing admissions for Inpatient room based on the result of the analysis of perceived health care quality, customer voice and satisfaction. 
Methods: This research used cross-sectional method. The sampling technique used proportionate stratified random sampling. The data obtained were then analyzed using descriptive and regression methods.
Results: The results obtained indicated that perceived health care quality had a significant positive effect on patient satisfaction. The Quality Interaction (b = 0.273) had a stronger influence on patient satisfaction. The results showed physical environment quality (p = 0.008, b = 0.199), interaction quality (p = 0.000, b = 0.471), and outcome quality (p = 0.005, b = 0.238). 
Conclusion: Perceived health care quality has a strong effect on patient satisfaction.

Keywords: patient satisfaction, perceived health care quality, hospital

Citation: Mariana E, Apriyani W, Supriyanto S. Analysis of perceived health care quality on patient satisfaction. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2703-8.

Relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes melitus type II
Nurul Evriany, Galuh Nurul Fatimah, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: Non-infectious disease (NID) has become a problem of public health in global, regional, national and local aspects. This research aimed to determine the relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with DM Type II post-disaster. 
Methods: This type of research was quantitative by using cross sectional design. The population was all patients with DM Type II, comprising 1624 outpatients. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis at a degree of confidence of 95% (α = 0.05).
Result: The results of the chi-square test show depression (ρ=0.007), and stress (ρ=0.000), associated with blood sugar levels. It is hoped to provide services and monitoring of post-disaster psychological conditions, especially in patients with DM Type II in order to suppress psychological disorders until they do not harm the disease. 
Conclusion: There is a relationship of depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with type II DM.

Keywords: depression, stress, blood sugar levels

Citation: Evriany N, Fatimah GN, Chalidyanto D. Relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes melitus type II. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2709-13.

The analysis of stunting event factors in children aged 24-59 months based on transcultural nursing
Esti Yunitasari, Nur Puji Winasis, Ira Suarilah

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Abstract

Stunting in infants is an indication of chronic malnutrition as a result of a bad condition that lasts long from birth. Stunting that occurs in the First 1000 Days of Life can increase mortality and impaired body functions. Malnutrition in toddlers can also arise due to the culture, habits, and social community related to food intake. Madura is known as a patriarchal society and considers culture as an identity in behavior, including health behavior. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of stunting in children aged 24-59 months based on Transcultural Nursing. This research used a descriptive-analytic design with a cross-sectional approach. The number of respondents was 97 mothers with children under five (24-59 months with a simple random sampling technique. The dependent variable of this study was the stunting event. The independent variable consisted of technological factors, family and social support, cultural values and lifestyle, economy, and mother’s education. Data collection using microtome and questionnaires and analyzed using chi-square statistical tests with significance level α <0.05. There was a relationship between technological factors (p=0.045), family and social support factors (p=0.048), cultural values & lifestyle (p=0.013), and economic factors (p=0.034) with the incidence of stunting in infants. Future studies are recommended to conduct further research on transcultural nursing-based interventions as an early effort to prevent and manage stunting in mother’s economy and education.

Keywords: malnutrition, nutritional status, stunting, transcultural nursing

Citation: Yunitasari E, Winasis NP, Suarilah I. The analysis of stunting event factors in children aged 24-59 months based on transcultural nursing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2715-20.

The most important component of organizational commitment contributes to increase integrated performance at integral service post in Indonesia
Yeni Rahmah Husniyawati, Fitri Widyacahya, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Introduction: The functioning of the cadre as the front liner of the empowerment of the society is to increase mothers’ participation in order to bring their babies to an Integrated Service Post (ISP) near their homes for routine scaling. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between commitment components and performance regarding increasing toddlers’ mothers’ participation to integrated service post. 
Methods: This was an analytic observational research with quantitative approach. Sampling was performed using simple random sampling method. 
Results: The results showed that most cadres were highly effective in the commitment and had moderate level of sustainable and normative involvement. Sustainability and performance were related, while affective and normative commitment had no performance connection. Sustainable commitment will lead to more mothers able to scale their children in the integrated service post.
Conclusion: Sustainable commitment is associated with a cadre’s performance, while affective and normative commitment is no.

Keywords: commitment, integrated service post, performance of cadre

Citation: Husniyawati YR, Widyacahya F, Wulandari RD. The most important component of organizational commitment contributes to increase integrated performance at integral service post in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2721-5.

Efforts to increase early detection of leprosy patients
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Widani Dharma Isasih, Ernawaty

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is an infectious disease which remains a health problem in the community. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the patients’ knowledge, patients’ stigma, and patients’ access to performance of officers in leprosy early detection
Materials and Methods: This study using a cross-sectional approach. The population of this study was 160 people affected by leprosy, with a sample of 113 people. 
Results: The patients did not have good knowledge and had a positive influence on the performance of officers (B:0.228). Most of the patients stigmatized their illness and had a positive effect on staff performance (B: 0.36). A small portion of leprosy patients’ access to health center services was still difficult and had a negative influence on staff performance (B:-0,215). 
Conclusion: The knowledge and stigma of patients have a positive influence on the performance of officers in leprosy early detection.

Keywords: patients’ knowledge, patients’ stigma, patients’ access, performance, leprosy

Citation: Setyantari RD, Isasih WD, Ernawaty. Efforts to increase early detection of leprosy patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2727-31.

Gadgets addiction behavior towards social development in adolescents
Niswatus Sa’ngadah, Yuni Sufyanti Arief, Ilya Krisnana

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Abstract

Social development in adolescence is one of the most challenging for adolescents because, in this phase, adolescents must be able to make social adjustments. This study aimed to determine the relationship of smartphone addiction with the social development of adolescents. This study used a quantitative design with a cross-sectional approach. The population of this study was 160 students using quota sampling. The independent variable was smartphone addiction, and the dependent variable was social development. Data collection was done by distributing questionnaires directly to respondents, then analyzed by the Spearman Rank Correlation test. The result of this research showed there was a correlation between smartphone addiction with social development (p = 0.000), the direction of the correlation (-0.333). This meant that the higher the value of smartphone addiction, the lower social development. Teens who use gadgets in excess will aggravate the development of social. Subsequent research is to pay attention to other factors that affect social development.

Keywords: smartphone addiction, social development

Citation: Sa’ngadah N, Arief YS, Krisnana I. Gadgets addiction behavior towards social development in adolescents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2733-7.

The analysis of workload of outpatient officers based on health workload analysis method
Wahdatul Chizbiyah, Noviantika Purnama, Eri Witcahyo, Sri Utami, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: Workload can affect the work productivity of the outpatient claim officers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the workload and the number of outpatient claim officers’ needs at Insurance Installation of Regional General Hospital based on the Health Workload Analysis method. 
Method: This study was descriptive study carried out through observational survey with 9 respondents in carrying out their activities in the Insurance Installation of Sidoarjo Regional Hospital. 
Result: The results showed that the most frequently used of activity time between productive activities and unproductive activities by file receiver staffs was the use of unproductive activities. Meanwhile, the most frequent use of activity time by coding, costing, outpatient monitoring and evaluation coordinators staffs was the use of time for productive activities. 
Conclusion: The calculation of the need for outpatient claim officers by using Health Workload Analysis was 10 people.

Keywords: workload, outpatient claims staff, health workload analysis method

Citation: Chizbiyah W, Purnama N, Witcahyo E, Utami S, Chalidyanto D. The analysis of workload of outpatient officers based on health workload analysis method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2739-43.

A systematic review of strategies to overcome undernutrition in children in developing countries
Ariska Herlyawati, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

Introduction: Undernutrition is a problem in child health around the world, especially in developing or low and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to identify various programs to overcome undernutrition in children under five years old in developing or low and middle countries. 
Methods: This study used PRISMA guidelines and searched the literature in several electronic databases. The criteria were limited to descriptive studies, cross-sectional and experimental studies published in 2015-2019. 
Results: National programs called JUNTOS and CRECER in Peru and unconditional child cash grant (CCG) in Nepal have shown successful result in reducing undernutrition in children and reducing stunting by >12% as well as studies in India and Pakistan at communities level through programs of participatory and learning action (PLA), creches, home visits, CARING trial, and the REFANI-P. 
Conclusion: The program should be performed at all levels and be focused on socioeconomic factors, health accessibilities, and education.

Keywords: undernutrition, under-five children, program, developing countries

Citation: Herlyawati A, Damayanti NA. A systematic review of strategies to overcome undernutrition in children in developing countries. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2745-9.

Knowledge and actions about safety in the use of backpacks not related to back pain complaints in primary school students
Tintin Sukartini, Meviana Dwi Ariyani, Deni Yasmara

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Abstract

Most of the students take the backpack out of the safety standardization. They complain about back pain on wearing backpack. The student’s lack of knowledge and adherence in the proper backpack application is causing subsequent and continuous wrong application. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of knowledge and actions about the safety of backpack application towards complaints of pain in school children. The design used was descriptive correlative with a cross-sectional approach. The population was students of 5th and 6th grade in primary school. The total sample was 36 respondents, recruited by purposive sampling. The independent variables were the knowledge and action of safety backpack application. The dependent variable was back pain. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and observation form and analyzed by using the Spearman Rho test with a level of significance of α ≤ 0.05. The result showed that there was no significance correlation between the knowledge with the action of safety backpack application (p = 0.726), and no significance correlation between the action of safety backpack application with back pain (p = 0.657). This research can be concluded that the knowledge about backpack safety usage has no correlation with actions about safety backpack application. Actions about safety backpack application had no correlation with back pain. Nursing service institution is expected to provide health promotion about safety backpack application to reduce the incidence of back pain among the students.

Keywords: action, backpack safety, back pain, knowledge

Citation: Sukartini T, Ariyani MD, Yasmara D. Knowledge and actions about safety in the use of backpacks not related to back pain complaints in primary school students. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2751-5.

Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing
Esti Yunitasari, Yoga Hadi Narendra, Retnayu Pradanie

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Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the major health programs in the world. The prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding is very high in Indonesian women, especially Madurese women. This study was aimed to investigate factors associated with giving exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing. This study was used analytical descriptive with a cross-sectional approach. The population was all mothers who have babies 6 to 12 months of age. A total of 289 sample were chosen by cluster sampling. The independent variables in this research are technological factors, religious & philosophical factors, social factors, cultural values & lifeways, political & legal factors, economic factors, and educational factors. The type of exclusive breastfeeding depends on the baby’s mother. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and analyzed by using a chi-square test with a degree of significance α <0.05. The result showed a correlation between technological factor (p=0.000), religious & philosophical factor (p=0.000), social factor (p=0.000), cultural values & lifeways (p=0.000), political & legal factors was correlation, economic factors (p=0.000), and educational factors (p=0.000) with exclusive breastfeeding. All factors in transcultural nursing have a correlation with exclusive breastfeeding, and technological factors are most associated with exclusive breastfeeding than other transcultural nursing factors. Further research was suggested for using qualitative methods or observations and increase exclusive breastfeeding rates with effective health education.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition, SDG’s, transcultural nursing

Citation: Yunitasari E, Narendra YH, Pradanie R. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2757-66.

The influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospital
Dian Fajar Hapsari, Djazuly Chalidyanto, Joni Wahyuhadi

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Abstract

Background: The implementation of the national health insurance program to fulfill the payment system related to a claim needs the documentation of services in the discharge summary. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospitals. 
Methods: This was an analytical study with cross-sectional design. The data were collected from observation toward inpatient’s discharge summary. Ninety-nine samples were taken by simple random sampling technique. 
Results: The results of the statistical significance test showed that the congeniality between the supporting examination results and procedure (p<0.0001) and the completeness of secondary diagnosis in discharge summary (p<0.0001) had an influence on the suitability of severity levels. 
Conclusion: Completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure can influence severity level.

Keywords: completeness, procedure, severity level, discharge summary, supporting examination

Citation: Hapsari DF, Chalidyanto D, Wahyuhadi J. The influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2767-1.

The effect of screening to the perception of needs and desires following visual inspection with acetic acid as detection of cervical cancer
Desy Puspitasari, Cicik Swi Antika, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Background: Target of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) test is 10% per year. This study aimed to analyze the effect of screening on the needs and desires of mothers to carry out VIA tests. 
Methods: This research is analytic observational. The study was conducted from February to March 2017. Analysis of the data used in this study was a linear regression analysis with p <0.05.
Results: Mothers who said there had never been a screening of 71.9% had a low need and desire for VIA examinations. The result of data analysis showed that screening had significant to the perception of need and desire to follow VIA test = 17.2% (P = 0.000; β = 0.172). It indicates that the lower the screening and desire for VIA examination.
Conclusion: Screening has a significant and positive influence on the needs and desires of mothers to carry out VIA test.

Keywords: cervical cancer, perception of needs and desire, screening

Citation: Puspitasari D, Antika CS, Wulandari RD. The effect of screening to the perception of needs and desires following visual inspection with acetic acid as detection of cervical cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2773-7.

Availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel towards mother’s achievement to childbirth services
Rani Romadaniyati, Anisa Binta Jamaika, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

Introduction: Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is a serious problem in Indonesia due to low coverage of childbirth by health personnel. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel and mother’s achievement in childbirth services.
Methods: This was an observational-analytic study involving 100 women who gave birth in 2017 at Bondowoso District. Data analysis was performed using the Spearman test. 
Results: The results of correlation test showed that geographic location, hours of opening, appointments mechanisms, and accommodation had correlation with mother’s achievement to childbirth services (p=0.000). It means that the easier the geographic location to reach, the higher tendency of the mother’s achievement to childbirth services at Bondowoso District.
Conclusion: The formation of an internal health office team, optimizing the role of the head of community health center, birth waiting homes socialization, are solutions to increase mother’s achievement to childbirth services.

Keywords: MMR, availability and accommodation, mother’s achievement to childbirth services

Citation: Romadaniyati R, Jamaika AB, Damayanti NA. Availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel towards mother’s achievement to childbirth services. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2779-83.

Relationship between knowledge and commitment of officers with officers’ performance as an effort to improve the finding of patients with leprosy
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Vina Amalia Resti Damayanti, Ernawaty

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is an infectious disease which remains a health problem in the community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the knowledge and the officers’ commitment with the performance of effort to increase detection case of leprosy.
Method: This was an observational study using cross-sectional approach with a total sampling calculation is leprosy officers in primary health cares who found and treated leprosy. 
Result: The results showed that the performance of primary health care of leprosy officers in making early leprosy findings was not good >20% due to the lack of knowledge about the implementation of leprosy findings (B=0.071). The weak commitment of the officers responsible for the implementation of leprosy findings, the performance of early leprosy findings was not good >20% (B=0.005). 
Conclusion: That the knowledge and commitment of primary health care of leprosy officers have a positive effect on performance.

Keywords: knowledge, commitment, leprosy, officers, performance

Citation: Setyantari RD, Damayanti VAR, Ernawaty. Relationship between knowledge and commitment of officers with officers’ performance as an effort to improve the finding of patients with leprosy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2785-91.

Perceived supervisor support and employee job satisfaction in private hospital
Yussi Winarto, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Employee job satisfaction is often associated with salary and career levels obtained in workplace. Unfortunately, this has not been studied much in the hospital work environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction in the hospital work environment in private hospital. This study used cross-sectional design. The samples were 69 persons who met the study criteria and completed the survey. The primary outcome was a strong correlation between job satisfaction and perceived supervisor support. Based on the results of cross-tabulation analysis, a positive correlation between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction was obtained with significant results of 59.4% from 69 samplings (41 respondents indicated support). Strong correlation was observed between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction showing significant relationship (p <0.01). Perceived supervisor support has a strong correlation with job satisfaction.

Keywords: job satisfaction, perceived supervisor support, private hospital

Citation: Winarto Y, Chalidyanto D. Perceived supervisor support and employee job satisfaction in private hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2793-7.

Evaluation of real estate project construction quality based on entropy - VIKOR method
Tzu-Chia Chen, Cheng-Jui Tseng

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Abstract

Quality evaluation of the essence of architecture is to provide the residents use facilities, living quality in human life proportion between the various elements, of the closest position, and construction engineering technology and management idea, also along with the development of human, from the safe, comfortable, beautiful, sustainable to value direction of development. In order to reflect the quality of the real estate project construction, this study constructs the evaluation index system of real estate development project is to build quality, choose a certain number of samples, using the entropy weight coefficient method to establish the weight of evaluation index system and using VIKOR method respectively to different real estate project carries on the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of option is given. Finally, this study verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method through the real estate project in Shenzhen.

Keywords: entropy - VIKOR method, real estate projects, quality evaluation

Citation: Chen T, Tseng C. Evaluation of real estate project construction quality based on entropy - VIKOR method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2799-804.

Bacterial contamination of health care workers
Saba Abdulsalam Hamid AL-Sultan, Sahir M. Khabbaz, Muthanna A. Al-Sharbaty

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Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infection and health workers including doctors can be a carrier of this microorganism; also it can be present on the sleeve of white coat and auxiliaries and so transmitted between patients. Aim of this study performed to assess the MRSA carrier in health personnel in Al-Jumhori teaching hospital and to assess the benefit of dress code policy. This study was conducted on 500 swabs were taken from nose, sleeve, elbow and auxiliaries of 100 health workers and cultured to assess the presence of MRSA. The results of this study showed 65% of health workers are carrier of MRSA ; also MRSA present in 30% and 34% on the sleeve of white coat and elbow respectively while it was found in 24% of health workers auxiliaries.

Keywords: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), nosocomial infection

Citation: AL-Sultan SAH, Khabbaz SM, Al-Sharbaty MA. Bacterial contamination of health care workers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2805-9.

Molecular detection of virulent exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound and burn samples
Mustafa Riyadh Salman AL-Rubaye, Evren Yildiztugay, Ahmed Uysa, Taghreed Khudhur Mohammed, Hanna N. Abdullah

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the Gram-negative bacteria widespread everywhere in the Pseudomonadaceae family and is able to survive in a wide range of environments. The aim of this study was to determine of virulent exoU genotype and phylogenetic tree of P. aeruginosa isolates using real time PCRand Sanager sequencing. 206 clinical samples were collected from wounds and burns from both sexes. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, Blood agar and Cetrimide agar in order to obtain the bacterial isolates depending on their phenotypic characteristics; biochemical tests as diagnosed with Api 20E; Microgen GnA + B-ID and Molecular detection of exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates by using RT-PCR and Sanger method. The results showed that 12(24%) of (50) isolates were positive for ExoU gene.The ExoU gene were used to analyze the DNA sequence of local isolates and compare them with some standard global isolates according to the ExoU gene available in the GenBank database of the NCBI database. The results showed that the isolates were (98-100%) matched between local isolates and the international standard isolates. The results of the RT-PCR of the ExoU gene were used to detect mutations related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the transitions showed the frequency of 5 mutations of the ExoU gene in all isolates. In addition, there were three types of mutations such as the predicted frame mutation effect was accompanied by only a transition 3, while 4 mutations were shown silent in all isolates. In addition, 2 mutations were shown to be mismatched. Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree for ExoU sequences which indicate one cluster divided into two subgroups. Group 1 showed sister group with P. aeruginosa strain BA7823 (India) reference strain from GenBank database which was used for determining the mutations and polymorphisms in the local isolates of this study.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ExoU gene, toxin, RT-PCR, Sanger methods

Citation: AL-Rubaye MRS, Yildiztugay E, Uysa A, Mohammed TK, Abdullah HN. Molecular detection of virulent exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound and burn samples. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2811-6.

Effect of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) on Nickle, Cadmium, Lead, and total Flavonoid levels of two Iraqi Wheat species
Jwan A. Zainulabdeen, Suhad A. Ibrahim

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Abstract

Background: Since 2008, Pyroxsulam was registered by Dow Agro Sciences as efficient broad-spectrum herbicide for wheat control. Wheat is an important plant involved in the daily meal of human and it is a rich source for benefit contents. Aim: The present project aimed to study the effect of Pyroxsulam herbicide on the levels of some parameters in Iraqi wheat. Materials and Methods: We investigated the concentration of three metals (Ni, Cd, and Pb) and flavonoid in seeds of wheat plants collected from two Iraqi cultivates (Iba 99 and Abu Ghraib 3). Halve of the planted wheat was sprayed with Pyroxsulam herbicide (S group) while the other group was considered as a control group (C group). Results: The results showed that the levels of Ni (an essential cofactor of eight enzymes) and the antioxidant parameter (total flavonoids) were negatively affected as a result of treatment with Pyroxsulam. This effect was clearly apparent from the significant drop in most data of these elements, the same result was indicated for the (Cd, and Pb) concentrations which they passed to the soil. By comparison, Iba 99 cultivate is more crop with using the herbicide than Abu Ghraib 3 cultivate. Conclusion: According to the above results, wheat products after treatment with Pyroxsulam would have less in some antioxidant related contents and it would be useful to design an alternative dose or solution of this herbicide to get healthy products of wheat with high yield.

Keywords: Cadmium, Flavonoid, Lead, Nickle, Pyroxsulam, Wheat

Citation: Zainulabdeen JA, Ibrahim SA. Effect of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) on Nickle, Cadmium, Lead, and total Flavonoid levels of two Iraqi Wheat species. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2817-21.

Impaction prevalence of permanent teeth pattern from orthodontic view
Ahmed Muhsin Yousif AL-Mayali, Mohammed Nahidh, Hussein A. Alnajar, Ali Hadi Fahad

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and distribution of impaction permanent teeth among orthodontic patient samples and to compare the present results with findings of other populations. A digital panoramic radiograph of 2500 orthodontic patients, age 12-40 years, for two years duration (2018-2019) were used in this study to identify 157 patients with impacted teeth. Whole permanent teeth were included except 3rd molar. The presence, number and depth of all the impacted teeth either soft tissue impaction (STI) and bony- impactions (BI) were recorded and a statistics analysis was done by using SPSS. The results of present study show that the prevalence of impacted teeth was 6.28%. The teeth impaction was more commonly in younger population and the impaction in females more than in males. The maxillary canine was the most frequently impacted tooth and most of the patients had unilateral impacted teeth. The bony impaction was more than soft tissue impaction. It can be concluded that the Impacted teeth prevalence in a group of the orthodontic patients was within the average value of the majority of published studies in the literature. the impaction was significantly more prevalent in females. In orthodontics, the impacted teeth play a critical part in aesthetics, occlusion and arch development. The early recognition of these dental anomalies is very important to offer preventive modalities of management.

Keywords: impaction, prevalence, orthodontic, developmental anomalies, radiographic study, panoramic radiographs

Citation: AL-Mayali AMY, Nahidh M, Alnajar HA, Fahad AH. Impaction prevalence of permanent teeth pattern from orthodontic view. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2823-8.

Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from crust of Cucurbita Maxima L. (red pumpkin)
Ban Mohammed Hussein Ali

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Abstract

Lately, the green biosynthesis method has been more concerned with the use of waste vegetable and fruit shells, being less toxic, environmentally friendly, easy to synthesize and important in the manufacture of nanomedicines. The aim was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from red Pumpkin peel hot aqueous extract and the ethanol extract in an environmentally friendly manner, replacing existing methods for synthesizing AgNPs using hazardous chemicals and toxic solvents. This research describes a green process whereby AgNPs were manufactured using silver nitrate and peel of red Pumpkin extract (hot aqueous extract and ethanol extract) as a reducing agent and coating. The nanoparticles were symbolized using UV-Vis, showed absorbance at 430 nm for both extracts consistent with AgNPs spherical particles within (350-550) nm wavelength spectrum and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed an average AgNPs diameter 67 nm and 56 nm respectively for the hot aqueous and ethanol extract.The current study effort investigates the findings Silver Nitrate concentration 1Mm for hot aqueous extract and ethanol extract. Silver nanoparticles were distinguished by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS).

Keywords: green biosynthetic, phytochemical, nanoparticles, silver nitrate, red pumpkin

Citation: Ali BMH. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from crust of Cucurbita Maxima L. (red pumpkin). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2829-33.

Use the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) in DNA fingerprinting and its application biological sciences
Sami Khlaif Mansoor, Ehsan F. Hussein, Aqeel Khaleel Ibraheem

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Abstract

DNA fingerprinting is an important tool in criminal investigations. Typing of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) is a genotyping tool that provides a numeric and simple format of data based on the repetitive sequences number. The present study uses DNA fingerprinting by amplify certain specific VNTR regions present at a particular locus of different chromosomes. The biological samples include available materials such as hair and blood present on a scene of crime, blood, buccal and along with fingernail. By amplifying he specific VNTR fragments of different DNA samples & comparing them on agarose gel electrophoresis, we obtained DNA profile of individuals, which in turn helps in criminal identification. It can also indicate whether the individuals are homozygous or heterozygous.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, VNTR, Molecular biology, RFLP

Citation: Mansoor SK, Hussein EF, Ibraheem AK. Use the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) in DNA fingerprinting and its application biological sciences. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2835-9.

Alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics in organic residues – impacted soils
Rashad A. Imran, Suhela J. Kadhum, Mohammed A. Abdulkareem

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Abstract

Soil phosphmonoesterases play an important role in controlling phosphorus cycling for crops, especially in P- deficient soils. Phosphomonoesterases markedly affected by addition of organic residues depending on source, rate, and maturity and stability of these residues. An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics of two soils (silty clay and loamy sand) after addition of different organic sources (cow residue, alfalfa leaves, wheat straw and poultry residue) at rate of 2 %. The experiment was set out in randomized complete design with three replicates. Amended and control soils were incubated at 30ºc for 30 days. Results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity of amended soils was significantly higher than that of control soil, except soil amended with wheat straw. Enzyme activity was differed according to the type of organic residue with superiority of poultry residue. Alkaline phosphatase activity of silty clay soil was significantly higher than that of loamy sand soil. Data also revealed that Vmax and Km values of amended soils were higher than these of unamended soil. Higher Vmax and Km value were associated with using of poultry residue. Estimated Vmax and Km values varied with the type of transformation used to linearize Mechaelis– Menten equation which followed the order: Hanes – Wolf > Eadie – Hofstee > Line Weaver – Burk.

Keywords: alkaline phosphatase, organic residues, kinetics, soil, poultry residue

Citation: Imran RA, Kadhum SJ, Abdulkareem MA. Alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics in organic residues – impacted soils. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2841-8.

Dermatophytosis infection in Al-Nassiriyah City
Ahmed G. Hassan, Hind M. Mousa

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Abstract

The current study was performed to determine the prevalence of superficial fungal infections among patients who were living in Al-Nassiriya city, and were attending a private clinic. One hundred patients with ages range from (3-65 years) were tested for fungal skin infections using a microscope and laboratory designed for expected diagnostic methods. The Results demonstrated that 55% of patients had skin lesions followed by nail lesions (27%) and scalp lesions (18%). The Tinea corporis was the most common types of clinical ringworm infections followed by Tinea ungium and Tinea capitis, while Tinea pedis and Tinea incognito were the least frequent with same percentage. The dermatophytes infection was higher in females than males, where tineacorporis, and tinea unguium displayed higher infection rates in females while tinea capitis, and tinea manuum showed higher infections in males than females. Also, the results indicated Microsporumcanis was the most common etiological agent of dermatophyte infection followed by Trichophyton tonsurans, and Microsporumgypseum, while Trichophyton mentagrophyte was the least frequent of the isolated species. The findings of the current study demonstrated higher prevalence of dermatophytosis in Nasiriyah area. So the accurate and early diagnosis can help in successfully treatment of dermatophytosis and prevent complications.

Keywords: dermatophyte, tinea infection, Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp.

Citation: Hassan AG, Mousa HM. Dermatophytosis infection in Al-Nassiriyah City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2849-53.

Environmental impact assessment in coal-burning power plants based on AHP and entropy weight VIKOR method
Tzu-Chia Chen, Cheng-Jui Tseng, Shu-Yan Yu

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Abstract

In the case of increasing power demand and increasingly serious environmental pollution, the study on environmental impact of coal-fired power plants on coal-fired power generation projects with coal as the main raw material has certain theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the comprehensive impact of coal-fired power plants on the environment, this paper studies the environmental impact assessment index system and assessment methods of coal-fired power plants in Taiwan. Firstly, the paper analyzes the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants. Then the comprehensive evaluation index system, the selection of evaluation factors, the quantification of evaluation indexes and the evaluation model of the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants are emphatically studied. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the weight of each index, and then a comprehensive evaluation model was established using VIKOR method. The whole index system was firstly evaluated from three aspects, namely nature, ecology and economic society, and then the overall comprehensive evaluation was carried out. Finally, the index system and model are applied to the actual evaluation of power plants, and the feasibility of the model is illustrated with an example, so as to provide a method reference for the environmental impact evaluation of power plants.

Keywords: coal-burning power plants, environmental impact assessment, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), entropy weight, Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR)

Citation: Chen T, Tseng C, Yu S. Environmental impact assessment in coal-burning power plants based on AHP and entropy weight VIKOR method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2855-65.

State authorities and public institutions interaction features in youth policy implementation: Current issues
Ekaterina L. Vodolazhskaya, Ekaterina V. Senatova, Aleksandr A. Novikov, Elena V. Novikova, Sofia Sh. Ostanina, Larisa F. Zhandarova, Oleg A. Skutelnik

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Abstract

The relevance of this article lies in the study of such a social phenomenon as youth policy. Especially significant are the representations of the existing practices of youth policy designing and young people participation in social programming to implement various types of social innovations. Socio-psychological support of youth policy is considered as an independent topic with the questions of the youth identity crisis and the search for models of building solidarity in the new historical realities. The purpose of the research is to study youth policy from the perspective of social programming; to identify and analyze the features of youth policy in modern conditions. Research methods: as a research method, we used survey and interview methods that allow us to identify the specifics of young people social status as an indicator of society state as a whole. Research results: the article considers constructs of youth policy used in official administrative texts - state programs in the field of youth policy and unofficial texts of these programs developers. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the context of programming youth policy in modern conditions is studied. The main components are shown: normative, language, spatial, event-time, and problem contexts. It is shown that youth policy is constructed as a network of interconnected social practices of various kinds, including practices of youth participation in programming, based on the model of representation of youth interests by its affiliated representatives. For the first time, it is revealed that the construction of social practices of youth participation occurs with the designation of the role repertoire of young people and is reduced to roles: problem bearer (predominance of problem discourse); recipient of social benefits; passive participant of events (resource-oriented attitude to the younger generation); social practice of youth participation is characterized as problematic. This article shows that the problems of human development can be solved only through the active participation of young people in the interaction of the state and civil society and should be considered as criteria for the effectiveness of youth policy implementation. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in political science, legal psychology, social psychology, age psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: youth policy, youth, public institutions

Citation: Vodolazhskaya EL, Senatova EV, Novikov AA, Novikova EV, Ostanina SS, Zhandarova LF, et al. State authorities and public institutions interaction features in youth policy implementation: Current issues. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2867-2.

Effect of some environmental indicators on physiological disturbances and endocrine disorders in Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848) and Cyprinuscarpio l, 1758
Muna H. AL-Saeed, Arwa H. AL-Saeed, Abdulbari A. Alfaris, Muna M. Jori

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Abstract

The pollutants are the effective factors of the presence and spread of aquatic organisms, and the haematological and hormonal parameters are the most common stress indicatorsthat can estimated the fish health. In the present study, some chemical and physical parameters were analyzed from two stations in Basrah province, from Marine Science Centre tanks –BasrahUniversity and the other station in Al-HababaRiver in AbuAl-Khasseebdistrict. An attempt has been made to study the effect of pollutant stressors on haematological [red blood cell count (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC)] and hormonal (TSH, T3, T4, testosterone, cortisol and glucose) parameters of two types of fish Tilapiazillii and Cyprinuscarpio. Under the effect of natural stressors, pysico-chemical factors were found to exhibit significant decline in RBC, Hb, PCV and WBCs. DLC when viewed revealed a decrease in lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils whereas neutrophils and thrombocytes exhibited rather an appreciable increase. A significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) cortisol and glucose levels were observed up. Tilapiazillii and Cyprinuscarpio also depicted significant decline in TEC, Hb and Hct under the effect of phosphate (6.05 mg/l). TLC depicted significant increase and among Differential leucocyte count (DLC) lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils register an increase but neutrophils, basophils and thrombocyte counts exhibit a decline in their numbers, also Cortisol and glucose levels were noticed to increase. Generally, C. carpio was more affected than T.zillii regarding haematological, biochemical indicators and histopathological examinations.

Keywords: physiological disturbances endocrine, <İ>Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848), CyprinuscarpioL, 1758

Citation: AL-Saeed MH, AL-Saeed AH, Alfaris AA, Jori MM. Effect of some environmental indicators on physiological disturbances and endocrine disorders in Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848) and Cyprinuscarpio l, 1758. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2873-80.

Factors affecting employee satisfaction at Surabaya Private Hospital
Kristiawan Vincentius Agung, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

One of the indicators of a good human resources management in a company is employee job satisfaction. This article was conducted to find out the main factors that give most influence on employee job satisfaction at Premier Hospital, Surabaya, and provide effective recommendations to increase employee job satisfaction based on the existing factors. In December 2018, employee satisfaction survey was carried out at Premier Hospital, Surabaya, to 60 randomly selected respondents by utilizing Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). From the survey results, there were three main factors affecting employee job satisfaction at Premier Hospital, Surabaya. These were the compensation factor, reward system, and supervision. By knowing the main factors affecting employee job satisfaction, there will be effective steps to improve the employee job satisfaction. The leaders and management at Premier Hospital Surabaya had to be able to improve these three factors to increase the employee job satisfaction in the company.

Keywords: employees, job satisfaction, compensation, reward system, supervision

Citation: Agung KV, Damayanti NA. Factors affecting employee satisfaction at Surabaya Private Hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2881-5.

Organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction: A study in Suburban Hospital in Indonesia
Alita Dewi Percunda, Nungky Taniasari, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Introduction: The performance evaluation performed is aimed at increasing the efficiency of workers. This study has been carried out to observe the connection between organizational justice with performance appraisal satisfaction. 
Methods: A questionnaire was used to measure organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction given to employee in Anwar Medika General Hospital, Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Data analysis had been done descriptively and through linear regression for correlation coefficient. 
Result: The descriptive analysis showed mean value for organizational justice, which was 3.03 ± 0.26. The highest dimension was interactional justice with mean value of 3.04 ± 0.26. The test showed significant correlation justice and performance appraisal satisfaction using t-test linear regression, showing correlation (p < 0.05) as well as interactional justice, procedural justice, and distributive justice. 
Conclusion: The correlation of organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction showed that factor contributing to satisfaction with performance appraisal system is the fairness of organization.

Keywords: organizational justice, performance appraisal satisfaction, hospital

Citation: Percunda AD, Taniasari N, Chalidyanto D. Organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction: A study in Suburban Hospital in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2887-91.

Exploration of the relationship of vitamin B12 with some anthropometric measurements in Type2 diabetic patients
Athra,a R. A. AL-Esawi, Shakir F. T. Alaaraji

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most prevalent metabolic unrest affecting the people all over the world. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12), is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the eight B vitamins, metabolically important Vit B12 deficiency later will consequence in diabetes-related complications. current data was undertaken to exploration of the relationship of Vit B12 with some anthropometric measurements in type2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods: This study consisted of 60 patients with T2DM, attending Al- Ramadi teaching hospital and Al-Fallujah teaching hospital and 24 healthy individuals as controls. Serum Vit. B12 level was determined by ELISA technique while weight, height, waist, thoracic, neck, and hip circumferences carefully measured, also body mass index (BMI), waist/neck ratio (W/N), waist/thoracic ratio (W/T), waist/hip ratio (W/H) and were documented. Results: Vitamin B12, was found to be decreased in the patients with T2DM as compared to controls (P< 0.000l), and waist to hip ratio, waist to thoracic, and Body mass index were importantly greater in T2DM patients than in HCs with (P < 0.000l) for these parameters. Vit. B12 has important negative correlation with fasting serum glucose (FSG), weight, (P<0.001), HC, NC, BMI (p<0.05), W/H, W/T (p>0.05), while positive relationship between thoracic circumference (TC) and W/N (p= 0.05) was noticed. Studied variables presented the following descending order of area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) FSG (1), BMI (0.875 (Vit. B12 (0.825), W/H (0.8743), W/T (0.7837), weight (0.764), W/N (0.6715), W. C (0.7646) H. C (0.6444). Conclusion: Serum Vit. B12 level can be used as a novel biomarker in identification type 2 DM, also BMI, W/H and W/T may be a good biomarker in diagnosis type 2 DM.

Keywords: Type2 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitamin B12, BMI, waist circumference

Citation: AL-Esawi ARA, Alaaraji SFT. Exploration of the relationship of vitamin B12 with some anthropometric measurements in Type2 diabetic patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2893-01.

Study of gentamicin combined with polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from lactobacillus plantarum
Yehya Jaber Hassan Al-Ardawy, Wejdan Ridha Taj-Aldeen

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Abstract

Background: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural bio-polymers, which are formed by many micro-organisms in the context of a carbon and energy reservoir. PHAs are mainly dependent on the number of carbons and their molecular weight in the monomer unit. PHAs are biomedical products due to their biocompatible, biodegradable or non-toxic effects. Methodology: Nine bacterial isolates were isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples in different locations of Babylon province were diagnosed to Pseudomonas spp via traditional methods. In addition to three isolates of Lactobacillus bacteria obtained from the Advanced Microbiology Laboratory/ College of Science/ Babylon University, they were isolated from dairy. Results: all isolates were screened for PHA production by Sudan black B and Nile blue A. six isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and three of Lactobacillus spp. were shown positive for the production of PHA. After primary screening the polymer was extracted by sodium hypochlorite and chloroform. The best producing polymer in 3.4% from cell dry weight was found to be Lactobacillus spp1 was identified and characterized by VITEK 2 compact device; the result showed 87% identical to Lactobacillus plantarum. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used to show the functional group of extracted polymer from L. plantarum, FT-IR was used to show the functional groups of PHA samples were identified as C-O, C-H and C=O. The FT-IR spectra of PHA containing carbonyl group (C=O) occurred in a strong band at 1739.85cm-1. The solubility of PHA was also measured in several solvents. The results showed that the polymer was well dissolved by chloroform and Dimethyl sulfoxide. The polymer produced from L. plantarum was combined with Gentamicin was added to obtain a 5:1 or 10:1 (w/w) Gentamicin content to improve the performance improvement of Gentamicin against bacterial biofilm. Diagnosed pathogenic bacteria were then obtained from hospitals in Babylon province for later use in Gentamicin and PHA loaded Gentamicin running tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of the Gentamicin concentration was 0.2 mg/ml. The antibacterial activity of Gentamicin, PHA loaded Gentamicin (5:1 or 10:1) and PHA was studied against two types of gram-positive (Enterococcus spp) and gram-negative (K. pneumoniae) bacteria; the results show the effect of PHA loaded Gentamicin (5:1 or 10:1) stronger than Gentamicin against pathogenic bacteria, while there is not any effect for the alone polymer.The biofilm formation was studied on a wavelength of 630 nm via the ELISA reader and it was found that both isolates can form biofilms. Conclusion: The study concluded that Polyhydroxyalkanoate loaded Gentamicin (1:5) was stronger than Gentamicin and Polyhydroxyalkanoate loaded Gentamicin (1:10) against the biofilm formation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), gentamicin, chloroform, biofilm

Citation: Al-Ardawy YJH, Taj-Aldeen WR. Study of gentamicin combined with polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from lactobacillus plantarum. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2903-10.

Levels of some cardiac hormones in patients with heart diseases in Tikrit city
Hind T. Hamad, Zaid M. M. Almahdawi, Zaidan J. Zaidan, Mohammed A. Rashan

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Abstract

Objective: The present study was designed to test the level of some cardiac hormones like endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in serum of heart diseases patients compare with control group. This study was conducted on heart diseases patients in Cardiac Care Unit (C.C.U.) in Salah- Aldin General Hospital in Tikrit City-Salah-Aldin governorate. The study, began in 31 Desember 2018 to 1 st September 2019 and included 90 subjects divided in two groups ,the first group was (10) apparently healthy subjects10 male and 10 female, while the second group was 80 patients with different heart diseases (20 Heart Failure (HF) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Myocardial Infarction (MI) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Unstable Angina (UA) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Stable Angina (SA) 10 male and 10 female, were attended from Salah - Aldin General Hospital. Blood samples was collected from patients and healthy subjects and then serum separated for testing. The results of this study showed there were a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in all Heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects and the highest concentration of endothelin-1 was found in heart failure group, while the highest concentration of ANP was found in myocardial infarction group. Material and methods: Venous blood samples were collected from the vein from all patients and healthy subjects at study entry and after a 20-min period and serum was separated by centrifugation at 1500 g for 10 min at 4 Cfor hormonal testing. Endothelin-1and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormones concentration in serum of heart diseases patients was estimated depends on kit procedure is an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) from Bioassay Technology, China. Results: There was a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of endothelin-1 in all heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects and the highest concentration of endothelin-1 was found in heart failure group, ANP There was a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of ANP in all Heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects ,the highest concentration of (ANP ng/ml) was found in Myocardial infarction group. Conclusion: Serum endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone concentration were significantly increased (P≤ 0.01) in all Heart diseases groups as compared with control healthy subjects. This finding suggests that endothelin may be a marker of rapid coronary artery disease progression and may also have a pathogenic role in this process.

Keywords: heat diseases, Endothelin-1 (ET-1) , Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)

Citation: Hamad HT, Almahdawi ZMM, Zaidan ZJ, Rashan MA. Levels of some cardiac hormones in patients with heart diseases in Tikrit city. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2911-5.

The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on blood parameters and immunoglobulin A in male rats with diarrhea induced
Halah S. Abdulkareem, Karkaz M. Thalij, Qanat M. Atiyea

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Abstract

Objective: The present study was designed to detect the ability of ZnO NPs to inhibit the bacterial isolates that cause diarrhea in laboratory male rats and determination the blood parameters, liver enzyme functions and IgA levels after treatment with ZnO NPs. Material and methods: Twenty rats of 6 weeks-old male were used and divided as follow: Group 1: Control group that were not treatments. Group 2: The animals were infected with 1.2×10ᵔ8 of Clostridium difficile, (Infected group). Group 3: The rats were infected with C. difficile and orally dosage with 150mg/kg from ZnO NPs for two weeks. Results: The results showed that the orally dosage from C. difficile was causing the significant (P<0.05) decreased in RBCs, Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), HCT, and significant increase of WBCs count, neutrophil and decreased the lymphocytes count cells. Also, it was caused in significantly increased of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes in serum and IgA levels compare with same values in control group. the orally dosage from ZnO NPs was done all parameters were come at similar of the same parameters in control group. Conclusion: It’s concluded that ZnO NPs has ability to potential inhibition activity against C. difficile that induced diarrhea.

Keywords: C. difficile, ZnO NPs, liver enzyme, IgA

Citation: Abdulkareem HS, Thalij KM, Atiyea QM. The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on blood parameters and immunoglobulin A in male rats with diarrhea induced. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2917-20.

Synthesis and characterization of plant extracts loaded PVA/PVP blend films and evaluate their biological activities
Shemaa A. Soud, Buthenia A. Hasoon, Afnan I. Abdulwahab, Nehia N. Hussein, Raghad Khwater Maeh

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Abstract

Background: antibacterial agent based on herbal extracts is considered an attractive area for developing countries. Nevertheless, herbal aqueous extracts usually show drawbacks, such as long-term volatility, poor bioavailability and rapid burst release. Methodology: In this study, polymer films were prepared from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA), then post-loaded with T. indica, C. pepo, H. sabdriffol, and L. nobilis hot water extracts. The effects of two polymers (PVA, PVP) and of the incorporated extracts were studied concerning the physical and in vitro bacterial growth inhibition properties of films; additionally, the antioxidant activity of each extracts was investigated. Results: The results showed improved swelling behaviour and mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and % elongation at break) of the cross-linked PVA/PVP films (CPP) compared to pure PVA (PV) films. Plant extracts conferred significant antibacterial effects to (CPP) films toward E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Also, both T. indica and H. sabdriffol extracts showed strong antioxidant against DPPH in vitro. Conclusion: The prepared films showed significant antibacterial activities, specifically in films loaded with the T.indica extract against E. Coli and in films loaded with C.pepo and L.nobilis against S.aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, plant extract, PVA/PVP film

Citation: Soud SA, Hasoon BA, Abdulwahab AI, Hussein NN, Maeh RK. Synthesis and characterization of plant extracts loaded PVA/PVP blend films and evaluate their biological activities. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2921-31.

The effects of oral dosage of glutathione and some biological agents on immunity and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced with immunosuppression
Zahraa D. Abdel-Hamid, Karkaz M. Thalij

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Abstract

Objective: The research was aimed to determine the effects of glutathione extracts and some biological agents on immune and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune. Methods: Glutathione was extract from spinach leaves and estimated the concentration used a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined the effect of orally dosage at one mg/ml alone or with both Zinc or Vit C or cell concentration of Lactobacillus plantarum (CCLP) on the immunity and biological parameters of male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune and breeding for 28 days. Results: The results indicated that aqueous spinach extract was contained glutathione at a concentration of 246 µg/g in the case of extraction using aqueous extract. The Immunosuppression induced was significantly (p<0.05) decreased of IgA, IgG and IgM values and became at 1022, 2031 and 121.5 mg/dl respectively compared with the control rats group which at 1564, 3206 and 174.7 mg/dl respectively while the orally dosage from biological parameters was caused in amelioration of immunity parameters to became similar of values with the control rats group. Also the oxidative stress parameters value as GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase enzyme were significantly decreased to 222, 0.17, 375 and 0.31µmol/L respectively and increased in MDA value to 4.6 µmol/L compared with the rats in control group, and the used of glutathione alone or with the biological parameters were done improvement to similar values in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral dosage of glutathione alone or with biological agents was significantly effective in improving immunity and decreasing the oxidative stress values in the laboratory rats that induced immunosuppression.

Keywords: glutathione, biological agents, sandimmune, oxidative stress, male rats

Citation: Abdel-Hamid ZD, Thalij KM. The effects of oral dosage of glutathione and some biological agents on immunity and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced with immunosuppression. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2933-9.

blaOXA genotyping of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens
Ali Nafe Suwaidan, Hassan Fadhil Naji

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Abstract

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that is found and isolated from various environments including plants, animals, soil and humans. This bacterium accounts for 10-15% of the nosocomial infections worldwide and is considered the third most-common organism associated with hospital-acquired infections such as urinary catheter-associated infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as blood, burn and wound infections, particularly involving wound infections in immunocompromised patients. Methodology: One hundred and sixty samples were collected from clinical specimens from the Babylon hospitals during the period of July-2019 to November-2019. These samples included 40 injury samples, 55 diabete-infected foot samples and 65 burn samples. Blood agar (Himedia) and MacConkey agar (Himedia) were used to isolated this bacterium, using the streaking technique and identified depending on their morphological properties (cultural and microscopical), biochemical tests, and then confirmed by PCR-sequencing for universal 16S rRNA gene. An antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using clinical and laboratory standards institute guideline (2019). Results: The results revealed that only 30 isolates were P. aeruginosa. The highest resistant percentages toward the antibiotics were found with ceftazidime and cefotaxime (96.7 %), while the lowest resistant percentages were found with colistin and polymyxin B (40 %). The ability of these isolates to produce OXA β-lactamase was investigated using PCR, it was found that 26.6% of the isolates belong to OXA-I, 40% of the isolates belong to OXA-III and no one of these isolates belong to OXA-II. Conclusion: The rates of OXA-type β-lactamases producing P. aeruginosa isolates from the clinical specimens were notable, therefore, the management and the treatment strategies should be revised and the proper use of the infection-control measures is needed to reduce the spread of the resistant genes in the isolates of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, blaOXA, diabete-infected foot, burn, injury, multi-drug resistance

Citation: Suwaidan AN, Naji HF. blaOXA genotyping of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2941-8.

The effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus
Rana S. Hasan, Abeer A. Ali, Ahmed A. Ali, Safaa M. Sultan, Shehab A. Yousf

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Abstract

This study showed the effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus parasite. The echinococcus cysts was isolated from the livers of slaughtered sheep in Mosul city. The vitality of the cysts was studied under the microscope using a 0.1% aqueous aucine. concentrations were used (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90) µg/ml from an extract of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica plants to study its influence on the vitality number of the proscolex. These proscolex were treated with the extract for different time periods ranging from (0, 15, 30, 45, 60) minutes, the study showed a significant effect of Urtica dioica plant on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus. Flavonoids had a fatal effect on killing the proscolex in the concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90) µg/ml for time periods ranging from (0, 15, 30, 45, 60) minutes. The 90 µg/ml showed a high effect on killing the proscolex. Alkaloids also showed a similar effect to flavonoids on killing the proscolex in the same concentrations and time periods, while the alkaloids were extracted from Annona muricata has a moderately effective on killing the proscolex in the same concentrations and time periods. While the cleucosides and flavonoids extracted from Urtica dioica did not show any effect in the same concentrations and time periods.

Keywords: Annona muricata, Urtica dioica, Echinococcus granulosus

Citation: Hasan RS, Ali AA, Ali AA, Sultan SM, Yousf SA. The effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2949-52.

Investigating the association of vitamin D levels with RF and HMGB1 in Rheumatoid arthritis patients in Basra, Iraq
Alaa Abdul -Hussien Saleh, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Saad Waheed

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Abstract

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is autoimmune disease characterized by swollen joints and the presence of autoantibodies. Many factors can affect the susceptibility of a person to this autoimmune disease, one of these factors is the level of vitamin D (VD3). The aim of the study is investigating the relationships of VD3, RF and HMGB1 in RA patients in Basra. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 participants were included RA patients (n=113) and healthy control (HC) (n=41) from both sexes, age range 23-75 years. The sera of RA patients and HC were tested for the level of Rheumatoid Factors (RF) included (IgG and IgM), VD3 and Human HMGB1 protein measurement by ELISA. Results: Our results showed that the level of RF were significantly higher and VD3 was significantly lower in RA patients in compare with HC. Furthermore, serum HMGB1 levels were higher in RA patients without treatment, but decreases upon therapy in patients while it was low in HC. A significant differences noticed in serum HMGB1 levels in RA patients depended on the types of drugs. Positive correlation between VD3, HMGB1 and the disease progress, while negative correlations were found between VD3, RF and HMGB1. Conclusion: The status of VD3 in RA patients living in Basra and its relation to the levels of RF and the pro inflammatory mediator HMGB1, documenting that VD3 deficiency play a role in causing the inflammation during RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid Factor, Vitamin D3, HMGB1

Citation: Saleh AA-, Al-Ali SJ, Waheed S. Investigating the association of vitamin D levels with RF and HMGB1 in Rheumatoid arthritis patients in Basra, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2953-61.

Relationship between multi-drug resistance and extended-spectrum β-latamase genes of Acinetobacter baumannii in different wards at Basra Hospitals
Muna Abdul-Imam AL-Mazini

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Abstract

Background: The present study was aimed for determination the prevalence of Extended- Spectrum β- Lactamase (ESBL) genes from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from hospital-acquired infection at Basra hospitals and to determine the relationship ESBL genes with Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among these A. baumannii isolates. Methodology: A total 120 samples were collected from burn, urine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and pediatric wards at different Basra hospitals and these were identified depending on standard microbiological methods with VITEK-2 system. The high percentages were (31.5%) isolates of Staphylococcus aureus followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.6%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (25.3%). Results: Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test and Multi-Drug Resistance of A. baumannii were achieved according to CLSI method. It has been found that A. baumanii had high resistance that Cefotaxime (94%), Imipenem (91%), Cefoxitin (85%), Merpenem (82%), Gentamicin (76%), Aztreonam (73%), Ciprofloxacin (70%) and Ampicillin (61%). On the other hand, high percentage (84.6%) of multidrug resistance was observed in A. baumannii. In addition, phenotypic expression of ESBL- A. baumannii was demonstrated by Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) method in (73%) isolates of MDR- A. baumanii . ESBL genes (bla- TEM, bla- SHV, bla- CTX) of these isolates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. The most frequent genes of A. baumannii were bla- TEM genes 21(64%), followed by bla-SHV genes 17(52%) and bla- CTX genes 14(42%). Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that significant relationship can be occurred between MDR isolates of A. baumannii with ESBL genes among environment of Basra hospitals.

Keywords: Multidrug Resistance, ESBL genes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Hospitals

Citation: AL-Mazini MA. Relationship between multi-drug resistance and extended-spectrum β-latamase genes of Acinetobacter baumannii in different wards at Basra Hospitals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2963-8.

Synthesis and study electrical properties of new polymer Copper Oxide NanoComposite
Azhar Farooq, Maida H. Saleem, Basma J. Ahmed

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Abstract

Cupric oxide nanoparticles CuO NPs can be produced by sol-gel. The copper oxide nanocomposite (CuO/PAG) was prepared by added suspension solution of CuO NPs to polymer blend (PAG) which was prepared by mixing poly acetal resin with gelatin. The nanoparticles morphology is categorized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the Scherrer formula, the average crystallite size of CuO nanoparticles can be computed. The analysis of powder XRD shows a formed monoclinic CuO phase with 15 nm average particle size. There is good agreement between the data obtained by XRD and microscopic measurements. The electrochemical characteristics for synthesized nanocomposite have been examined. The dielectric performance for a sample involving dielectric loss, AC conductivity and dielectric constant has been recorded under numerous frequency levels.

Keywords: Copper Oxide, Conductivity, NanoComposite, Resin

Citation: Farooq A, Saleem MH, Ahmed BJ. Synthesis and study electrical properties of new polymer Copper Oxide NanoComposite. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2969-74.

Effects of halothane on the peripheral lymphocytes and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells in operation room workers
Fadil A. AL-Quraishe, Ali M. AL-yasari

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Abstract

Background: Halothane is one of commonly inhalation anesthetic use in Iraq and the rest of the countries. Anesthetic is substance which reduce sensitivity to pain or is drug used to induce anesthesia that lead to temporary loss sensa-tion or awareness consciousness and which block only sensation of pain stimuli
Aim of study : This study was requested by Iraqi ministry of health to focus on the side effects of halothane on the patients and health,a study was perform-ed to evaluate the effects of the halothane anesthetic waste to induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells respectively in operation room workers (ORWs).
Material and Methods : SCE and MN,a sensitive measure of genotoxicity were counted SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes and MN in buccal mucosa cells for 40 ORWs exposure to halothane gases waste and 20 healthy person as con-trol who had never works in operation room.
Results : All of the ORWs exposure to halothane gases waste, have cells with SCE and MN frequencies, in analysis, ORWs was significantly increased SCE in ≥ 10 year and ≤ 5 year compared with control group with mean±SD (11.31± 0.9 and 7.67±0.33)respectively vs mean±SD (5.55±1.6), P< 0.001).fothermore, a significantly increased higher MN frequency with mean± SD (7.53±0.78 and 5.02±0.53) in ORWs with ≥ 10 year and ≤ 5 year respectively comparison with their control group with mean±SD (2.40±0.40),(p<0.001).Also non-significant differences in SCE and MN frequencies according to the gender.
Conclusion : The chromosome damage and genotoxicity are related to the ORWs daily exposure to halothane waste and may be increased by accumula-tive with duration of exposure to free radical and reactive oxygen species lead to damage in their cells of peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells over time of work.

Keywords: Hallothane, Sister Chromatid Exchange, Micronuclei, Anesthetic

Citation: AL-Quraishe FA, AL-yasari AM. Effects of halothane on the peripheral lymphocytes and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells in operation room workers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2975-81.

A weak effects of bee venom on rat superoxide dismutase, catalase and Malondialdehyde activity: Rheumatoid arthritis model
Alaa Tareq Shakir, Rasha Kadhim Mahdi, Kassim Abdulla Al-Morshidy

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Abstract

Based on several active molecules and complex mixture component, bee venom used as folk medicine. We measured the biological effects of bee venom on rat three antioxidant staff in the current study, these were the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde, for which forty rats are being used. The experiment groups were randomly sub-grouped into 8 groups (n=5 for each one). Our results showed no significant variation in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in all groups whereas Malondialdehyde reveled significant decrease in the bee venom 10 µg/kg after 5 days following injection of CFA in comparison with both control and rheumatoid groups. As conclusion a weak evidence of bee venom effects on three antioxidant under consideration.

Keywords: bee venom, superoxide dismutase, catalase a, Malondialdehyde

Citation: Shakir AT, Mahdi RK, Al-Morshidy KA. A weak effects of bee venom on rat superoxide dismutase, catalase and Malondialdehyde activity: Rheumatoid arthritis model. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2983-7.

Estimation of physicochemical parameters and antibiotics resistance patterns in Almamierh treatment plant in Babylon Province, Iraq
Noor Haider AL-Taei, Ayad M.J AL-mamoori, Nisreen AL-Hmoud

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Abstract

Surface water contamination remains a major worldwide public health concern and may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The current study dealt with the assessment of physicochemical parameters in the wastewater treatment plant in Almamierh, in the city of Babylon Province, Iraq. The treated water in this plant is used for agricultural purposes. To evaluate water quality, samples were collected from three sites (input, sedimentation, output) for estimation physicochemical parameters that includes (Water temperature, EC, PH, BOD, COD, TDS). the highest concentration recorded in the first site, especially BOD5 (235 Mg/L), COD (761 Mg/L), TDS (626.432 mg/L), while the EC was the highest value in the second location (1008ms/cm). These samples subjected to bacteriological analysis and a number of bacterial species have been isolated, such as: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were tested for resistance to 12 classes of antibiotics, the results showed that the highest resistance levels were to β-lactam antibiotics, followed by penicillin, cephem, Fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, glycopeptides, and erythromycin.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, wastewater, antibiotic resistance bacteria

Citation: AL-Taei NH, AL-mamoori AM, AL-Hmoud N. Estimation of physicochemical parameters and antibiotics resistance patterns in Almamierh treatment plant in Babylon Province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2989-6.

Influence of ascorbic acid and tocopherol on the vegetative, physiological and chemical traits of dates palm tissue, Barhi cultivar, irrigated from the Shatt Al-Arab water
Khaun A. Muhsen, Hamza A. Hamza, Mariam J. Mohammad

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Abstract

This study was conducted in one of the private orchards in Al-Dair district, north of Basra Governorate during the 2019 AD growing season, with the aim of studying the effect of foliar spray with antioxidants, Asc and Toc on some physiological and biochemical traits of tissue dates palm offshots, Al-Barhi cultivar which was irrigated from Shatt Al-Arab water. The experiment included seven treatments with antioxidants using the concentrations 125, 250 and 375 mg L-1 for each in addition to the control treatment (with distilled water only). The offshoots were sprayed four times. The results of the study showed the following: 1) The treatment of spraying with Toc at a concentration of 375 mg.L-1 recorded a significant difference in the increase of the height of the offshoot, and in the leaf content of the soluble protein f.w. The treatment also recorded the highest amount of P and K that reach 1.60 and 4.23 mg.g-1 d.w, respectively, and led to a decrease in the amount of Cl-, as it reached 11.17 mg g-1 d.w. It also increased the activity of the Po enzyme, which reached 81.88 units g-1 d.w. 2) The results of the study showed that spraying with Asc with a concentration of 375 mg L-1 reported significantly higher increase in the number of leaves and the leaf area and % for the water content of the leaves. It also led to an increase in the pigment of total Chl, total soluble carbohydrates and vitamin C, whose concentrations in the leaves reached 6.92, 49.39 and 34.77 mg g-1 f.w. The same concentration of ascorbic acid reduced the proline and Na concentration in the leaves to 13.26 mg g -1 dry weight and 0.18 mg g-1 dry weight respectively. In addition, the treatment increased the concentration of N in the leaves that amounted to 21.33 mg.gm-1 d.w, as well as an increase in the K:Na to 22.50. It also led to lowering ABA to 41.83 µg g-1 f. w.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, Tocopherol, Date Palm Tissue, Peroxidase, ABA

Citation: Muhsen KA, Hamza HA, Mohammad MJ. Influence of ascorbic acid and tocopherol on the vegetative, physiological and chemical traits of dates palm tissue, Barhi cultivar, irrigated from the Shatt Al-Arab water. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2997-3007.

RAPIDEC®CARBA NP-, CHROMID®CARBA agar- and MHT-based investigation of Carbapenem Resistance-Gram Negative (CRGN) bacteria isolated from wastewater in Basra city
Ismaal Jmia Abas, Abbas Dareb Shaban, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmshi, Noor S.K. AL-Khafaji

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Abstract

Background: Carbapenem are a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics exploited as a final resort in the controlling of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria may reach the wastewater via effluent of untreated hospital wastewater in addition to vital role of drug manufacturing companies that loaded their wastewater with such antibiotics leading to emergence of carbapenem resistance bacteria. The current study aims to investigate the carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria among wastewater using three different phenotypic methods. Methodology: During a winter period of 2018, 852 wastewater samples were collected from Basra city and cultured on MacConky agar and then confirm identification by API-20E. The Kirby-Bauer were used for screenings of carbapenem resistance and then the carbapenemase producing confirmed by three different phenotypic methods: MHT, RAPIDEC®.CARBA NP and CHROMID®.CARBA agar. Results: The results of bacterial isolation revealed positive culture for 742 (87.08%) of samples while 110 (12.92%) give no growth. Gram negative bacteria were recovered from 514/852 (60.32%) of samples and 228/852(26.76%) for Gram-positive bacteria. All 514 gram negative isolates were submitted for carbapenem producing using disc diffusion method for imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem. The results showed that only 38/514 (7.39%) of Gram negative isolates were resist at least one of the three used carbapenem antibiotics. 10/38 (26.31%) of Gram negative isolates were resist to meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. 21/38 (55.26%) were resist to meropenem and imipenem while all isolates 38/38 (100%) were resist to meropenem. The 38 isolates of carbapenem producing Gram negative (CRGN) were 20/38 (52.631%) for E. coli, 11/38 (28.947%) for K. pneumoniae, 5/38 (13.157%) for P. aeruginosa and 2/38 (5.263%) for P. mirabilis. The results of three phenotypic assay to investigate the carbapenemase production showed that RAPIDEC®CARBA NP reveal 36/38 (94.74%), MHT reveal 31/38 (81.58%) and CHROMID®CARBA agar reveal 27/38 (71.05%) of isolates were carbapenemase producer. Conclusion: It is easily to conclude that, the carbapenemase producing Gram negative (CPGN) bacteria may reach the wastewater from hospital effluent and drug manufacturers. RAPIDEC®CARBA NP was rapid, accurate and suitable assay for detecting CPGN bacteria.

Keywords: Carbapenemase, wastewater, CHROMID®CARBA, RAPIDEC®CARBA NP, MHT

Citation: Abas IJ, Shaban AD, Al-Dahmshi HO, AL-Khafaji NS. RAPIDEC®CARBA NP-, CHROMID®CARBA agar- and MHT-based investigation of Carbapenem Resistance-Gram Negative (CRGN) bacteria isolated from wastewater in Basra city. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3009-14.

An anthraquinone derivative from Coptospella tomentosa (Blume) root (Merung)
Erwin, Anita Karolina Dari, Djihan Ryn Pratiwi, Bohari, Anton Rahmadi

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Abstract

Coptosapelta tomentosa (Blume) (Merung) is a type of tropical plants traditionally being used as a medicine by the Dayak tribes in Indonesia. This experiment aims to identify compound in the class of anthraquinone derivative from the ethyl acetate fraction of Coptosapelta tomentosa (Blume) root. In this study, an anthraquinone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Coptosapelta tomentosa root using flash column chromatography. The compound was identified as 1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) anthracene-9,10-dione (digiferruginol) (1). The structure of 1 was established based on Ultraviolet Visible, Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/QToF-MS) spectroscopic data. The antitumor and antioxidant activities of this compound were investigated by MTT assay against murine leukemia P-388 cells and DPPH free radical scavenging method, respectively. Antitumor and antioxidant activity test results show that compound 1 may have potent antitumor property but with moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antitumor, antioxidant, Coptosapelta tomentosa, DPPH, traditionally

Citation: Erwin, Dari AK, Pratiwi DR, Bohari, Rahmadi A. An anthraquinone derivative from Coptospella tomentosa (Blume) root (Merung). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3015-7.

In vivo effects of different doses of ciprofloxacin on glutathione reductase activity in some rat tissues
Kutayba F. Dawood

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Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin on the enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase (GR) in the brain, cardiac, small intestine, and testes tissues of rats. GR enzymes contribute to maintaining appropriate concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Seventy-two adult male albino rats were divided into four groups (I–IV). Rats in group I (control) were injected with sterile distilled water, whereas animals in experimental groups (II-IV), were injected intraperitoneally with ciprofloxacin in single doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Dosages effects of antibiotic were investigated at three specific periods (in the first, the third, and the seventh hour). The obtained results showed that brain GR activity in ciprofloxacin groups was inhibited compared to the control group all periods (p <0.05). After seven hours, ciprofloxacin found to significantly inhibited the enzyme activity in cardiac tissues especially in group IV (p <0.05). In the II and III groups, however, the small intestine reductase enzyme activity was not affected by ciprofloxacin doses, excluding group IV, where the enzyme activity decreased after seven hours of treatment (P <0.05). As for the GR enzyme activity in rat testis, it was a decrease compared to the control in the treated groups from the start of the third hour to the end of the period (P <0.05).

Keywords: Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione, Ciprofloxacin, oxidative stress, enzyme

Citation: Dawood KF. In vivo effects of different doses of ciprofloxacin on glutathione reductase activity in some rat tissues. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3019-23.

Effect of cigarette and water-pipe smoking on osteocalcin and RANKL serum levels among Iraqi university students
Zahraa Hussein M. Kadri

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Abstract

Osteoporosis is most common skeleton illness characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility that putting patients at risk of fracture and smoking considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to assess osteocalcin and receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels in two smokers groups of university students. The first include 61 cigarette-smokers and the second include 64 cigarette/water-pipe smokers, as well as 70 non-smokers (control group). A significant reduction was seen in osteocalcin serum level especially in the second group as compared to non-smokers, while RANKL serum level was significantly elevated. The osteocalcin/RANKL ratio was also significantly decreased in cigarette-smokers. These effects were exaggerated in cigarette/water-pipe smokers. In conclusion, the two mediators; osteocalcin and RANKL, may be good predictors for the development of osteoporosis especially in young adults.

Keywords: smoking, osteocalcin, RANKL, osteoporosis

Citation: Kadri ZHM. Effect of cigarette and water-pipe smoking on osteocalcin and RANKL serum levels among Iraqi university students. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3025-30.

The Iraqi dominant rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) under a stomach-based histological study
Sawsan Gafoori Ahmed, Shaymaa K. Jaifar, Masart Swadi Medakel

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Abstract

Background: The wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is highly present in Iraqi rural regions. Objectives: Due to no histological information regarding the histological characterization of this local rabbit, this study was conducted to identify histological characteristic features of its stomach. Materials and Methods: According to that, ten stomach tissue samples were collected from ten rabbits. These samples were tissue-section-processed, stained using Harris hematoxylin and eosin dyes, and visualized and photo-taken under a light microscope. Results: The gastric wall of the rabbit consisted of a quadric-tunic layer, in to out; mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The inside surface of the stomach was lined by mucosal cells that made an appearance as a tall simple columnar epithelium spread through the pits of the stomach. Moreover, the mucosa displayed three histologically distinct regions based on glandular tissue types (branch-, tubule-, and coil-like appearance) in which these glands were short in the cardiac and pyloric regions. The fundic gland region showed simple long straight branch-like tubular features and revealed mostly mucous secreting cells and less frequent parietal cells in the cardiac and pyloric glands. Furthermore, the fundic gland region consists of different kinds of cells; however, the parietal and chief cells are the highly common cells in this region. Conclusion: Characteristic regions are presents in the gastric mucosa of the rabbit with high distribution of parietal and chief cells in the fundic gland region.

Keywords: Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit stomach, stomach histopathology

Citation: Ahmed SG, Jaifar SK, Medakel MS. The Iraqi dominant rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) under a stomach-based histological study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3031-4.

Molecular investigation of an unusual bacteria causing severe UTI among public water closet users: Mechanisms of characterization and Engineering solutions
Asal Aziz Tawfeeq, Sami Ridha Aslan, Saif A. Moneeb

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) compose one of the most common community-acquired infections, where Escherichia vulneris does not signify a pathogenic role in it. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that insufficient water closets play a vital role in the implications of disease transmission and health problems for all attendees. Besides, the defective water closets at the educational facilities with insufficient access to clean toilets could bring harmful health effects such as severe urinary tract infections for both staff members and students due to their exposure to bioaerosol infections which are transmitted easily in dirty public water closets. Thus, this study designed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infections among defined employees with the estimation of the role of individual water closets in the incidence of microbial etiology.
The Results show significant prevalence of UTIs recorded among employees of both sexes working at an educational facility and sharing the same unisex water closets during their daily-worktime. The causative pathogen isolated from both positive UTI urine samples and water closets was E.vulneris profiled by API 20E, identified by 16s rRNA gene sequence and the production of heat-labile and hemolysin toxins molecularly characterized by RT-PCR. The water closets indoor air quality and performance evaluated with sensors to plot the link of the UTI microbial etiology. 
From this study can be Concluded a Significantly prevalent upper and lower UTI cases encountered amongst employees of an educational facility where Escherichia vulneris was the main invading pathogen. Isolated strains of E.vulneris revealed a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance and susceptibility to Cephalosporins and Ciprofloxacin only, the gene sequence of 1400bp of the 16s rRNA, and the production of hemolysin (hlyA 1177bp), and heat-labile (LT 508 bp) toxins. Besides, the inadequacy of the water closet at the workplace imposes an extra burden on the health of the employees as it might promote many community-acquired diseases.

Keywords: molecular characterization, E.vulneris, employees, educational facility, Water Closets, UTI, RT-PCR

Citation: Tawfeeq AA, Aslan SR, Moneeb SA. Molecular investigation of an unusual bacteria causing severe UTI among public water closet users: Mechanisms of characterization and Engineering solutions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3035-44.

The relationship between the of prolidase activity and rheumatoid arthritis
Mostafa Ali Abdulrahman, Barda Anwer Jasim, Adeeb Mahfooth Farag AL-Samaria

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Abstract

This study was conducted for the period from 15/12/2019 to 30/01/2020 in the laboratories of Samarra General Hospital and outpatient clinics, as 40 samples were collected (20) a sample infected with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed by doctors and (20) healthy samples as a control group. Their ages ranged between (35-80) years. As 6 ml of venous blood was withdrawn and (4) ml was placed in plastic tubes and free from anticoagulant for the purpose of Determination concentrations (Prolidase, MDA, Ceroplasmin) and (2) ml to Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate ESR, and the results were statistically analyzed by testing the variance at a significant level P≤ 0.05. The results showed a significant increase in the effectiveness of prolidase enzyme in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to the control group at a significant level P≤ 0.05 and an increase in the concentration of Ceroplasmin, ESR and malondialdehyde in the patients group compared to the control group P≤ 0.05

Keywords: Prolidase Activity, Cp, MDA, rheumatoid arthritis

Citation: Abdulrahman MA, Jasim BA, AL-Samaria AMF. The relationship between the of prolidase activity and rheumatoid arthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3045-9.

Molecular study of Rota A viruses at many farm animals in Iraq
Karar Mohammed Abdul-Sada

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Abstract

Background: The species A of Rotavirus is considered as of medical and veterinary important pathogen, worldwide distributed and responsible for acute gastroenteritis particularly at juvenile ages, the viruses explain marked genetic diversity which represented by numerous number genotypes infect different vertebrate hosts. 
Methods: About 942 fecal samples had been taken directly from the rectum of 403 cattle, 236 sheep,174 goats and 129 of camels, their age younger than 6 months and suffering from diarrhea at different Iraqi Governorates; advanced specific molecular technique was implemented, Reverse Transcription -modern- Real Time PCR technique (rRT- PCR) with utilizing of a new generation thermo-cycler to obtain reliable result regarding exact viral genotypes in these animals at Iraq. 
Results: The RVAs were observed in 29.61% of diarrheic animals the percentages of infection among these animals as followings: cattle, sheep, goats and camels were 31.51%, 29.23%, 27.58% and 27.13%, respectively, the distribution pattern of viral genotypes as following: in cattle: G6, G8, G10, P[1] and P[5] in addition to P[11]; in sheep: G3, G6, G10, P[1] and P[11]; in goats: G6 and also P[5]; in camels: G10, P[1] and P[11]. G10 was the most dominant among specific genotypes in all animals in this study.
Conclusions: According to the author’s knowledge, the present study is the first study that recorded G3, G6, G8, G10, and also P [1], P [5] besides to P [11] in above animals at Iraq, which offers a valuable and reliable epidemiological information pertaining RAVs genotypes that were urgently needed for both human and animal necessary hygiene regards.

Keywords: Rota A viruses, G and P genotypes, Reverse transcription, Real Time PCR

Citation: Abdul-Sada KM. Molecular study of Rota A viruses at many farm animals in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3051-7.

Anti-fungal activity for some nanoparticles against some yeast and mold strain
Zahraa A. Althabet, Taha H. Alnasrawi, Ghufran S. Salih

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Abstract

The present research aim to determine the activity of some antifungal nanoparticles against some molds and yeast strains since Nanoparticles are of wide use in medical field as antimicrobial agents and many promised results show that’s it’s could be suitable for human use with low concentration and these includes multiple metal oxides such as yttrium, copper, nickel, zinc, iron and silver that have antimicrobial activity, in this research we test the antifungal activity of some nanoparticles (NPs) against different strains of mold and yeast. Antimicrobial activity of NPs was accomplished by the mean of disk diffusion assay using dilutions of (200, 100, 50, 25, and 12.5) and the MIC and MFC of each isolate is determined.as well as antibiotic discs were acquired in order to compare its antifungal activity within NPs activity,and those antibiotic include Amikacin (AK30), Cefotaxime(CX30), Ciprofloxacin(CPR5), Gentamicin(CN10). The results show that zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cupper oxide, silver and yittrium nanoparticles have no anti-fungal activity against tested fungi, while there was different inhibitory effect of antibiotics against the selected fungal strain and the KCA antibiotic appeared with the highest activity while the FLU appeared with the least activity.so that its concluded that using NPs as an economic alternative anti-fungal medicine especially in treating ectopic infections must be with high concentration since low concentration give no result without taking risk of developing resistant fungal strains as with antibiotics, as well as to use lab animals for most accurate results.

Keywords: nanoparticles, minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal fungicidal concentration

Citation: Althabet ZA, Alnasrawi TH, Salih GS. Anti-fungal activity for some nanoparticles against some yeast and mold strain. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3059-67.

Pharmacological correction of changes in the chemical and mineral composition of rat’s skeletal bones by Mexidol after 60-day of Tartrazine administration
Vladyslav I. Luzin, Olga N. Fastova, Aleksey V. Tverskoi, Vitaliy N. Morozov, Elena N. Morozova, Anastasia V. Tverskaya

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Abstract

Currently, the yellow synthetic azo dye tartrazine is widely used in such industrial fields as pharmy, food and cosmetology. The effects of tartrazine on morphological and functional state of bones as well as ways of correction of changes insufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to establish the possibilities of using Mexidol as a pharmacological corrector for changes in the chemical and mineral composition of skeletal bones in mature rats after 60 days of using tartrazine. The research was carried out on 175 white mature male rats, divided into 5 groups. 1st group - control; 2nd and 3rd groups - 1 ml of tartrazine solution was administered to rats daily intragastrically at dose 750 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively for 60 days; 4th and 5th groups - 1 ml of tartrazine solution was administered to rats daily intragastrically at dose 750 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively for 60 days and intramuscularly 5% solution of mexidol at dose 50 mg/kg body weight. The periods of observation were 3, 10, 15, 24 and 45 days after the end of 60-days tartrazine administration. The chemical and mineral composition of the humerus, hip bones, and the third lumbar vertebra were studied by gravimetric method. Also the spectrophotometry was used. The application of mexidol is accompanied by smoothing out the negative effect of 60-day tartrazine administration at dose of 7500 and 1500 mg/kg body weight on the mineral and chemical composition of the rat’s skeletal bones from the 15th to the 45th days of observation. The mineral and chemical structure of bones was recovered to control values more quickly in group with the use of tartrazine at dose of 750 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: bones, chemical and mineral composition, tartrazine, mexidol

Citation: Luzin VI, Fastova ON, Tverskoi AV, Morozov VN, Morozova EN, Tverskaya AV. Pharmacological correction of changes in the chemical and mineral composition of rat’s skeletal bones by Mexidol after 60-day of Tartrazine administration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3069-72.

G316A growth hormone polymorphism in pigs of various breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia
Eduard A. Snegin, Olesia Yu. Artemchuk, Anton A. Sychev, Anatolii S. Barkhatov, Sergei R. Yusupov, Elena A. Snegina, Aleksandra Yu. Tishchenko

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Abstract

Using the RFLP method, pigs were genotyped for the growth hormone gene (mutation G316A). The study involved 187 boars of four breeds (Duroc, Large White, Landrace and Yorkshire) from the Belgorod region of Russia. The AG genotype frequency for most breeds has the highest values equal to 0.426, 0.489, 0.413, and 0.468, respectively. In the Duroc, Large White and Landrace breeds, the G allele (0.383, 0.479, and 0.467, respectively) and the GG genotype (0.170, 0.234, and 0.261, respectively) have the lowest frequency. At the same time, in Yorkshires, allele A (0.298) and genotype AA (0.064) are characterized by the lowest frequency. We believe that a similar picture can be associated with the peculiarities of selection in various breeds. According to the χ2 test, all studied breeds are in a state of Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.

Keywords: pigs, growth hormone, A316G polymorphism, RFLP

Citation: Snegin EA, Artemchuk OY, Sychev AA, Barkhatov AS, Yusupov SR, Snegina EA, et al. G316A growth hormone polymorphism in pigs of various breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3073-6.

Production of high quality sheep’s milk
Assan Ospanov, Botagoz Toxanbayeva

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Abstract

Sheep producing milk for people start with the beginnings of domestication. It is an excellent raw material for different types of food production, which gives prospective of its development in milk industry. Genetic selection and better feeding conditions led to several superior sheep breeds in Kazakhstan in terms of productivity, proving a great potential for evolution in market demand. The quality of ship milk is paramount in controlling the quality of products made from it. It is necessary to identify the factors affecting the productivity and quality of sheep milk for production with emphasis on Kazakhstan. Some of the factors, such as genotype of the sheep are difficult to control, but the farmer to produce high quality milk can manipulate environmental factors, such as nutrition and management of the milking flock. To obtain a productivity of high quality milk ewes must be milked out regularly and completely, which implies adopting appropriate milking routines and milking equipment. It is also important that ewes are healthy and receive adequate diets. Comprehensive reviews are presented of the latest aspects of production, technology and quality of sheep milk.

Keywords: sheep’s milk, production, technology, quality, diary product, factors, genotype, milking routines

Citation: Ospanov A, Toxanbayeva B. Production of high quality sheep’s milk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3077-84.

Genetic detection of in vA, sipB, SopB and sseC genes in Salmonella spp isolated from diarrheic children patients
Maryam Sadiq Obayes, Oruba K. Al-Bermani, Shaima Ahmed Rahim

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Abstract

Salmonella Gram-negative bacteria infect human and animals and cause gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Type III secretion system are important virulence factor of salmonella it basically and functionally associated with flagella meeting systems and typically comprise more than 20 proteins subunits that are found in the internal and external membrane of the bacterial cell. The current study aims to conduct an detection the candidates genes of type III secretion system as important virulence factor of a clinical Salmonella spp. The Patient and methods: current study includes 120 stool samples collected from 120 diarrheic children, age range from (2 to 3 years) for the period from November (2018) to December (2018) from Babylon province Iraq. After culturing samples, Salmonella spp.diagnosed. DNA extraction and PCR were achieved for detection type III secretion system genes of Salmonella spp. The results: out of 120 stool sample, 58 samples were positive for Salmonella spp. we revealed that Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella paratyphi, the most common serovar of Salmonella enterica, was Salmonella typhi at 29.3%. Genetic detection of type III secretion system by PCR technique explains that Inva A was found about at all isolates except one isolate at percentage (93.1%) and SipB occurrence was (18.9%) finally SseC occurrence was (1.7%) whereas SopB was not detected in all salmonella isolates. inva A gene is most reliable gene in the diagnosis of Salmonella spp. and not all isolates contain a different genes of type III secretion system.

Keywords: Salmonella Type III secretion system, invA, sipB, sseC, sopB

Citation: Obayes MS, Al-Bermani OK, Rahim SA. Genetic detection of in vA, sipB, SopB and sseC genes in Salmonella spp isolated from diarrheic children patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3085-91.

Removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions using biosorption technique: Review article
Salah A. Jassim

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Abstract

The aim of this article is to review the biosorption of metal ions by different biosorbents, such as agriculture waste, fruit peels, industrial waste, fungi and alga. All these types were studied in this work using several parameters.
The maximum uptake of the metals (expressed by mg metal/g biosorbent) has been adopted as a criterion for the metal recovery efficiency. It has been concluded that pH is the most important parameters governing the efficiency of such process. This study is covering the literatures during the last two decades.

Keywords: toxicity, metals, biomass, biosorption, recovery, removal

Citation: Jassim SA. Removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions using biosorption technique: Review article. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3093-9.

Evaluation of serum IgE, TNF alpha at patients with genital warts, Iraq
Nisreen Kaddim Radi, Ihsan Jara Atiyah, Samerh Shaker Hamood

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Abstract

Condylomata acuminata also known as genital wart result from the infection with human papilloma viruses particularly HPV type6 &11.Thirty three samples (blood and skin tissue) were accumulated from patient with genital warts (females) whom visit dermatology department of Hilla hospital/Iraq, with thirty three sera gathered from healthy persons act as control group. The diagnosis was achieved via dermatologist and by applied in situ hybridization (ISH) test to detect HPV types 6&11 .The estimation of IgE and TNF α levels at patient sera were done by using ELISA test. The result show that About 92% of patient with genital wart donated appositive result to the infection with HPV type 11 and 6,and there were significant increasing in IgE levels at patients sera compared with control group Mean ± S.E[202.36 ±10.16, 24.12± 1.68 IU/ML]and also TNF α show increasing in their level at patients sera compared with control groups Mean ± S.E[68.18 ± 1.72, 46.68 ± 1.13 pg/ml].

Keywords: genital wart, IgE, in situ hybridization, females, HPV, ISH

Citation: Radi NK, Atiyah IJ, Hamood SS. Evaluation of serum IgE, TNF alpha at patients with genital warts, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3101-6.

Case report of the pathogenesis disease benign papillary mesothelioma
Afrita Amalia Laitupa, Winariani Koesoemoprodjo, Dewa Made Artika

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Abstract

Background: Mesothelioma is a disease that attacks the mesothelium cells or the external part of the organ. Mesothelioma often attacks pleura of the lung organs. One of the development of mesothelioma is Benign Papillary Mesothelioma. This disease is a rare disease. Benign Papillary Mesothelioma is a cancer that caused by the Simian-40 virus (SV-40) and can be induced by exposure to asbestos. Purpose: This study aimed to record the pathogenesa of Benign Papillary Mesothelioma disease in a female patient. Methods: This study used the recording data of patient from the clinical data, radiological and histopathological as the supporting data. In patient’s history, the patient's condition experienced progression by a pleural effusion, SVKS and a high risk of thrombosis. That invasion was examined by the results of pleural fluid analysis, pleural fluid cytology and chest X-ray CT with contrast. Result: In patients with tumors, an emergency could occur if it did not treated immediately and caused a life threatening. The drugs management of patients with SVKS and the risk of thrombosis can help reduce patient complaints. Conclusions: Mass biopsy was also conducted by using HE staining, where the diagnosis results told the patient has chronic pleurisy, pulmonary edema and congestion. Patients were planned for platinum-based chemotherapy.

Keywords: papillary mesothelioma, pathogenesis, case report

Citation: Laitupa AA, Koesoemoprodjo W, Artika DM. Case report of the pathogenesis disease benign papillary mesothelioma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3107-14.

Rare case report: Female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von Recklinghausen’s disease
Afrita Amalia Laitupa, Isnin Anang Marhana

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Abstract

Background: The cases of mediastinal neurofibroma tumors without von Recklinghausen's disease are very rare. Clinical manifestations of tightness that do not get better with prolonged treatment using bronchodilators and steroids. After further examination and patient’s history, a diagnosis of mediastinal mass can be established, that suppress the respiratory tract. Purpose: aim to know female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von recklinghausen’s disease. Method: Old adult patients who experience mediastinal neurofibroma tumors with symptoms of shortness of breathing that are increasingly aggravated especially when cold and fatigue. Symptoms are related to compression or invasion directly to structures around the mediastinum or associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Asymptomatic patients are usually associated with benign tumors and vice versa patients with symptomatic usually associated with malignancy. Result: The development of a malignant tumor occurs in 10% of cases of neurofibroma especially in patients with neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease). The duration of ongoing disease coupled with complication from other diseases makes different alternatives the best indication. Conclusion: This tumor had reached the stage of surgical therapy to achieve safe and completed tumor excision. This therapy was carried out as an optimal effort to obtain a better prognosis for the patient's disease

Keywords: Mediastinum Neurofibroma tumors, severe tightness, surgical therapy

Citation: Laitupa AA, Marhana IA. Rare case report: Female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von Recklinghausen’s disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3115-23.

Polymorphism in the leptin gene (T3469C) of Different Pig Breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia
Eduard A. Snegin, Olesia Yu. Artemchuk, Anton A. Sychev, Anatolii S. Barkhatov, Sergei R. Yusupov, Elena A. Snegina, Aleksandra Yu. Tishchenko

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Abstract

Pigs were RFLP-genotyped for the leptin gene (mutation T3469C). The study examined 185 boars of four breeds (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from the Belgorod region of Russia. In all breeds, the wild T allele is the most frequent, which is responsible for leaner meat and lower fat content. The highest frequency of the C mutant allele was found in the Large White (0.223), and the lowest – in Yorkshire pigs (0.011). At the same time, no homozygotes were found for this allele in Landrace and Yorkshire meat breeds. In general, the allele frequencies of the studied breeds correspond to the frequencies of European and Canadian selection. According to the χ2 test, all studied breeds are in a state of genetic equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg.

Keywords: pigs, leptin, 3469 mutation, polymorphism, RFLP

Citation: Snegin EA, Artemchuk OY, Sychev AA, Barkhatov AS, Yusupov SR, Snegina EA, et al. Polymorphism in the leptin gene (T3469C) of Different Pig Breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3125-9.

Early versus late tracheostomy in critically ill patients
Safaa Hussain Alturaihy, Dhay Mohammad Modhafar

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Abstract

Introduction: Tracheostomy is a common surgical procedure which is done in intensive care unit patient ICU. We examined the potential effects of time tracheostomy in ICU.
Aim: A retrospective and prospective study was designed to clarity the effect, outcome and prognosis of early and late tracheostomy in such two groups.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted at department of otolaryngology in Al-Hilla Teaching General Hospital over a period of two years from Feb 2014 to Feb 2016, regardless the age, sex and type of tracheostomy.
Tracheostomy was considered as early ET if it is performed before or on day ten of mechanical ventilation MV of 263 ICU patients,64 require tracheostomy,23 of whom were early and 42 were late.
Results: 1 Most common causes of ICU admission who need ET was traumatic patient
2 Overall mortality rate was less in ET vs LT group
3 Other outcomes like (duration of MV, LOS, VAP, laryngotracheal lesions) were also less with ET vs LT
Conclusion: Based on our study, ET is expected to have better outcome on ICU patient

Keywords: early tracheostomy, ICU, mechanichal ventilation, late tracheostomy

Citation: Alturaihy SH, Modhafar DM. Early versus late tracheostomy in critically ill patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3131-8.

Uncompensated response to the oxidation stress of the diabetes in both male and female patients with type II diabetes
Amera Kamal Mohammed, Chrow Ahmed Khurshid, Heman Burhanalden Abdulrahman

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Abstract

Background: This study evaluated the level of few antioxidant enzymes through the variation in these enzymatic biomarkers in type II diabetes.
Objectives: The present study aimed to report the variation of some enzymatic antioxidant parameters level as uncompensated response to the oxidation stress in type II diabetes patients.
Materials and Methods: 45 diabetic patients and 44 healthy subjects were recruited (aged 20- 71 years) in Kirkuk province northern Iraq. The levels of (HbA1c) and (FBS), (SOD), (TAS), (GP) and (GPx), were evaluated. The glucose was measured in the patient’s serum after 12 hours of fasting following a standard procedure in the kit from (Rondo. United Kingdom Laboratories Ltd), while HbA1c calculated using Stanbio kit (USA). The Antioxidant enzymes, SOD, TAS, GP and GPx were assessed in serum samples using colorimetric Randox kit (Randox, laboratories, Ltd). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using spscific formula and classifying normal weight as (BMI 18.5- 24.9) Kg/M2, obesity as (BMI 30-39.9) Kg/M2 and morbid obesity as (BMI > 40) Kg/M2).The waist circumference was measured at the narrowest point of the torso width-wise, usually just above the belly button, which is ≤ 102 cm in male and≤88 cm in female.
Results: Plasma (HbA1c) concentrations and (FBS) are higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.04* and 0.001*, respectively). Surprisingly, the amount of (GPx) and (SOD) are lower in patients group comparing to control group (P < 0.002* and P < 0.05*, respectively). Concentrations of (TAS), in contrast, is significantly lower in patients than controls group (P = 0.002*), while no change is noticed in the level of (GR) in patients groups (P = 0.73). There are significant differences (P≤ 0.05) in a mean of age, BMI, waist circumference, (FBS), (GPx), (TAS) and (HbA1c) among female and male of two groups. There are no other statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between gender in health and patient groups in relation to the serum levels of (GR) and (SOD) enzymes. In addition, data showed there is no significant correlation (P ≥ 0.05) (HbA1c) and antioxidant enzymes concentration in type II diabetes patients.
Conclusions: Enzymatic biomarkers can be used to monitor the uncompensated response to the oxidation stress as shown by lower antioxidant level in type II diabetes patients in this study.

Keywords: antioxidants markers, total antioxidant status, GPx, type II diabetes complications

Citation: Mohammed AK, Khurshid CA, Abdulrahman HB. Uncompensated response to the oxidation stress of the diabetes in both male and female patients with type II diabetes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3139-44.

The correlation between the vascular endothelial growth factor expressions and cervical lymphnodes on nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Muhtarum Yusuf, Miatina Artisnita Arisakti, Nyilo Purnami

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Abstract

Background: In terms of its clinical characteristics, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is easy to invade and metastasize. Therefore, it can cause locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis.The Prediction of the current NPC prognosis remains generally based on clinical stage assessments. In fact, patients with the same stage often get different therapeutic results. Purposes: This research aims to analyze the correlation between VEGF expressions and the enlarged cervical lymph nodes in NPC. Methods: This research utilized an observational analytic with the cross sectional approach. The samples employed 18 NPC patients with cervical lymph nodes from the criteria of N0 N1, N2, and N3, of type III WHO histopathology (undifferentiated carcinoma) who have never received any therapy. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine the correlation between the increased VEGF expressions and the enlarged cervical lymph nodes with significance level (a) = 0.05. Result: From all samples, 83.33% of weak expressions were found, while moderate expressions amounted to 16.67%. The result of the Mann Whitney U-test indicated a p-value of 0.058. This fact suggested that the correlation between the increased of VEGF expressions and N had no significant differences. Conclusion: There are no correlations between VEGF expressions and the enlarged cervical lymph nodes.

Keywords: VEGF, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cervical lymph nodes

Citation: Yusuf M, Arisakti MA, Purnami N. The correlation between the vascular endothelial growth factor expressions and cervical lymphnodes on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3145-8.

The analysis of antibody serum titer of Iga anti-viral capsid antigens and anti-epstein-Barr nuclear antigens in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients
Muhtarum Yusuf, Roestiniadi DS, Widodo Ario Kentjono

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Abstract

Calloselasma rhodostoma (Kuhl, 1824) is one species of Indonesian medically important snake that distributed in many Indonesia regions. With th Background: The serological test as an effort to diagnose early Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in several countries, especially China, has succeeded in finding cases of early NPC that remain asymptomatic. In Indonesia, the serological test is rarely used, causing the value of anti-viral capsid antigen IgA titer (VCA) and anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen virus (EBNA) for NPC patients remain unknown. Purpose: This study aims to obtain the value of anti-VCA IgA and anti-EBNA IgA in NPC based on the type of histopathology and stage to determine the specificity value and sensitivity of the anti-VCA IgA titer and anti-EBNA IgA titer in NPC. Method: This study used a cross-sectional study with a case-control study design. A total of 35 patients who met both case and control samples were taken for venous blood in the median cubital vein using a 5 ml syringe for material inspection. Then, serological tests were carried out in the form of serum analysis of anti-VCA IgA and anti-EBNA IgA antibody titer using the Elisa Test method. Result: The sensitivity of anti-VCA IgA titer reached 91.14%, whereas its specificity amounted to 97.14%. On the other hand, the sensitivity of anti-EBNA IgA titer reached 91.14% whereas its specificity amounted to 94.30%. Conclusion: The examination of both types of titers is excellent for diagnosing hidden NPC and detecting disease recurrence after treatment.
Recent snakebite cases of this snake and warrant of further improvement on anti-venin in Indonesia, the information on storage conditions for its venom is important for developing an anti-venin. The genetic identity that possibly holds a cryptic diversity that has not been resolved, could impact the future of anti-venin development of this species. We analyze the molecular data based on the ND4 gene to resolve the genetic relations of this snake from Java, Kangean, and Borneo population with the addition of the Thailand population by Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstruction. To evaluate the storage conditions, venom collection from six living specimens from the Java population was used to analyze the effect of svPLA2 activity under different storage conditions for 14 days long. The phylogenetic results show a polytomy tree, with a low p-distance value between populations. Only the storage at 37ºC affects the performance of svPLA2 significantly. The phylogenetic indicating a single species even though divided by geographical barriers, more genes need to be compared to resolve the genetic relationship. More samples are needed to compare the venom properties throughout C. rhodostoma wide distribution, to enlight the anti-venin future development.

Keywords: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, serology, anti-VCA IgA titer, anti-EBNA IgA titer

Citation: Yusuf M, DS R, Kentjono WA. The analysis of antibody serum titer of Iga anti-viral capsid antigens and anti-epstein-Barr nuclear antigens in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3149-54.

Comparison of biomechanical stability of plate and screw fixation with tension band wiring and lag screw in ulnar styloid fractures: a cadaver test
Erwin Ramawan, Hizbillah Yazid, Teddy Heri Wardhana, Pramono Ari Wibowo, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: The management of ulnar styloid is often not appreciated in comparison to its larger counterpart, the radius. There are several surgical treatment recommendations such as fixation with tension band fixation or lag screw compression, and relative techniques, i.e., osteosynthesis with plates and screws. Each technique has their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the researchers require scientific data that compares the three techniques biomechanically. Purpose: To evaluate the biomechanical stability of fixation with tension band wiring, lag screw compression, and plate and screw osteosynthesis. Method: Samples were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., P1 group (tension band wiring), P2 group (lag screw), and P3 group (plate and screw) and each group consisted of nine ulna bones. The fixation of the fracture fragments was completed using tension band wiring, lag screw, and plate and screw fixation. The biomechanical test is used to determine the stability of the three groups of fixation techniques. ANOVA test is used to determine the differences between each group. Result: The statistical calculation with the ANOVA test suggested that the tensile test with 150 N force results in significantly different results between fixation groups in the 10-time tensile test (p = 0.00), 20-time tensile test (p = 0.00), 50-time tensile test (p = 0.001), and 100-time tensile test (p = 0.00). This result indicates that biomechanically fixation with plate and screw is the stablest. Conclusion: Mechanically, plate and screw fixation are stabler than tension band wiring and lag screw compression in ulnar styloid fractures.

Keywords: ulnar styloid fracture, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring fixation, lag screw

Citation: Ramawan E, Yazid H, Wardhana TH, Wibowo PA, Utomo DN. Comparison of biomechanical stability of plate and screw fixation with tension band wiring and lag screw in ulnar styloid fractures: a cadaver test. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3155-8.

Cavum oris constriction on patients with enteropathic arthritis
Bayu Dharmas, Pangestu Adi

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Abstract

Background: Enteropathic arthritis can occur in all age groups. Enteropathic arthritis is part of spondiloartropathy which is accompanied by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract (IBD). It mostly occurs in the age group of children and young adults with the same prevalence in men and women. Purpose: The following will discuss a case report of cavum oris constriction in patients with enteropathic arthritis. Methods: In this case, the patient is a 39-year-old female with complaints of inflammation in the digestive tract, including oral ulcers, complaints of abdominal pain and diarrhea. The patient was early diagnosed as arthritis enteropathy. In addition, sacroiliitis was found accompanied by limited movement of the hip joint and chest expansion. Result: The patient’s colonoscopy results showed an edematous mucosa accompanied by an ulceration process. To determine the condition of the mucosa in the upper digestive tract, capsule endoscopy is performed because the patient’s oral cavity is constricted. From the results of the examination, it was found that the patient was diagnosed with Chrons’ Disease. So that patients get sulfasazine therapy and bilateral labialis surgery. Conclusions: The prognosis in these patients was good because, the patient responds to therapy where the patient’s clinical complaints were diminishing.

Keywords: cavum oris, enteropathic arthritis, constriction

Citation: Dharmas B, Adi P. Cavum oris constriction on patients with enteropathic arthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3159-64.

Antropometric study on the parameters of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging
Dwikora Novembri Utomo, I Gusti Ngurah Dodo M. Ranuh, Mohammad Zaim Chilmi, Jeffry Andrianus, Andre Triadi Desnantyo, Rosy Setiawati

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Abstract

Background: The reconstruction techniques of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can restore normal kinematics on the knees and its stability. Data regarding the reconstruction parameters of double-bundle ACL and ACL footprint’ size on femur and tibia have never existed in Indonesia. Purpose: This study aims to obtain the reconstruction parameters’ value of double-bundle ACL to determine the parameter value suitability ​​with a minimum size, and the correlation of these parameters with age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: This study employed an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. In this study, eight parameters were measured, then analyzed based on age, gender, ethnicity, and BMI. The measurements were carried out using OsiriX program. Result: The average width of lateral condylar ridge amounted to 15.734 mm; the average diameter of ACL femoral footprint reached 15.85 mm; the average surface of ACL femoral footprint reached 72.72mm2; the average diameter of ACL tibial footprint 16.04 mm; the average surface of ACL tibial footprint amounted to 72.69mm2, and the average width of intercondylar notch reached 21.29 mm. In addition, no significant correlation was identified between age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI to the double-bundle ACL reconstruction parameters. Conclusion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction can be performed because the reconstruction parameters’ values have exceeded the minimum size. Subjects’ characteristics based on age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI do not affect these parameters’ values. The surface measurements of ACL femoral footprint and ACL tibial footprint significantly correlate with age.

Keywords: anthropometry, ACL footprint, double-bundle ACL, MRI

Citation: Utomo DN, Ranuh IGNDM, Chilmi MZ, Andrianus J, Desnantyo AT, Setiawati R. Antropometric study on the parameters of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3165-8.

Management in diarrhea patient caused by E. coli produce Esbl
Bayu Dharma S

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Background: A 55 years old, Javanese man suffered diarrhea more than 8 times since 7 days before and complained a fever, feeling a pain and stiffness in the abdomen. His feces was watery, sometimes with mucus and blood. Previously he had suffered Diabetes Mellitus since 5 years ago and had been doing a regular treatment at local health facilities. Result: Random Blood Glucose test was 136 mg/dl, so the early diagnosis was a regulated DM and acute diarrhea caused by suspected Shigella infection. The initial treatment was intravenous Ciprofloxacin 400mg injection, but the patient’s condition did not get any improvement. After 5 days of treatment, the Feces culture showed ESBL producing E. coli and resistant to Ciprofloxacin but sensitive to Meropenem. So the drug choice of antibiotics was replaced into Meropenem. Six days later, the patient’s clinical and laboratory parameters were improved. The feces re-culture results showed there was no growth of E. coli. Then, the antibiotic was changed to Meropenem. Conclusions: The patient had succeeded according to standard procedures for ESBL and became better condition and had a good prognosis. Thus, the special treatment for patient who experience ESBL was a treatment which according to standard procedures and the selection of appropriate antibiotics.

Keywords: diarrhea, E. Coli, ESBL

Citation: S BD. Management in diarrhea patient caused by E. coli produce Esbl. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3169-74.

Relationship between gradation density of biofilm bacteria with tonsillar hypertrophy on patients with chronic tonsillitis
Muhtarum Yusuf, Kamal Anshari, Boedy Setya Santoso

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Background: Tonsillar hypertrophy, which is an indicator of tonsillectomy, is less accurate in making indications, so more specific indicators are needed. In chronic tonsillitis, biofilm bacteria are found which can cause antibiotic resistance. The presence of biofilm bacteria in chronic tonsillitis causes antibiotic drugs to not work properly, which is indicated to be the cause of delayed recovery in chronic tonsillitis. Purpose: Knowing the relationship between the gradation of biofilm bacterial density and tonsillar hypertrophy in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Method: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional study design. All patients with chronic tonsillitis who undergo tonsillectomy were selected by consecutive sampling. Gradations of tonsillar hypertrophy and bacterial biofilm were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Result: The results of biofilm density gradation from 26 samples obtained grade 0 results of 1 (3.85%) patient with T2 tonsils, class 1 as many as 1 (3.85%) patient with T2 tonsils. Class 2 were 2 (7.69%) patients with T2 tonsils and 3 (11.54%) patients with T3 tonsils. Class 3 were 1 (3.85%) patient with T2 tonsils, 7 (26.92%) patients with T3 tonsils and 1 (3.85%) patient with T4 tonsils. Class 4 (biofilms> 76%) as many as 2 (7.69%) patients with T3 tonsils and 8 (30.76%) patients with T4 tonsils. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the gradation of biofilm bacterial density and tonsillar hypertrophy in patients with chronic tonsillitis. The higher the gradation density of biofilm bacteria, the higher the gradation of tonsillar hypertrophy.

Keywords: chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hypertrophy, density gradation of biofilm bacterial, scanning electron microscopy

Citation: Yusuf M, Anshari K, Santoso BS. Relationship between gradation density of biofilm bacteria with tonsillar hypertrophy on patients with chronic tonsillitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3175-9.

The effects of low-energy laser light in increasing the number of fibroblasts during the healing process of tendon achilles rupture in white rats (Rattus Norvegicus)
Erwin Ramawan, Putut Sugiantoro, Pramono Ari Wibowo, Kukuh Dwiputra Hernugrahanto, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Background: The recovery process of tendon injury is slower and results in weaker scar tissue. The increase in metabolism and the formation of new blood vessels in the tendon occurs in the tendon healing mechanism. Laser energy that hits the tissue increases the blood flow and lymph flow in the tissue. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effects of low energy laser therapy on the tendon healing process. Method: A total of 21 white rats were divided into three groups, i.e., G1 as the control group without additional therapy, G2 with the therapy in the inflammatory phase (day 3), and G3 with the therapy in the proliferative phase (day 8). G2 and G3 received the therapy for five days at a dose of 1 Joule. The experiment animals were terminated on the 21st day for evaluation, and the obtained and collected data at the end of the study were compared and analyzed using ANOVA statistical tests. Results: The groups that received the treatment using a low energy laser experienced an increase in the average number of fibroblasts by 78.99% per visual field in G2, and 79.23% in G3 in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: The administration of low energy laser therapy to the Achilles tendon healing of white rats brings positive results with an increase in the average number of fibroblasts.

Keywords: low energy laser, tendon, fibroblast

Citation: Ramawan E, Sugiantoro P, Wibowo PA, Hernugrahanto KD, Utomo DN. The effects of low-energy laser light in increasing the number of fibroblasts during the healing process of tendon achilles rupture in white rats (Rattus Norvegicus). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3181-4.

Effect of adding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)  and Sprout germinated barley as a prebiotics in diets of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) fingerling on growth performance and food utilization
Hazem S. Abedalhammed, Nasreen M. Abdulrahman, Munaf A. Qasim, S. M. Abdulateef, Th. T. Mohammed

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Various levels of  Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) (JAT) powder and Sprout Germinated Barley (SGB) powder were added to diets of young common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) with a content of 30% of crude protein in this study to detect their effect on growth performance, for a period of ten weeks. It's a Weight Gain (WG), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR), and feed utilization, it's a Feed Conversion Rate (FCR), Feed Efficiency Rate (FER) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). The (JAT) powder was added at the rate of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/kg, for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively, and adding (SGB) powder 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/kg for the fourth, fifth and sixth treatments, respectively, then control without addition, The third treatment 7.5 g/kg JAT outperformed significantly p<0.05 for all parameters over all treatments, and this significant p<0.05 superiority involved the sixth 7.5 gm/km SGB treatment for two criteria were WG and RGR, and did not differ significantly p<0.05 from the rest of the trial treatments, except for the control group which decreased significantly p<0.05 for all treatments and for all criteria. The feed utilization criteria significantly p<0.05 outperformed both the third treatment, 7.5 gm/kg JAT and the sixth treatment, 7.5 gm/kg, for the terms FER and PER. And criteria FCR, the same treatments recorded the best ratios for feed transfer significantly p<0.05 on all transactions, while the worst one was the control significantly p<0.05 for all treatments and all criteria.

Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), germinated barley, common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.), growth performance

Citation: Abedalhammed HS, Abdulrahman NM, Qasim MA, Abdulateef SM, Mohammed TT. Effect of adding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)  and Sprout germinated barley as a prebiotics in diets of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) fingerling on growth performance and food utilization. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3185-91.

Reducing incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) using prevention bundle in the ICU
Ahmad Amin Mahmudin, Djazuli Chalidyanto, T W Martanto, B W Semedi, Yulaicha, Solichah

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the most prevalent healthcare-associated infections in Intensive Care Units (ICU). In decreasing its incidence, a VAP prevention bundle as one of infection control methods had been applied to the ventilated patients. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the use of the VAP prevention bundle and the incidence rate of VAP in the ICU at a regional general hospital. A cross-sectional study was done using surveillance data of the VAP prevention bundle implementation checklist from the infection control committee. The samples were chosen using a stratified random sampling method. They were selected from two ICU wards according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria from January to June 2019 (n: 189). Furthermore, every seven bundles and the incidence rate of VAP were scored and observed. The result showed that there were ten incidences of VAP with a mean of 3.7‰. The highest rate was found in May as 9.8‰ while the standard was less than 5.8‰. Descriptive results showed that 6 of 7 bundles were the highest total scores in 34.9% samples with oral hygiene as a bundle item at most frequently listed in 98.4% patients. Logistic regression also pointed out a significant correlation (p<0.05) between the use of the VAP prevention bundle and the incidence rate of VAP. Therefore, there was a significant correlation between the use of VAP prevention bundles and the incidence rate of VAP for ventilated patients in the ICU room. Thus, each VAP prevention bundle must be carried out entirely to affect the incidence rate of VAP.

Keywords: healthcare-associated infections, intensive care units, infection control, VAP, prevention bundle

Citation: Mahmudin AA, Chalidyanto D, Martanto TW, Semedi BW, Yulaicha, Solichah. Reducing incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) using prevention bundle in the ICU. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3193-9.

Identification of Mandibular Cortical Index (MCI) in chronic periodontitis patients
Sri Wigati M M, Yunita Savitri, Ayu Mutia K

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Background: Chronic periodontitis is a disease of periodontal tissue involving periodontopathogenic bacteria and causes periodontal tissue damage. The tissue damage is caused by pathological bone resorption that indirectly affect the degree of cortical mandibular erosion bone. Resorption process that already reach hard tissue can be observed with dental radiograph, such as panoramic radiography. Assessing the degree of erosion on panoramic radiography, multiple qualitative and quantitative panoramic indices can be used. One of them use Mandibular Cortical Index (MCI).
Purpose: To identify MCI in chronic periodontitis patients as a beginning screening to predict the degree pf cortical mandibular erosion bone.
Method: Observation was conducted on 49 sample that was diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, have no systemic disease, and did not have any bone lesions. Sample was classified into three categories, which was C1 type (normal cortex), C2 type (moderately eroded cortex), and C3 type (severely eroded cortex). Data were statistically analyzed with Friedman test in order to test the differences among the researchers.
Results: Based on the results of the study, the percentage of C1, C2, and C3 types obtained in patients with chronic periodontitis were; 34.7%, 59.2%, 6.1%. The MCI category in most chronic periodontitis patients was type C2 (moderate erosion cortex) then was followed by type C1 (normal cortex), and C3 (porous cortex).
Conclusion: The use of MCI become the consideration for dentists to predict the bone condition of chronic periodontitis patients as a beginning screening thus it can determine the treatment steps for the next periodontal.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, Mandibular Cortical Index, panoramic radiography

Citation: M M SW, Savitri Y, Ayu Mutia K. Identification of Mandibular Cortical Index (MCI) in chronic periodontitis patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3201-5.

The misuse of traditional medicine which results in miscarriage
Dhiya Insi Aghniya, Astutik

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Herbal medicine is a traditional Indonesian medicine that has beneficial properties for many people. However, as seen on other kinds of medicine, its misuse will have a detrimental effect on its users. The usage of herbal medicine on pregnant women may cause pregnancy disorders, miscarriages, and even mortality. This research aims to study the misuse of traditional medicines that may cause miscarriages in pregnant women. Normative research method was applied, referring to authoritative primary legal materials. The results showed that drug abuse has become a way of consumption that are not suitable for the consumers, and is proven to have no benefit, especially herbal or traditional medicine that is consumed by pregnant women. On the other hand, the perpetrators of abuse must be held accountable for their actions based on the Criminal Code, Law No. 36 of 2009 concerning Health and Law No. 35 of 2014 concerning Amendments to Law No. 23 of 2002 concerning Child Protection because it has fulfilled the elements of criminal acts. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of herbal medicine or traditional medicine can be an unlawful act if used to abort an infant, because this is capable of causing mortality and excessive side effects, especially for pregnant women.

Keywords: herbal medicine, abuse, traditional medicine, miscarriage

Citation: Aghniya DI, Astutik. The misuse of traditional medicine which results in miscarriage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3207-11.

Correlation between perceived service quality and patient satisfaction with behavioral intention at a hospital in Surabaya
Irwan Khrestianto, Thini Nurul Rochmah, B Pramundita, A Samsulhadi

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The patients’ behavioral intention to continue the visit and return to the hospital for further treatment affect the number of patient visits at Dr. Ramelan Marine Hospital. Several factors that influence the patients’ behavioral intention include service quality and patient satisfaction. This study aims to determine the correlation between perceived service quality and patient satisfaction with the inpatients’ behavioral intention. This study was classified as a quantitative correlational. The subject for this study was 100 inpatients in Ramelan Marine Hospital. The primary data were collected by utilizing questionnaires include the perceived service quality scale, patient satisfaction scale, and behavioral intention scale. Data were analyzed employing the regression method. This study results indicated that: 1) there was a correlation between perceived service quality and patient satisfaction with behavioral intention, the value of R2 = 0.386; 2) the perceived service quality had a significant correlation with behavioral intention (r=0.322, p<0.05); 3) patient satisfaction had a significant correlation with behavioral intention (r= 407, p<0,05). The conclusion of this study was the perceived service quality and patient satisfaction have a substantial correlation with behavioral intention. Hence, improvement in service quality and patient satisfaction needs to be conducted immediately. It is expected for further research to provide interventions in improving behavioral intention.

Keywords: behavioral intention, patient satisfaction, service quality

Citation: Khrestianto I, Rochmah TN, Pramundita B, Samsulhadi A. Correlation between perceived service quality and patient satisfaction with behavioral intention at a hospital in Surabaya. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3213-6.

Mandibulan canalist variations on lower third molar impaction jaw with the panoramic radiography
Sri Wigati Mardi Mulyani, dan Otty Ratna Wahjuni, Ryan Andika Pratama

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Abstract

Background: The third molars of the lower mandibular are the most teeth with impaction because of to lack of eruption site. The canal of mandibular variations in impacted mandibular third molars are associated with a risk of injury be increased to the inferior alveolar nerve at the time of extraction. Radiography of panoramic is the most commonly used radiographic technique to see variations in the location of impacted third molars of mandibular and their relationship to the mandibular canal.  It is done to estimate the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury.
Objective: To determine the distribution of mandibular canal variations on impacted mandibular third molars with panoramic radiographs.
Methods: Study method consist of 60 samples used panoramic radiographic. The sample observers by on the Rood & Shehab classification. To analyze the data of this study using the Friedman test.
Results: The highest distribution of the first distribution was owned by the interruption of the third molar root by 77%, the second was owned by darkening of the root of the third molar by 11%, the third was owned by the narrowing of the of the root of third molar by 6%, and the canal of mandibular diversion was 6%.
Conclusion: The highest distribution of canal interruption of mandibular, followed by darkening of the third molar root of impacted, then narrowing of the third molar root and diversion the canal of mandibular.

Keywords: the third molar impaction, the canal of mandibular, panoramic radiograph

Citation: Mulyani SWM, Wahjuni DOR, Pratama RA. Mandibulan canalist variations on lower third molar impaction jaw with the panoramic radiography. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3217-21.

Relationship between type of lower third molar impaction and facial deformity
Adel Alenazi, Ammar Abdullah M Alhatlan, Abdulrahman Abdullah M Alotaibi, Nasser Alqhatani, Fazil Arshad Nasyam

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Abstract

Background: There is a relationship between facial deformity and angulation of impaction which is studied by many authors.
Aims and Objectives: To assess relation between the type of mandibular third molar impaction and skeletal deformity.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried on 152 orthopantomograms (OPG) and lateral cephalometric of patients of 18 years and above (106 males and 46 females) and the type of lower third molar impactions and facial deformity was recorded.
Results: 106 (69.7%) were males and 46 (31.3%) were females. The commonest impaction angulation was mesio-angular impaction which was found in 98 teeth out of which 65 belonged to males (66.3%) and 33 belonged to females (33.7%). The majority of the impacted teeth were found in patients who had skeletal class I facial profile (78.2%) out of which, most of them (44%) had mesio-angular impaction while least had inverted impaction (1.6%).
Conclusion: Mandibular third molar impaction is significantly associated with anteroposterior skeletal molar relationship.

Keywords: Distoangular, Facial Deformity, Impaction, Mesioangular, Third Molar

Citation: Alenazi A, Alhatlan AAM, Alotaibi AAM, Alqhatani N, Nasyam FA. Relationship between type of lower third molar impaction and facial deformity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3223-7.

Do task characteristics and team size affect tuberculosis prevention team trust?
Thinni Nurul Rochmah, S D Lestyoningrum, Fitri Widyacahya, Dewi Retno Suminar

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Abstract

Pulmonary tuberculosis still becomes a global health problem. Surabaya is one of the major cities in Indonesia that has an increasing number of tuberculosis cases each year. The Case Detection Rate (CDR) in Surabaya (60.17%) is still below the national target. The tuberculosis prevention team did not reach the performance target in 2015-2017. The writer intends to analyze the influence of task characteristics and team size of the Tuberculosis team. A cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression becomes the design applied in this study. The samples used were 39 tuberculosis control teams at the primary health care out of 63 populations. The study was conducted in Surabaya in July 2017-July 2018. The results showed that 88.4% of members of tuberculosis prevention teams had trust between members. It stated that an influence of task characteristics on team trust (p-value 0,000 and b=0,719) and an effect of team size on team trust (p-value = 0.044 and b=0.211). Furthermore, the better characteristics of the tuberculosis prevention team's task would affect the trust between team members. It makes the perceptions about the ideal size of the team would influence mutual trust between tuberculosis prevention team members. Both of task characteristics and ideal team size would affect the trust between tuberculosis prevention team members.

Keywords: task characteristics, team size, team trust, tuberculosis prevention teams

Citation: Rochmah TN, Lestyoningrum SD, Widyacahya F, Suminar DR. Do task characteristics and team size affect tuberculosis prevention team trust?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3229-33.

Optimizing employee job satisfaction by improving factors based on Cartesian matrix
Djazuly Chalidyanto, Mumun Zurida Emilia, D Ika, J P Widodo

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There was a decrease in the percentage of employee satisfaction from 2013-2014 on the aspects of culture of 6.94%, career opportunities and promotions of 6.88%, communication of 3.37%, leadership of 2.93%, work activities of 4.60%, work environment of 2.65%, and compensation or rewards of 3.36%. This study aimed to optimize employee job satisfaction by improving factors based on the Cartesian matrix in Menur Mental Hospital, East Java. research was conducted from April to June 2016. Primary and secondary data were collected using a questionnaire. Respondents were employees of the Menur Mental Hospital, East Java, which consisted of 82 samples. The sample represented all professional groups. 8 samples were taken from the total medical group, 25 samples were taken from the total nursing group, 3 samples were taken from the total pharmacists’ group, and 46 samples were taken from the total population of other health and non-health workers groups. The results showed a gap between expectations and perceptions of attributes and sub-attributes of job satisfaction. The biggest gap in the medical group was the attribute of empowerment of human resources and the sub-attribute of the proactive management attitude to seek feedback from employees. The biggest gap in the nursing group was the attribute of communication and the sub-attributes of the proactive management attitude to seek feedback from employees. Based on the analysis by the Cartesian matrix, the attribute of communication is the job satisfaction attribute having the most sub-attributes that go into the improvement priority.

Keywords: Cartesian matrix, expectations, gap analysis, job satisfaction, perception

Citation: Chalidyanto D, Emilia MZ, Ika D, Widodo JP. Optimizing employee job satisfaction by improving factors based on Cartesian matrix. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3235-9.

Analysis of patients behavior towards outpatients care utilization in health services
Sitti Rahmah Akhmad S, Retno Palupi, Windhu Purnomo

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Background: The utilization of health services by the public is a step towards realizing public health and well-being. The results of the Indonesian Basic Health Research in 2018, showed that the percentage of Indonesian population who had access to clinics or doctor’s practices based on their location of residence, 37.3% had easy access; 31.1% had difficult access, and 31.5% had very difficult access.
Purpose: This study was to analyze the behavior of patients in the utilization of outpatient health services at the BAZNAS Al-Chusnaini's Healthy Home Health Services, in Sidoarjo District.
Method: This research uses an analytic survey design with a cross-sectional approach. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 130 respondents who were determined through accidental sampling techniques and using a questionnaire instrument. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression.
Result: That most respondents were female (68%), and aged ≥35 years (79%). The results of the analysis of the relationship show that there is a relationship between knowledge (p = 0.004), trust (p = 0.003), facilities (p = 0.027), health worker behavior (p = 0.002), and utilization of outpatient services. The results of the analysis of influence together show that the variable that most influences patient satisfaction is the facility (Intercept = 0.005).
Conclusion: Patient behavior influences the utilization of health services.

Keywords: Calloselasma rhodostoma, ND4, phylogenetic, svPLA2, venom storage

Citation: Akhmad S SR, Palupi R, Purnomo W. Analysis of patients behavior towards outpatients care utilization in health services. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3241-6.

Relationship of fluoride and calcium levels in drinking water on periodontal diseases in children aged 6-8 years (Research observations in Bangkalan district)
Nabila Zalfa S., Mega Moeharyono P., Soegeng Wahluyo

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Abstract

Background: Plaques undergoing remineralization and becoming rigid can cause periodontal disease. The hardened plaque is called calculus. The occurrence of calculus formation can increase along with the amount of calcium and other minerals in saliva. Minerals in saliva contain calcium, phosphor, and fluoride. Fluoride is a mineral coming from natural sources, which is mostly obtained from drinking water. Indonesia, as a maritime country with a large coastal community, has a population that majority uses well water as drinking water. Well water can contain fluoride and calcium.
Purpose: To analyze the relationship between fluoride and calcium levels in drinking water on periodontal responses in children.
Methods: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Total sampling was carried out in Bangkalan District with a total of 140 parents and children as respondents. Informed consent and questionnaires were given to parents for data collection. Furthermore, the clinical examination on students was done by using a disclosing agent, then measured by OHI-S assessment. The results were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Spearman test.
Results: The results showed there was a relationship between regions with OHI-S scores, OHI-S scores with fluoride levels, and OHI-S scores with calcium levels.
Conclusion: The calcium levels in drinking water can affect salivary levels and increase plaques and calculus formation. Plaque accumulation is a major factor in the occurrence of periodontal disease.

Keywords: periodontal disease, calculus, fluoride, calcium storage

Citation: Nabila Zalfa S., Mega Moeharyono P., Wahluyo S. Relationship of fluoride and calcium levels in drinking water on periodontal diseases in children aged 6-8 years (Research observations in Bangkalan district). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3247-50.

Quality improvement in laboratory reagent management: a Six Sigma concept
Laili Hidayati, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin, Maya Dinama

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Abstract

Background: This research is based on the findings indicating an ineffectiveness and inefficiency of the process of managing reagents. The aim of this research was to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the reagent management process in the clinical pathology laboratory using the Six Sigma method.
Method: This was an action research study conducted at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of X Hospital. Data analysis was done using Six Sigma’s stage.
Result: The results in the define phase found that there were 4 critical to quality in the process of managing reagents. The measure phase found that the sigma value of the measurement results of the reagent management process was ≤ 2.5 sigma. The analysis stage was found in 12 root causes of the problem, with 4 root causes of the selected problem being repaired.
Conclusion: The Six Sigma can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of managing reagents.

Keywords: Six Sigma, laboratory reagents, clinical to quality

Citation: Hidayati L, Rochmah TN, Qomaruddin MB, Dinama M. Quality improvement in laboratory reagent management: a Six Sigma concept. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3251-6.

Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) report of medication processing a private hospital
Djazuly Chalidyanto, Winda Easteria Kurniasari

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Abstract

Medication error is one of many adverse events that occur at a hospital, based on data from the Committee of Quality Improvement and Patient Safety in this hospital. This study aims to analyze failure modes and the effects of the medication process by using FMEA as a proactive risk reduction method in healthcare. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Data are obtained from incident reports and risk register of this hospital. In nature way, the writer analyzes the data descriptively. The FMEA process uses stages following JCI. For this activity, the FMEA produces failure modes, potential causes and potential effects. The highest Risk Priority Number (80) of failure modes is shown by the aspect of the lack of information about patients’ allergic history in medical records. The rate of 60% of the proposed redesign process is implemented in this hospital, and it manages to lower Risk Priority Number 64 points from 80 to 16.  Redesign Process using FMEA method can be used in reducing healthcare risk, and this research needs to be continued to observe the effectiveness of FMEA in reducing incident report in this hospital this year.

Keywords: FMEA, medication errors, medication process, patient safety and quality improvement, risk management storage

Citation: Chalidyanto D, Kurniasari WE. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) report of medication processing a private hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3257-61.

Waiting time and satisfaction of outpatient in the pharmacy section
Andreas Nugroho Susanto, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: Waiting time for pharmaceutical services, especially outpatients, had become a problem often occurring in hospitals. The correlation between patient expectations and satisfaction level is high, and patient expectations are important to be recognized. The purpose of this paper was to find out whether drug waiting time has a relationship with patient satisfaction in the pharmaceutical department, especially for the outpatients.
Methods: This was a cross sectional study combined with questionnaires distributed to outpatients in the outpatient pharmacy department. The data were presented in the form of descriptive data with a total of 1338 patient respondents and observations for 3 months.
Results: There was an increase in patient satisfaction in the outpatient pharmacy department regarding the waiting time of the drug, followed by several other factors, including pharmacists’ compliance in explaining the procedures for the use of medications prescribed by doctors. The number of patients who transacted in outpatient pharmacy was increase, indicating the patients’ trust or loyalty to the pharmaceutical installation at Siloam Hospital in Surabaya.
Conclusion: There was an increase in patient satisfaction in the outpatient pharmacy department.

Keywords: outpatient department, pharmacy section, satisfaction

Citation: Susanto AN, Chalidyanto D. Waiting time and satisfaction of outpatient in the pharmacy section. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3263-6.

Problem analysis of human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni, Muhammad Maulidin, A. Y. Setiawan

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Abstract

Problem analysis is a fundamental part of health program planning. In 2016, several HIV-AIDS new cases in Jember District was 566 cases, and in 2017 it increased to 637 occurrences, though in 2018 it decreased to 506 cases. This study aimed to analyze the problem priority of HIV-AIDS in Jember District in 2019. A descriptive observational study was conducted in Jember District Health Office in January 2019. The data collected from the Health Profile of Jember District in 2015-2018 and interviews with officers used questionnaire. Determination of problem priority used the criteria of Urgency, Seriousness, and Growth (USG). The cause of the problem was analyzed using Ishikawa method. Determination of the root of the problem on priority problems is done using the 5M theory (Man, Money, Method, Material, Measurement). However, the incidence of HIV cases in Jember District is seen based on influential factors that are Man, Method and Measurement to classify the causative factors. According to the USG method, HIV-AIDS was chosen as the main priority with score 189, and the finding of HIV cases which has not been optimum was selected as the main problem priority. The number of AIDS-related deaths had fluctuated, and there were 73 cases in 2017. HIV-AIDS facts mostly found in men and at the age range of 20-49 years. Based on the Ishikawa method, the root of the problem was the lack of public knowledge about HIV-AIDS and the lack of public awareness to carry out HIV testing. The finding of HIV cases which has not been optimum was the main problem priority. It is necessary to strengthen the cross-program and cross-sector collaboration, maximizing the role of health cadres and peer educators in the community to educate about HIV-AIDS to reduce stigma and discrimination.

Keywords: HIV-AIDS, problem priority, Ishikawa, finding of HIV cases

Citation: Wahyuni CU, Maulidin M, Setiawan AY. Problem analysis of human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3267-2.

Hydrometrocolpos in neonate with imperforate hymen: Diagnosis and treatment
Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati, Achmad Zaki, Jimmy Yanuar, Sri Andreani Utomo

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Abstract

Background: Hydrometrocolpos is a rare condition. Hydrometrocolpos is a cystic dilatation of the uterovaginal with fluid accumulation due to a combination of stimulation of secretory glands of the reproductive tract and vaginal obstruction such as imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum or vaginal atresia. Purpose: In this paper, the researchers would report the rare case of hydrometrocolpos in the newborns with the imperforate hymen. Method: The researchers report a case a 24-year-old primigravida at term was referred to the hospital with the suspected fetal congenital anomalies. It shows prenatal fetal ultrasonography with intra-abdominal cystic mass. Then, a female neonate was delivered vaginally with a good Apgar score. Result: Physical examination of the neonate revealed a cystic mass intralabial caused by the bulging membrane in the vaginal introitus. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging postnatal further defined a cystic mass in the pelvic extending caudally into the vagina and mild left hydronephrosis which is the result of mass compression. Therefore, the diagnosis of hydrometrocolpos with the imperforate hymen was established. Conclusion: The treatment by hymenotomy and marsupialization to the evacuated hydrometrocolpos was performed. The infants are recovered fully after the treatment and show postoperative ultrasonography resolution of hydrometrocolpos and hydronephrosis.

Keywords: diagnosis, Hydrometrocolpos, imperforate hymen, treatment

Citation: Kurniawati EM, Zaki A, Yanuar J, Utomo SA. Hydrometrocolpos in neonate with imperforate hymen: Diagnosis and treatment. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3273-7.

The relationship of the agricultural sector to the level of poverty in Central Sulawesi Indonesia
Muhardi, Mahfudz, Christoporus, Radha Febriani Putri Kanela, Effendy

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Abstract

The agricultural sector plays an important role in providing employment in Indonesia, so it had a very important role in the economy of Central Sulawesi Province. The dominant contribution of the agricultural sector, especially in strengthening food security and alleviating poverty. This research determines the causal relationship of the agricultural sector with the level of poverty in Central Sulawesi Province using time series data from 2008 to 2017. The researched uses the Granger causality analysis with a stationary test, cointegration test, and Granger causality test for the data. This study determined that the level of poverty had a causal relationship with the agricultural sector, but on the contrary, the agricultural sector did not have a causal relationship with the level of poverty. The result is that it is possible to suggest that, if one wanted to reduce the level of poverty in Central Sulawesi Province, one could do so namely by: expanding employment in the agricultural sector, expanding agricultural land, utilizing the agro-industry sector, and stabilizing the prices of agricultural products so that the government needed to pay attention to the agricultural sector.

Keywords: agriculture, poverty, causality

Citation: Muhardi, Mahfudz, Christoporus, Kanela RFP, Effendy. The relationship of the agricultural sector to the level of poverty in Central Sulawesi Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3279-83.

Greening the environment in living a new lifestyle in the COVID-19 era
Harida Samudro, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo

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Abstract

The essential health protocol for living in the COVID-19 era requires antiseptic and disinfecting agents, as well as clean water for personal washing and objects related to the conditions of human activity. The results of personal hygiene measures and the cleanliness of objects are additional wastewater discharges, and increased peak discharges of wastewater, compared to conditions without the protocol. In addition, the quality of wastewater is compounded by enrichment of toxic substances for microbes. As a consequence, the wastewater needs to be treated from the source to the disposal to the environment. Various studies that have been carried out previously indicate the potential of plants in eliminating antiseptic and disinfectant substances contained in wastewater. Therefore, this paper discusses specifically the contribution of greening the environment in treating wastewater rich in these toxic substances.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment, greening, environment

Citation: Samudro H, Mangkoedihardjo S. Greening the environment in living a new lifestyle in the COVID-19 era. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3285-90.

Correlation between interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 levels with systemic lupus erythematosus and the effect of the age and gender
Eman Wahab Kadhum, Amal Talib Al-Sa’ady

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Abstract

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid in early diagnosis, monitoring patients with mild disease, recognizing warning signs that require referral to a rheumatologist, and helping to monitor disease activity and treatment in patients with moderate to severe disease.
Materials & Methods: The study included 70 samples included: 50 outpatients who attended to Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate who are suffering from dermatitis during the period (Feb.2019 to Aug. 2019). Their ages are ranging between (1-45) years old and from both genders. Depending on the age, the patients were divided into three groups included 1-15 years old, 16-30 years old and 31-45 years old. The negative control group included 20 healthy persons in the same age groups. A questionnaire was done to obtain the required information from the patient for the purpose of statistical analyzes.
Results: A significant difference in the level of IL-10 & IL-12 were detected in patient groups in comparison with the control group. The results also showed that O+ blood group is the most frequent (30%) among patient groups. Furthermore, there is a genetic tendency in the frequency of onset of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and the family history: 20%, 40%,and 30%of patients with SLE have family history of this disease in both parents, in mother only, in father only, respectively. Results also showed that the frequency of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus infection was effected by the gender (female is more vulnerable) and the age (31-45 years old has highest frequency).

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-12, family history, gender, age, blood group

Citation: Kadhum EW, Al-Sa’ady AT. Correlation between interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 levels with systemic lupus erythematosus and the effect of the age and gender. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3291-7.

Forecast of development zones of non-anticlinal traps in the Paleozoic complex of the south area of the Pre-Caspian basin
D. K. Azhgaliev, G. V. Voronov, S. N. Nursultanova, K. M. Taskinbayev

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Abstract

Taking into account the current stage of study, the article discusses the structural and developmental features of the Paleozoic complex of the Pre-Caspian basin, which is associated with the prospect of discovering new large hydrocarbon deposits. In assessing the prospects of oil and gas, the factor of paleobatimetric analysis and reconstructions of the paleo-environment of sedimentation was considered as one of the main ones. Factors of a regional scale that contribute to the formation of non-anticlinal type traps are substantiated.

Keywords: Pre-Caspian basin, bead region, Paleozoic complex, sediments, analysis, non-anticlinal trap, oil and gas prospects, hydrocarbon deposits, paleo-depths, sedimentation

Citation: Azhgaliev DK, Voronov GV, Nursultanova SN, Taskinbayev KM. Forecast of development zones of non-anticlinal traps in the Paleozoic complex of the south area of the Pre-Caspian basin. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3299-308.

Anthropometric studies of distal femur and proximal tibia using magnetic resonance imaging methods in public hospitals
Dwikora Novembri Utomo, I Gusti Ngurah Dodo M. Ranuh, Muhammad Zaim Chilmi, Jeffrey Andrianus, Andre Triadi Desnantyo, Rosy Setiawati

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Abstract

Background: The therapeutic choice for managing osteoarthritis is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One of the important things in preparation for TKA operations is the determination of implant size. The TKA prosthesis used in Indonesia is based on European population measurements, whereas the size of Asians is smaller than the size of the Caucasian. Purpose: This study aims to determine the anthropometric size of the femur bone in the distal part and the tibia of the proximal part. Method: The subjects were 100 knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the data analysis, the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relationship between all parameters. Result: In the measurement of distal femur parameters, a significant relationship was found between TEA (p = 0,000), AML (p = 0,000), PML (p = 0,000), and AP group (p = 0.003) with sex/gender and age. There is a relationship between the proximal tibia of width parameters ML (p = 0,000 and p = 0.002), and MPW (p = 0,000 and p = 0,000) with sex/gender and age. MPH by age with p-value = 0.001. LPW by gender (p = 0.001), while other parameters have no significant relationship. Conclusion: that the size of the distal femoral parameters and the proximal tibia were not affected by the patient’s ethnicity and BMI but were significantly affected by age and sex/gender.

Keywords: anthropometry, distal femur, proximal tibia

Citation: Utomo DN, Ranuh IGNDM, Chilmi MZ, Andrianus J, Desnantyo AT, Setiawati R. Anthropometric studies of distal femur and proximal tibia using magnetic resonance imaging methods in public hospitals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3309-13.

Comparison of pre and post-external beam radiation therapy image between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of patients with cervical cancer stage IIIB by measuring primary tumor size in pelvis CT scan without contrast
Lulus Handayani, Basuki Nugroho

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Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is a gynecologic malignancy which is considered the most frequent cause of death among women. The management for advanced stage is through radiotherapy which consists of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy.
The purpose of this study is to compare pre and post External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) image between Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of patients with cervical cancer stage IIIB by measuring primary tumor size in pelvis CT scan without contrast.
Method: This study was conducted in outpatient unit of Radiotherapy Installation Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya in the period of January 2010 to December 2013.There were 30 patients with cervical cancer stage IIIB. 15 of them have Squamous Cell Carcinoma histopathology result, while the other 15 have Adenocarcinoma histopathology result. The data were secondary data collected from medical records and pelvis CT scan.
Result: Mean of pre-EBRT, post EBRT tumor measurement and post-EBRT tumor size reduction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of patients with cervical cancer stage IIIB using pelvis CT scan without contrast are, respectively, 6:01± 1:12 cm and 5:39 ± 1:03 cm, 3.72 ± 0.86 cm and 3.31 ± 0.17 cm, 2:29 ± 0:46 cm (38.42 ± 6.12 %) and 2:06 ± 0:51 cm (38.30 ± 5:19 %).
Conclusion: No evident difference is found in tumor size reduction between Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of patients with cervical cancer stadium IIIB in post-EBRT pelvis CT scan without contrast.

Keywords: External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT), Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, cervical cancer stage IIIB, tumor size, pelvis CT scan without contrast

Citation: Handayani L, Nugroho B. Comparison of pre and post-external beam radiation therapy image between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of patients with cervical cancer stage IIIB by measuring primary tumor size in pelvis CT scan without contrast. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3315-9.

Interleukin 1β and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen: Role in susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infections
Shahad Abd Alrahman, Zainab A. Tolaifeh, Israa Adnan Ibraheam

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Abstract

Objective: Interleukin 1β is a powerful cytokine with a variety of inflammatory functions. This cytokine plays a role in many cellular activities including cell expansion, differentiation, and apoptosis. CTLA4 is an antigen expressed in T lymphocytes has a critical role as inhibitory receptor acting as a major negative regulator of T-cell responses. Material and Methods: Fifty samples of the blood were obtained from CMV patients and a safe control group, then DNA was extracted and analyzed for genotypes IL-1β and CTLA-4 and Alleles with (PCR) and Gel electrophoresis using 2,25%, 2% the concentration of agarose was (respectively) investigated. Results: IL-1β mutations were detected in 58 percent of CMV patients, Although only 44% were observed in the control group, we noticed a substantial correlation between the genotype and the allele frequency and the P<0.05 group of CMV infections. CTLA-4, the G allele correlates with a substantially reduced risk of CMV infections. Conclusion: IL-1β and CTLA-4 are associated with CMV infections.

Keywords: Interleukin 1β, T lymphocyte, CTLA-4

Citation: Abd Alrahman S, Tolaifeh ZA, Ibraheam IA. Interleukin 1β and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen: Role in susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3321-5.

Pathological study of Ascaridia galli in poultry
Maher Ali AL-Quraishi, Hawraa Sabah Al-Musawi, Zainab Abd Mohsen AL-Haboobi

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Abstract

The current study included examination of 181 birds (vobra strain), the total infection rate was 30.55 % (55 bird), the infection rate according to months Feb. marc. Apr. and jun. were (40 %, 32.5%, 29.16%, 21.27% Respectively). The higher infection rate was 40% for age less than (10 week) while the lower infection rate was 20% for age (˃20 week). The infection intensity divided to three group (light, medium, heavy), and the results shows that 65.45% was light infection and 7.27%, 27. 27 % were medium and heavy infection Respectively. The infected birds showed symptoms of wasting, lethargy, tachycardia and intestinal inflammation.

Keywords: Ascaridia galli, roundworm, infection

Citation: AL-Quraishi MA, Al-Musawi HS, AL-Haboobi ZAM. Pathological study of Ascaridia galli in poultry. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3327-9.

Association between cervical cancer tumor size based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surgery results
Gusti Ayu Indirawati, Bambang Soeprijanto, Ressy Adi Nugroho

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Abstract

Background: A malignant tumor generally has a large nuclei and exhibits high cell density. Cervical cancer tumor size is a prognostic factor of therapy. Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) is one of widely used imaging modalities to evaluate primary tumor size and volume. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequence is an MRI technique without contrast material that describes tumor size. Objectives: The research aimed to investigate correlation between cervical cancer tumor size based on DW-MRI sequence and surgery results. Methods: The research was a retrospective cohort study with 8 selected subjects. All The data were taken from cervical cancer stage IIB patients’ medical records from June 2014-February 2015. Tumor volume obtained from MRI examination and surgery results were collected using ellipse formula, followed by statistical test. All data were processed using Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The average longest diameter obtained to DW-MRI was 2.98±1.26 cm and volume was 11.0883±12.873 cm3. The average longest diameter obtained to surgery results was 2.66±1.53 cm and volume was 8.0581±13.378 cm3. The correlation between tumor size obtained with DW-MRI and surgery results based on the longest diameter and volume was r = 0.788, p = 0.02 and r = 0.746, p = 0.03, respectively. Conclusion: We found a strong correlation between tumor size obtained to DW-MRI and surgery results based on the longest diameter, while there was a weak correlation based on the tumor volume.

Keywords: cervical cancer, chemotherapy response, DW-MRI, surgery results, tumor size

Citation: Indirawati GA, Soeprijanto B, Nugroho RA. Association between cervical cancer tumor size based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surgery results. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3331-6.

Effect of ultrasound cavitation versus radiofrequency on abdominal fat thickness in postnatal women
Yasmin M. Assim, Khadiga S. Abd El-Aziz, Ghada E. EL Refaye, Ashraf T. Youssef

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Abstract

Background: Overweight and obesity are predominant among women of conceptive age (25–34 years) with 42% having a BMI more than 25 kg/m2. Weight gain builds the dangers of having diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The amount of weight gain postpartum can shift women from the healthy weight category into the overweight or obese BMI categories. Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of ultra-sound Cavitation versus radiofrequency on abdominal fat thickness on postnatal women. Subjects and Methods. Fifty overweight primipara women at 6 months postnatally aged from 20-35 years, BMI (25-29.9) kg/m2 and have waist hip ratio (WHR) > 0.8. They were assigned randomly into 2 equal groups: Group (A) received ultra-sound cavitation 40 KHz applied for 30 minutes, once time weekly for 8 weeks. Group (B) received radiofrequency multi-polar (1 MHZ) applied for 30 minutes, once time weekly for 8 weeks. Both groups got a similar diet program all through the treatment period. All females in both groups were assessed through weight scale for body weight, tape measurement for waist/hip ratio and ultra-sonography for fat thickness of the abdominal area pre and post treatment program. Results: showed that there was a significant reduction of body weight, abdominal fat thickness at three level (at the umbilicus level, above and below umbilicus by 5 cm) in both groups with favorable results for group A. With a significant reduction of waist/hip ratio in group A only. Conclusion: Ultrasound cavitation and radiofrequency are effective strategies for the treatment of abdominal obesity, however US cavitation are more effective than RF in reduction of WHR and abdominal fat thickness in abdominal obese in postnatal ladies.

Keywords: ultra-sound cavitation, radiofrequency, abdominal fat thickness, postnatal women

Citation: Assim YM, El-Aziz KSA, Refaye GEE, Youssef AT. Effect of ultrasound cavitation versus radiofrequency on abdominal fat thickness in postnatal women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3337-47.

Climate impact on the population dynamics of Cruciferae Bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Eurydema)
Lola Gandjaeva, Ikram Abdullaev, Kahramon Razzakov, Komila Allabergenova

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Abstract

The current research was conducted to investigate the seasonal population dynamics of Cruciferae bugs in the territory of the Lower Amu Darya River. We carried out a study of population dynamics and field observations of Cruciferae bugs from the hatching period until their disappearance in the autumn during the years 2017-2019. The aim of this research was to study the effects of diverse temperature and humidity conditions on the population dynamics of the Central Asian species Eurydema maracandica (Oshanin, 1871) and Eurydema wilkinsi (Distant, 1879), which are prevalent species in the territory of the Lower Amu Darya River. It is known that climate change has an impact on the number of bugs and on their development. Therefore, the rates of temperature and humidity change are very important factors determining the seasonal population dynamics of both species.

Keywords: population dynamic, Cruciferae bugs, E. maracandica Osh., E. Wilkinsi Dist., the Lower Amu Darya River, Uzbekistan

Citation: Gandjaeva L, Abdullaev I, Razzakov K, Allabergenova K. Climate impact on the population dynamics of Cruciferae Bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Eurydema). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3349-58.

The genetic relation of Indonesian Calloselasma rhodostoma based on ND4 gene and preliminary study of its venom storage condition
Ahmad Muammar Kadafi, Dea Jolie Chrestella, Panupong Thammachoti, Fatchiyah, Nia Kurniawan

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Abstract

Calloselasma rhodostoma (Kuhl, 1824) is one species of Indonesian medically important snake that distributed in many Indonesia regions. With the recent snakebite cases of this snake and warrant of further improvement on anti-venin in Indonesia, the information on storage conditions for its venom is important for developing an anti-venin. The genetic identity that possibly holds a cryptic diversity that has not been resolved, could impact the future of anti-venin development of this species. We analyze the molecular data based on the ND4 gene to resolve the genetic relations of this snake from Java, Kangean, and Borneo population with the addition of the Thailand population by Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstruction. To evaluate the storage conditions, venom collection from six living specimens from the Java population was used to analyze the effect of svPLA2 activity under different storage conditions for 14 days long. The phylogenetic results show a polytomy tree, with a low p-distance value between populations. Only the storage at 37 ºC affects the performance of svPLA2 significantly. The phylogenetic indicating a single species even though divided by geographical barriers, more genes need to be compared to resolve the genetic relationship. More samples are needed to compare the venom properties throughout C. rhodostoma wide distribution, to enlight the anti-venin future development.

Keywords: Calloselasma rhodostoma, ND4, phylogenetic, svPLA2, venom storage

Citation: Kadafi AM, Chrestella DJ, Thammachoti P, Fatchiyah, Kurniawan N. The genetic relation of Indonesian Calloselasma rhodostoma based on ND4 gene and preliminary study of its venom storage condition. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3359-66.

Spectral indices analysis for Al-Gharaf River basin land cover by apply remote sensing techniques
Fouad K. Mashee, Osamah Hadi Mutlag, Muaid Jassim Rasheed

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Abstract

In recent decades, interest in the science of remote sensing of its wide applications has increased, the brilliant that it provides and the accuracy that it requires in its implementation, which are essentially based on modern technologies applied in spacecraft, airborne and ground-based surveillance devices.
The development taking place in communications, data transfer, massive data storage devices and computer processing in storing, retrieving and analyzing data and extracting recent data that serve the goal of research, including (our study area) includes monitoring and controlling vast areas for managing economic resources such as (agricultural, water, soil and land use (LU)).
And natural phenomena and disasters such as (desertification, floods, sweeping torrents, rainstorms and burn or fires), in addition to geometric estimate and quantity with utmost accuracy and in various ways, especially estimating compensation due to disasters. 
Our study area relied on appropriate satellite imagery in spatial accuracy using satellite imagery of Landsat 5 and 8 For the periods 05/07/2000 and 05/09/2017, which are currently widely available through data transmission networks, in order to control the resources of the Earth's Land Cover (LC) that serve inhabitant humans.
The study area represents the entire Al-Gharaf river basin and is located between the governorates of Wasit and Dhi Qar in western southern Iraq, and it included a section of a length of river 168,800 km, while the total area of the area covered by the study Al-Gharaf River basin is 318845,600 km2.
The process of monitoring the change in the Land Cover (LC) of this area is classified using three methods:
The results showed Supervised and Unsupervised Classification techniques for (NDVI) and (NDWI) respectively, the area covered with water from the total area (3273457222 m2) was 1.2% in the 2000 year to increase in the 2017 year to become 3.6% by a triple, While Vegetation covers (VC) 22% in the 2000 year of the Al-gharaf River Basin, it increases double to 44% in the 2017 year. As for Land use (LU), its area increases from 24.94% in 2000year to 31.03% in the 2017 year, and finally, soil types cover an area of 61.1% in the 2000 year, decreasing to 15.83% in the 2017 year.
These results indicated that the area is promising. Scientific plans should be developed for the rest of the areas adjacent to the Al-Gharaf River Basin.
This data and results are managed with the use of GIS ArcMap 10.2 software and tools, and Microsoft Office version 10 package.

Keywords: GIS Applications, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Satellite Landsat 5 and 8 Imagery, Supervised and Unsupervised Techniques

Citation: Mashee FK, Mutlag OH, Rasheed MJ. Spectral indices analysis for Al-Gharaf River basin land cover by apply remote sensing techniques. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3367-5.

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus sabdariffa and their biological application
Raghad Khwater Maeah, Butheina Abd AL-Hamza Hasoon, Afnan Ismael Abd-Alwahab, Khalida Farhan F. AL-azawi, Wafaa Beed Allah Hameedi

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Abstract

Silver has a good history of use in medicine and people healthcare. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared by the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The UV, FTIR, and SEM were used for the detection of AgNPs. We have compared the antibacterial activity between the ethanolic extract and nano extract. The antibacterial activity was high in nano extract. DPPH assay was estimated the antioxidant action of nano extract and the effects was showed 82.22 % in 75μg/ml concentration. MTT assay was used for detecting the cytotoxicity of nano extract against Colon cancer, the outcomes showed the moral level of cytotoxic action with increasing concentration.

Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Silver nanoparticles, Antibacterial activity

Citation: Maeah RK, Hasoon BAA, Abd-Alwahab AI, AL-azawi KFF, Hameedi WBA. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus sabdariffa and their biological application. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3377-83.

Inhibitory effect of saccharomyces cervisiae filtrates on growth some type of bacteria
Raya G. Fathy, Mohommed Fadhil Haddad, Wjdan Salim Qasim

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Abstract

Beaker yeast is one of a wide variety of fungi found in nature. The current study included investigating the inhabitability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates on the growth of some negative bacteria that gram stain. The results showed that baking yeast varies in its ability to produce lethal toxins that inhibit the growth of some types of positive and negative bacteria of gram stain according to the nature of isolation and according to the company producing them effectiveness of baking yeast increases to produce toxins when grown at a temperature of 30 ° C. While the temperatures of 20 ° C and 37 ° C were not efficient in the production process pH has an effective role to increase its ability to produce toxins that inhibit the growth of other yeasts, the best of which was at = pH3.5

Keywords: saccharomyces cerevisiae, temperature, pH, bacteria, saccharomyces cervisiae filtrates

Citation: Fathy RG, Haddad MF, Qasim WS. Inhibitory effect of saccharomyces cervisiae filtrates on growth some type of bacteria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3385-90.

Gender specific mRNA expression of HSPA8 in Parkinson’s disease
Tippabathani Jayakrishna, Jayshree Nellore, Visalakshi Veerappan

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Abstract

HSPA8, is a molecular chaperone that plays a crucial role in assuring the protein quality. HSPA8, has therefore been hypothesized to be associated with Parkinson’s risk because the pathogenesis of this disease is characterized by intracellular protein misfolding and inclusion body formation. Also, epidemiological data suggest that the male gender is one of the risk factors for the development of PD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying gender specificity in PD is less explored. Hence, we investigated the HSPA8 expression profile of male and female in a south Indian population and whether HSPA8 expression levels correlate with HSPA genetic variants and disease. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) we quantified HSPA8 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of thirty cases of Parkinson’s patients (PD) with anti-PD medications (20 males aged 65.85±1.19 and 10 females aged 65.7±1.202) and 30 age matched healthy people (20 males aged 68.45±1.282 and 10 females aged 65.8±1.133). Further, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was performed to detect gene variants in HSPA8. We observed that HSPA8 expression was markedly reduced in PD patients compared with control (p<0.05), but HSPA8 mRNA in males was reduced to greater degree (-48.56%) than in females (-38.28%). SSCP analysis detected polymorphisms at exon 4 of HSPA8, in both male and female patients, No significant difference in SSCP patterns were observed between genders of control and PD. On the molecular level, our results provide evidence that the expression profiles of HSPA8 of age matched normal and PD are gender specific. Altogether, we believe that our data provide a platform for investigating peripheral markers and understanding the role of gender in PD pathogenesis.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, HSPA8, Peripheral blood lymphocytes, Gender, qRT-PCR

Citation: Jayakrishna T, Nellore J, Veerappan V. Gender specific mRNA expression of HSPA8 in Parkinson’s disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3391-5.

Formation of patriotic values through perception of musical and geographical images
Tatyana Y. Medvedeva, Olga A. Sizova, Maria V. Daricheva, Tatyana K. Belyaeva, Svetlana M. Markova, Rimma A. Ulyanova

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Abstract

Recently there has been an increase in public debates concerning the problem of the formation of patriotic values among the younger generation, the related issues are exposed in the media and modern literature. Reaching impressive heights in science and technology, mankind has faced the threat of losing the spiritual component of its development. Hence the society feels disempowered by the problems that have appeared in our life: the lack of stable values, the tendency to form selfish behavior of the younger generation, as well as the desire for virtual communication, as opposed to real one. In these circumstances, the state educational policy is taking the responsibility for the patriotic development of the young generation in Russia. Without strengthening the patriotic principles of our life, its moral foundations, the progressive development of Russian society is impossible. The challenge of forming patriotic values is directly related to the process of educating the individual. The purpose of the article is to study the essence of patriotic education of the younger generation through perceiving musical and geographical images. The article examines the academic views of art historians and educationalists concerning the problems of instilling patriotic values through perceiving musical and geographical images, analyzes the normative documents that determine the relevance of the formation of patriotic values in modern society. The research materials can be applied in the organization of educational, cultural and leisure activities.

Keywords: patriotic values, musical and geographical images, morality, ethics

Citation: Medvedeva TY, Sizova OA, Daricheva MV, Belyaeva TK, Markova SM, Ulyanova RA. Formation of patriotic values through perception of musical and geographical images. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3397-400.

Development of speed endurance of children of 13 to 14 years of age attending football classes
Vitaliy L. Skitnevskiy, Valentina F. Balashova, Elena L. Grigoryeva, Vladimir I. Kozlov, Ivan A. Sedov, Yulia S. Krasilnikova, Sergey А. Smirnov

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Abstract

The relevance of the problem under research is determined by the fact that researches and practical guidance for improvement of physical condition of football players of 13 to 14 years of age have poor representation in scientific and methodological literature. This problem poses a great theoretical and practical value for training both highly skilled football players and athletes of mass athletic titles. The purpose of this article is to elaborate a method for improvement of speed endurance of football players of 13 to 14 years of age and to test the efficiency of the method. The top method for researching of this problem is analyzing the scientific and methodological literature, conducting a pedagogical experiment and performing monitoring tests. The main feature of this article is elaboration of a method for improvement of speed endurance of football players of 13 to 14 years of age and validation of efficiency of the method by means of conducting 30 meter test runs. The materials of this article may be found useful by students of physical education and sports departments, physical education teachers of general schools, vocational and higher educational institutions, as well by teachers of extended educational system.

Keywords: physical training, speed endurance, football, special running exercises, middle school age

Citation: Skitnevskiy VL, Balashova VF, Grigoryeva EL, Kozlov VI, Sedov IA, Krasilnikova YS, et al. Development of speed endurance of children of 13 to 14 years of age attending football classes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3401-7.

N-acetyl-Cysteine effects on tissue malondialdehyde level and tissue edema on the Ischemia-Eperfusion injury of white rats’ (Rattus Norvegicus) skeletal muscles
Erwin Ramawan, Didyn Nuzul Arifin, Primadenny Ariesa Airlangga, Lukas Widhiyanto, Pramono Ari Wibowo, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: N-acetylcysteine ​​(NAC), as an antioxidant, has been proven to have protective effects on cells undergoing oxidative stress. In the case of skeletal muscles, NAC can reduce muscle fatigue by decreasing Na+ K+ pump activity during exercise, and improve skeletal muscle microcirculation in an experimental model of severe closed soft-tissue injury. Purpose: This study aims to determine NAC effects on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of skeletal muscles by measuring tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and edema, as well as the effect of NAC dose on MDA levels. Method: Randomization was carried out to 30 white rats (Rattus norvegicus), which then divided into 3 treatment groups, i.e., K group as the control group (NaCl 0.9%), PTX (Pentoxyfilline) group, as well as P1, P2, and P3 treatment groups. ANOVA test was employed to identify the differences in MDA levels and water content among groups. Results: ANOVA test results indicated that there was a significant difference between the control group (K) and the treatment group given NAC (P1, 2, 3), p = 0.007, while there was no difference in edema indicating that there were no different data groups among the five treatment groups with a p-value = 0.616 (p> 0.05). Conclusion: NAC administration provides positive results by reducing tissue MDA levels with the recommended dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight. NAC administration does not reduce tissue edema, and there are no significant differences with the Pentoxifylline group.

Keywords: NAC, MDA, edema, ischemia-reperfusion of skeletal muscles

Citation: Ramawan E, Arifin DN, Airlangga PA, Widhiyanto L, Wibowo PA, Utomo DN. N-acetyl-Cysteine effects on tissue malondialdehyde level and tissue edema on the Ischemia-Eperfusion injury of white rats’ (Rattus Norvegicus) skeletal muscles. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3409-13.

The evaluation of chip freeze-dried cancellous bone allograft of local products usage as a scaffold in completing small defects on long bone
Tri Wahyu Martanto, Ronald Vinantius Munthe, Heri Suroto, Sulis Bayusentono, Aries Rakhmat Hidayat, Ferdiansyah

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Abstract

Background: Bone graft as a therapeutic modality for bone defects reconstruction has been widely applied. Bone autograft is the optimum comparative standard for each substitute material, but can still cause complications and limited availability. Bone allograft has long been used as a natural substitute material for bone autograft. Chip freeze-dried bone allograft is one of the allograft’s types available in various shapes and sizes, so it has the capability of filling the gaps of bone defects precisely. Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the achievement of chip freeze-dried bone allograft in completing small bone defects compared to bone autograft. Method: The researchers recapitulated the data of 10 patients with bone autograft, and chip freeze-dried bone allograft and evaluated the outcome of applying bone repair by utilizing Hammer classification on bone defects healing. The collected data were then examined statistically with the Mann-Whitney Test. Results: In the autograft group, 70% of radiological evaluations were mostly obtained from grade 2 Hammer classifications. While, in the allograft group, the highest results were obtained in grade 3 Hammer classifications, those were 40%. Statistical tests indicated that there was no significant difference in bone healing between the bone autograft and the bone allograft groups (p=0.579). Conclusion: Bone, in both groups (bone autograft and chip freeze-dried cancellous bone allograft), has the same results in terms of the healing process.

Keywords: bone allograft, bone autograft, small defect, long bone

Citation: Martanto TW, Munthe RV, Suroto H, Bayusentono S, Hidayat AR, Ferdiansyah. The evaluation of chip freeze-dried cancellous bone allograft of local products usage as a scaffold in completing small defects on long bone. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3415-8.

The pirani score evaluation on patients with clubfoot treated with the ponsety method in public hospital
Tri Wahyu Martanto, Henry Dominica, Komang Agung Irianto, Sulis Bayusentono, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot refers to congenital anomalies in the feet with complex deformities. The non-surgical technique with the Ponseti method for clubfoot treatment has been adopted as initial therapy and proven effective for clubfoot treatment. Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the results of Ponseti therapy in patients with clubfoot who came to the Ponseti Clinic at the Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital, Surabaya. Method: 14 patients consisting of nine men and five women were involved in the study. Based on the data obtained, ANOVA statistical test was performed on the Pirani score (total score), hindfoot score, and midfoot score. Furthermore, the statistical hypothesis testing was performed by comparing the degree of clubfoot severity with Pirani scores using the independent t-test. Results. The mean Pirani Score in the research subjects reached 1.178. The mean Hindfoot score of research subjects reached 0.5. The mean Midfoot Score of the Research Subject was 0.642. The statistical hypothesis testing results revealed that the mean Pirani Score in the degree of severity for the severe category was higher than the mean Pirani Score for the moderate category, which was statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.126). Conclusion: Pirani score can be a reference as a clinical evaluation of patients with clubfoot who undertake conservative treatment with the Ponseti technique. Moreover, the Pirani score can also provide predictions of clubfoot severity.

Keywords: clubfoot, Ponseti method, Pirani score

Citation: Martanto TW, Dominica H, Irianto KA, Bayusentono S, Utomo DN. The pirani score evaluation on patients with clubfoot treated with the ponsety method in public hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3419-22.

The immunity analysis on osteosarcoma as the basic development of therapy follow-up
Ferdiansyah, Kadek Seta Prawira, Mouli Edward, Muhammad Hardian Basuki, Jifaldi A. M. D. Sedar, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: The immune system conditions of patients with osteosarcoma correlate with the neoadjuvant therapy administration. NK cell (natural killer cell) of macrophages are known as proinflammatory macrophages (macrophage-1/M-1). If IFN-γ decreases, NK cells will be inactivated so that they cannot destroy cancer cells. This condition occurs due to the activities of anti-inflammatory macrophages, known as macrophage-2 (M-2). Purpose: This study aims to determine the correlation between M-1 and M-2 in patients with osteosarcoma, ranging from non-metastatic to metastatic osteosarcoma. Method: There were 26 patients with osteosarcoma, consisting of 13 samples with stage IIB osteosarcoma and 13 samples with stage III osteosarcoma. TNF-α and IL-10, which became intermediate variables for the M1/M2 ratio, were immunohistochemically stained and counted in 10 visual fields (visual field: 15625μ2) with 400 times magnification. The data analysis was performed using a statistical test, i.e., difference test using the Mann-Whitney U test between groups of patients with stage IIB and stage III osteosarcoma on IL-10 and TNF-α. Results: M1/M2 ratio on osteosarcoma, in terms of anti-inflammatory aspect, i.e., based on the number of macrophages that express IL-10 between patients with stage IIB and stage III osteosarcoma, reached 1:6.4, rounded to 1:6. Meanwhile, the M1/M2 ratio on osteosarcoma in terms of proinflammatory aspect amounted to 5:1. Conclusion: The result of the M1/M2 ratio on stage IIB osteosarcoma tissue is five times greater on M-1 macrophages, while the M1/M2 ratio on stage III osteosarcoma is six times greater on M-2 macrophages.

Keywords: osteosarcoma, immunity, macrophages, natural killer cells

Citation: Ferdiansyah, Prawira KS, Edward M, Basuki MH, Sedar JAMD, Utomo DN. The immunity analysis on osteosarcoma as the basic development of therapy follow-up. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3423-6.

Legal problems of forming genetic information banks in Russia
Ilya M. Rassolov, Svetlana G. Chubukova, Rosalina V. Shagieva

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Abstract

The topicality of the research topic is due to the expansion of national and interstate initiatives on genome research which have significant potential for human health research. This scientific article is aimed at revealing the problems of legal regulation of formation of genetic information banks and elaboration of concrete proposals on improvement of modern legislation. The methods of study of this problem are: empirical methods of comparison, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic; private scientific methods: comparative law and method of interpretation of legal norms. The article presents conceptual approaches to determining the legal nature of genetic information banks; reveals the specific features of genetic information, which determine the mechanisms for protecting genetic data; makes recommendations for the development in the legal regulation of the relations under study. The materials of the article represent practical value for scientists and practitioners involved in the legal support for the circulation of genetic information. The novelty and originality of the research consists in the fact that it considers the concept and goals of formation of genetic information banks, types of genetic information structured in them and existing problems of legal support for databases.

Keywords: genetic testing, genetic information, personal data, genetic information banks, biobanks, informed consent, information deidendification

Citation: Rassolov IM, Chubukova SG, Shagieva RV. Legal problems of forming genetic information banks in Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3427-32.

Psychological and pedagogical aspects of hardiness in the student youth
Alla N. Fominova, Muliat M. Tkhugo, Alexey V. Kidinov, Alexander P. Tsilinko, Elena V. Lukina, Jhanna I. Aytuganova, Oksana V. Shabanova

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Abstract

The significance of the problem under study is determined by the increasing requirements of society for the ability of a young person to respond optimally to the challenges of our time, and, as a consequence, the importance of studying hardiness as an integral personal construct that mediates a person’s response to the stress of life. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the empirical data of the study of hardiness among the student youth, to identify the specific features in the manifestation of the psychological aspects of hardiness associated with attitudes, social skills, an aptitude of boys and girls for emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The leading approach to the study of student hardiness is a systematic approach as a methodological principle of modern science. The main research methods are personality questionnaires, projective techniques, the method of content analysis which make it possible to reveal the features of the manifestation of hardiness through patterns of attitudes and behavior in life situations. The main results of the study are data on the specifics of perceiving the concept of “hardiness” by university students; data on the hardiness indicators of boys and girls studying at universities; features of emotional self-regulation and cognitive attitudes of students with different indicators of hardiness. The materials of the paper can be useful for university teachers in terms of pedagogical activities to develop hardiness of the student youth through personal interaction in the process of educational and scientific activities.

Keywords: systematic approach, hardiness, attitudes, self-regulation, social skills

Citation: Fominova AN, Tkhugo MM, Kidinov AV, Tsilinko AP, Lukina EV, Aytuganova JI, et al. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of hardiness in the student youth. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3433-40.

The effect of low oxygen level on pluripotency and proliferation capability in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture
Ferdiansyah, Nugroho Setyowardoyo, Mouli Edward, Jifaldi A. M. D. Sedar, Kukuh Dwiputra Hernugrahanto, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: Physiologically, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) require optimal preconditioning in the form of low O2 tension by 1-3% in bone marrow, 10-15% in adipose tissue, and 2-9% in almost all body tissues. On the other hand, seminiferous tubules in testes require 1-6% of O2 gradation to perform spermatogenesis. Under these conditions, low O2 level (hypoxia) is required to reinforce the microenvironment to keep forming quiescent cells. Purpose: This study aims to reveal the differences between in-vitro cultured MSCs under normoxic conditions and hypoxic conditions in cell viability, their pluripotency, and proliferative capability. Method: This study is an exploratory in-vitro laboratory study on Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSC) cultures using hypoxic conditions. A total of 21 culture plates were divided into 3 groups. The data was analyzed using the ANOVA Multivariate test. Results: The highest average of viable cells was found in the P2 group, amounting to 89.29 ± 5.36. On the other hand, the least average of viable cells was found in the P0 group, amounting to 63.67 ± 2.56. Conclusion: The cultures with hypoxic conditions and normoxic preconditions are the best culture conditions since they produce cells that were capable of maintaining the pluripotency while still having a better capability of proliferation and viability, compared to direct hypoxic conditions.

Keywords: stem cell, low oxygen level, cell viability, proliferation, pluripotency

Citation: Ferdiansyah, Setyowardoyo N, Edward M, Sedar JAMD, Hernugrahanto KD, Utomo DN. The effect of low oxygen level on pluripotency and proliferation capability in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3441-6.

Transcatheter atrial septal defect closure with amplatzer septal occluder experience in a developing country hospital
Mahrus A Rahman, Riza Noviandi, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the left to right shunt congenital heart diseases. Transcatheter closure of ASD with amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) is an alternative to surgery. Purpose: To describe the experience of transcatheter ASD closure at Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital. Methods: Descriptive study done in children who were diagnosed with isolated ASD. Medical records of transcatheter ASD closure patients were reviewed for five years. The data taken included demographic data, type of echocardiography, procedure and fluoroscopy time, complication, and outcomes. Result: There were 22 medical records of transcatheter ASD closure patients with 16 male patients (16/22) with a median age of 84 months (21-168 months age-range). Transthoracic echocardiography guiding was conducted in 19 patients (19/22), where as transesophageal echocardiography was conducted in 3 patients (3/22). The median ASD size was 9.4 mm (5-24 mm size range). Multiple ASD was found in 3 patients (3/22). Mild tricuspid regurgitation was found in 9 patients (9/22), with a median pressure gradient of 31.6 mmHg (25-37.8 presure range). Median procedure time was 45 minutes (30-190 minutes time range), a median of fluoroscopy time was 8.5 minutes (6-143 minutes time range). Sizing balloon was conducted in 17 patients (17/22). Conclusion: Most of the transcatheter ASD closures are effective and efficient as an alternative to surgery.

Keywords: transcatheter, ASD, ASO, echocardiography, children

Citation: Rahman MA, Noviandi R, Utamayasa IKA. Transcatheter atrial septal defect closure with amplatzer septal occluder experience in a developing country hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3447-50.

The effect of green tea extract to angiogenesis in bone regeneration
Ferdiansyah, Eri Kriswanto, Lukas Widhiyanto, Sulis Bayusentono, Kukuh Dwiputra Hernugrahanto, Dwikora Novembri Utomo

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Abstract

Background: Polyphenols contained in tea have anti-angiogenesis effects. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCC) extracted from green tea is a strong inhibitor of neutrophil-mediated angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Some studies have shown that oral or IP injection of ECGC could be a strong angiogenesis inhibition. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of green tea extract on angiogenesis in bone fracture healing. Method: The study utilized the Randomized Control Group Post Test-Only Design research. In the first draft, the sample was divided into several groups, i.e., K1 as a control group, and P1, P2, P3, and P4 as treatment groups. For the first draft, the experimental animals were terminated on the 10th day. The termination was undertaken on the 14th day for the second draft. This study utilized the Anova test to analyze the data. Results: The recommended dose for administering the green tea extract was 20 mg (p=0.447), then there would be a significant reduction (p=0.034) of cell numbers that represented VEGF if the dose was 25 mg or more. A significant reduction of blood vessel numbers (p=0.009) was indicated after administering 25 mg or more. Conclusion: The cross-sectional area of ​​blood vessels decreases when transferring 20 mg of the extract, while the blood vessels and cells number that represented VEGF decrease when administering 25 mg of the extract. The blood vessels contained in the callus also decrease after injecting 25 mg of green tea extract.

Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, green tea, EGCG, fracture

Citation: Ferdiansyah, Kriswanto E, Widhiyanto L, Bayusentono S, Hernugrahanto KD, Utomo DN. The effect of green tea extract to angiogenesis in bone regeneration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3451-4.

Percutaneous device versus surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus
Ahmad Zakky Mashuri, Mahrus A. Rahman, Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Various devices have employed for percutaneous closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). Although effectiveness of device closure has been determined, a few studies focused on the cost-effectiveness and postoperative complications comparison with open surgery. Purpose: Evaluate of PDA occlusion by Amplatzer Ductal Occluder in comparison with open surgical closure. Method: A reviewed study from medical record in children with PDA whom underwent interventions for three years. The interventions including Amplatzer Ductal Occluder and open surgical closure. Cross sectional analysis from medical record was done. Data of demographic, characteristic PDA, lenght of stay, costs, interventions, outcome, and complication were collected. Difference were analyzed using Mann Whitney test. Result: Eighteen children (4/18 male) were diagnosed with PDA. The median age was 6.0 years, (SD 9.98). Most of patient with moderate PDA (13/18) and large PDA (5/18). Interventions including Amplatzer ductal occluder (9/18) and open surgical closure (9/18). In surgical group have experienced to be cared in ICU during hospitalized (9/18, median 0.5 day, p<0.01). The lenght of stay during hospitalized was longer in surgical group (median 5.5 days, p<0.01). The calculated costs were higher in surgical group median 28.099.500 IDR, p=0.04). No event of mortality was observed in both of group. However in surgical group, one patient experienced pneumonia, and one patient suffered electrolyte abnormality including hypokalemia. Conclusion: Amplatzer Ductal Occluder was more preferable because of its lower inexpensive and complication than surgical technique.

Keywords: patent ductus arteriosus, amplatzer ductal occluder, open surgery closure

Citation: Mashuri AZ, Rahman MA, Utamayasa KA. Percutaneous device versus surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3455-7.

Potentials of tranexamic acid injection to reduce bleeding in patients of total knee replacement procedure
Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Ahmad Hannan Amrullah, Lukas Widhiyanto, Andre Triadi Desnantyo, Jeffry Andrianus, Ferdiansyah

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Abstract

Background: The high number of patients with knee osteoarthritis causes an increasingly frequent arthroplasty. This surgical procedure of Total Knee Replacement poses a risk of massive bleeding, which can affect albumin levels and cause intra-compartmental pressure on the nerves. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of tranexamic acid injection on total blood loss, the degree of pain, and the need for blood transfusions after surgery in patients undergoing the procedure for Total Knee Replacement. Method: The study was an experimental research using primary data from laboratory examination obtained before and after surgery in 64 patients of Total Knee Replacement surgery in the ER operating theater of Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital, Surabaya. Result: In the group receiving tranexamic acid, the group with 32 people (100%) reported a low postoperative VAS score, and did not require blood and albumin transfusions. In the group not receiving tranexamic acid, 32 people (100%) had a moderate postoperative VAS score, where four people (12.5%) required blood transfusions, and three people (9.4%) required albumin transfusions. Conclusion: The administration of tranexamic acid reduce total blood loss, the degree of pain, and reduce the need for blood transfusions after total knee replacement surgery.

Keywords: total knee replacement, tranexamic acid, hemoglobin, albumin, bleeding, VAS Score, transfusion

Citation: Utomo DN, Amrullah AH, Widhiyanto L, Desnantyo AT, Andrianus J, Ferdiansyah. Potentials of tranexamic acid injection to reduce bleeding in patients of total knee replacement procedure. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3459-62.

Comparison of the effects of giving captopril and valsartan in cases of heart failure for people with congenital heart disease
Marta Lastijani Sigit, Mahrus A Rahman, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) has a prevalence ranging from 6 to 10 per 1000 live births, with an average of 8 out of 1000 live births. One of the pathological consequences of CHD is heart failure. Therapy for heart failure in CHD is still unsatisfactory. Purpose: Comparing the effect of captropyl and valsartan on clinical improvement, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and chest radiograph in cases of heart failure with congenital heart disease left to right. Method: The study design was Randomized Control Trial (RCT) by giving Double Blind Study treatment. There are 2 treatment groups, namely X1 by giving captopril and X2 by giving valsartan. Data were analyzed by Paired T-Test, T-Test, Mann-Whitney Test, and 5% significance. Result: The results of statistical analysis showed a significant change in the PHFS score, but it was not significant when compared between the two treatment groups. Increased LVEDV and LV dimension less after giving captopril than valsartan. There was an increase in LVEF after captopril administration although it was not significant when compared to the valsartan group. The reduction in CTR in the valsartan group was significant and the mean reduction in CTR in the valsartan group was greater than in the captopril group. Conclusion: Clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and chest radiograph improvement after adding captopril and valsartan, but better improvements were obtained in valsartan administration than captopril.

Keywords: congenital heart disease, heart failure, captopril, valsartan, pediatric

Citation: Sigit ML, Rahman MA, Utamayasa IKA. Comparison of the effects of giving captopril and valsartan in cases of heart failure for people with congenital heart disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3463-7.

Reconstruction and augmentation in the proprioceptive function of the knee joint after knee arthroscopy surgery on partially torn anterior cruciate ligament
Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Pramono Ari Wibowo, Jeffry Andrianus, Andre Triadi Desnantyo, Damayanti Tinduh, Ferdiansyah

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Abstract

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury. The changes in motor and sensory behaviors after ACL reconstruction are due to the lack of proprioceptive information as a result of ACL lesions and/or ACL graft substitutes. Objectives: This study aims to determine the effects of proprioceptive and joint stability after ACL augmentation using joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) as the indicators. Methods: This study was conducted using an observational study design applied to patients. The study design used was a cross-sectional study in two populations. The statistical test used was the Independent T-Test. Result: There was a deficit of 3.3±4.7 when JPS was tested at 30 degrees in the augmentation group and -3.6±3.1 at 30 degrees in the reconstruction group (p=0.013); -5.4±6.1 at 45 degrees in the augmentation group and -2.5±5.4 at 45 degrees in the reconstruction group (p=0.033); -4.4±7.5 at 60 degrees in the augmentation group and -3.6 ±5.0 at 60 degrees in the reconstruction group (p=0.02). On the other hand, in the TTDPM measurements related to the Golgi complex of the quadriceps muscle, there was a significant difference (p=0.011) at 6.5±2.4 in the augmentation group and 4.1±1.3 in the reconstruction group. Conclusion: This study shows that the effects of proprioceptive and joint stability after practicing ACL augmentation surgery are more effective than ACL reconstructive surgery as assessed by the JPS and TTDPM indicators.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament, augmentation, proprioceptive, joint stability

Citation: Utomo DN, Wibowo PA, Andrianus J, Desnantyo AT, Tinduh D, Ferdiansyah. Reconstruction and augmentation in the proprioceptive function of the knee joint after knee arthroscopy surgery on partially torn anterior cruciate ligament. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3469-73.

Potention of L-carnitine supplementation on changes in ejection fraction and left ventricular dimension in case of dilatative cardiomyopathy in children
Wahyu Wibowo, Mahrus A Rahman, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac muscle disease with poor prognosis and high mortality. The main goal of dilated cardiomyopathy therapy is to restore and maximize cardiac function, but to date no medication has met these criteria. The use of oral L-carnitine as a dilated cardiomyopathy therapy has a potency to gives good results in restore and maximize cardiac function. Purpose: Knowing the effect of L-carnitine supplementation in children with cardiomyopathy on ejection fraction and left ventricular dimensions. Method: Experimental studies with randomized control trial design were conducted for one year, to determine the effect of L-carnitine in the experiment by performing twice the ejection fraction measurements and left ventricular dimensions performed before and after the administration of L-carnitine for 1 month. This research does not use blind method. Sampling was done randomly with comparison control. Different test was conducted with Saphiro-Wilk followed by T-test. Result: Fourteen samples were analyzed. In the treatment group, an increase in ejection fraction (p = 0.033), decreased left ventricular systolic phase end dimension (p = 0.043) and at the end of diastolic phase (p = 0.170). There was a significant difference in the increase of ejection fraction between treatment group and control group (p = 0,035), but no significant difference was found between treatment group and control group of final phase of systole (p = 0,228) and final phase of diastol (p = 0,704). Conclusion: L-carnitine supplementation in children with dilatative cardiomyopathy can increase ejection fraction, but not decrease the left ventricular dimension.

Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy, L-carnitine, ejection fraction, left ventricular dimension

Citation: Wibowo W, Rahman MA, Utamayasa IKA. Potention of L-carnitine supplementation on changes in ejection fraction and left ventricular dimension in case of dilatative cardiomyopathy in children. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3475-8.

Can online media be platform for active social interaction and social activism?
Olga F. Piralova, Larisa Yu. Polyakova, Irina G. Kartushina, Ekaterina S. Minkova, Svetlana Yu. Suchkova, Milana V. Dzhantukhanova, Elvira A. Kamerova, Elena S. Putilina

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Abstract

The purpose of the study is to study and describe the practices of participation and interaction of city residents that contribute to the expression of civic activity. The survey method is used as a research method, which allows studying the forms and methods of communication between social activists. The article examines the relationship between the development of modern media and the formation of the public sphere. The article analyzes the specifics of online interaction practices of participants of new social movements, describes the need for Internet and media support in the activities of activists, and examines the extent to which the Internet activates civil initiatives. The originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time social activity and forms of its interaction were studied. It is shown that activists deliberately refuse to organize a free market at the official level, to interact with state structures, and seek help from city authorities. It is revealed that the organizers of actions use Internet resources to promote their ideas, but they evaluate the importance of the Internet network in different ways: the Internet as the main media; the Internet as an additional media; the Internet as an optional media, in contrast to print media, ads and personal invitations. For the first time, it is determined that social activism notes the effectiveness of Internet resources for creating a team, also at the stage of informing citizens about actions and at the stage of distributing a report on the past action. It is shown that new social movements offer a clearly formulated ideology. For free market activists, these are anti-capitalist views, criticism of the consumer society, and a focus on solving global problems. The movement is characterized by a reflexive nature of ideology, which involves analyzing activities, reviewing goals, and searching for ways to develop. It is determined that in General, activists are working to form an urban identity that is an alternative to the image of a passive consumer. It is shown that it is more important for activists to create direct communication, rather than a virtual network for communication. The data Obtained in this work can be used in Economics, management, social psychology and education.

Keywords: social interaction, communication, identity, Internet media

Citation: Piralova OF, Polyakova LY, Kartushina IG, Minkova ES, Suchkova SY, Dzhantukhanova MV, et al. Can online media be platform for active social interaction and social activism?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3479-84.

Modern higher education competitiveness: commercial strategies and administrative policy
Oksana V. Beltyukova, Gulfairuz G. Erkibaeva, Alena A. Zharkova, Yuri V. Pikalov, Alexandra N. Klyuchnikova, Liudmila V. Mosienko, Valentin P. Vershinin

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is to study such a social phenomenon as marketing activities of universities. In recent years, Russian universities have become more focused on commercial admission of students. Therefore, for any educational institution to function effectively, it is simply necessary to use new administrative and marketing approaches in management. The purpose of the research is to study the features of the marketing service functioning in higher educational institutions. Research methods: the survey method is used as a research method, which allows effective studying the marketing activities of higher educational institutions. Research results: the article considers the place and status of the marketing service of higher education institutions; the nature of competition in the higher education system; features of using the Internet space by higher education institutions to promote their services in the education market. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that the work of the marketing service in higher educational institutions is considered for the first time. It is revealed that almost all educational institutions use marketing activities in their administrative policies. The personnel shortage of these departments is determined. It is shown that in absolutely all higher educational institutions, the marketing service reports directly to the rector, and this service closely cooperates with all departments of the University. It is determined that the level of participation of employees of the marketing Department in the discussion and decision-making at the University level is not high enough and the management does not always listen to the recommendations and advice of marketing services. Insufficient funding of marketing services was revealed, which is defined as the main problem in their work. It is determined that today there is practically no division of labor by functions in the marketing Department. It is shown that higher educational institutions use advertising in their activities: articles in the media, banners during the work of the admission Committee, advertising in transport, booklets, pocket calendars for schoolchildren, participation in educational exhibitions, holding an open door day and distributing advertising printing. It is shown that the public relations Department does not develop strategic marketing programs. It is revealed that the marketing services of higher educational institutions that perform the functions of marketing activities are quite new and have qualified specialists in their composition. Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in marketing, marketing psychology, labor psychology, advertising psychology.

Keywords: commercial activities, marketing Department, higher education institutions, educational institutions

Citation: Beltyukova OV, Erkibaeva GG, Zharkova AA, Pikalov YV, Klyuchnikova AN, Mosienko LV, et al. Modern higher education competitiveness: commercial strategies and administrative policy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3485-90.

Prevalence of Carabelli’s trait among Iraqi population [Salahdin-Tikrit]
Ban Ismael Sedeeq, Ali Ghanim Abdullah

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Abstract

Morphological features of dental study have significant importance in anthropological researches. Its provide numerous information on the dental variations within a specific population. this study is aiming to evaluate the Carabelli trait prevalence in the Iraqi population at province (Salahdin, Tikrit). 200 individuals aged 17-30 years (72 males and 128 females) were examined. A direct intraoral examination was performed. The Dahlberg classification system was dependent, and the Impressions were taken to compare the clinical data with the study casts. The obtained data were compared with the clinical data. The prevalence of the trait was (59.5%) with a slightly different distribution between both males and females. Grade I was the most frequent configuration of (40.6%) comparing to grade III that has least frequent of (2.3%). The trait results of this study have different frequency comparing to other regions in the world, and considerably very close to the Iranian and Saudi Arabia population.

Keywords: Carabelli, trait

Citation: Sedeeq BI, Abdullah AG. Prevalence of Carabelli’s trait among Iraqi population [Salahdin-Tikrit]. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3491-7.

The influence of epidemiological factors to prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum of neonatal calves in northern Kazakhstan
Altay Ussenbayev, Dariyash Kurenkeyeva, Didara Kurmanbayeva, Assylbek Zhanabayev, Lyudmila Lider, Gulnara Baikadamova

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Abstract

Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the epidemiological factors influencing the Cryptosporidium parvum infection in bovine farms in Northern Kazakhstan. Faecal samples were collected on 24 farms from 245 neonatal calves and analysed using microscopy and immune chromatographic commercial kits. The prevalence of calves’ infection ranged from 1.6% to 29.1%. In bivariate regression analysis four epidemiological factors, including “age of calves”, “clinical appearance of diarrhoea”, “calves housed without dam” and “large type of farm” were found to be significantly associated with infection; the associations were confirmed by the multivariate analysis. Moreover, the last analysis suggests also that the above first three epidemiological factors favoured C. parvum infection of calves.

Keywords: bivariate logistic regression analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, Cryptosporidium parvum infection, calves, Northern Kazakhstan

Citation: Ussenbayev A, Kurenkeyeva D, Kurmanbayeva D, Zhanabayev A, Lider L, Baikadamova G. The influence of epidemiological factors to prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum of neonatal calves in northern Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3499-505.

Controlling in cash flow management of the company
Nataliya Stepanovna Plaskova, Natalia Alekseevna Prodanova, Olga Valeryevna Ignatyeva, Evgeny Aleksandrovich Nayanov, Vitaly Viktorovich Goncharov, Amina Surpkelova

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Abstract

In today’s business environment, cash flows are one of the main resources that provide conditions for sustainable business development, maintaining the company’s solvency, and protecting against the risk of bankruptcy. The success of the production, investment, and financial activities depends on the effective use of funds, therefore, the issues of improving internal cash flow controlling become especially relevant in the context of the aggravation of the external financial and economic situation in the country, the increase in the cost of financial resources, and the restrictions of requirements imposed by investors and creditors. The article presents current trends in improving the organization’s cash flow controlling system. It offers methodological approaches to the organization of cash flow monitoring and justification of the system of analytical indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of cash asset management.
It justifies the sequence of implementation of the mechanism for rationing the need for funds to ensure the permanent solvency of the organization.

Keywords: cash flows, controlling, management of monetary assets of the organization, analysis and optimization of cash flow

Citation: Plaskova NS, Prodanova NA, Ignatyeva OV, Nayanov EA, Goncharov VV, Surpkelova A. Controlling in cash flow management of the company. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3507-12.

Quality of life and patient satisfaction difference on conventional root care maintenance by dental rofession students, conservative dentistry residents, and conservative dentistry specialist
Reyz Pasenda Muljadi, Ravishinta Arwinda, Yashinta Ramadhinta, Retno Palupi

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Abstract

Background: Patients are important factors that can provide an assessment of the quality of health care received. One of the dental health care is root canal treatment. Complete root canal treatment is primarily to form perceptions of service quality and also influence the level of patient satisfaction. Purpose: To determine differences in quality of life and patient satisfaction after receiving conventional root canal treatment from dental profession students, conservative dentistry residents, and conservative dentistry specialists at Universitas Airlangga Hospital. Methods: Quality of life assessment was carried out using an Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) instrument with 7 conceptual dimensions which were then modified for endodontic concepts. For assessing the quality of health services, measured through the level of satisfaction with care on a numerical scale. Results: The results obtained varied by group, according to 7 indicators of quality of life and 6 indicators of satisfaction observed. Kruskal Wallis test to determine the relationship between quality of life and patient satisfaction has a significance value of p <0.05. The Mann-Whitney follow-up test for the quality of life showed a value of p <0.05 between professional students, residents, and specialists, and p> 0.05 between residents and specialists. Mann-Whitney’s follow-up test for satisfaction showed a value of p <0.05. Conclusion: There were differences in quality of life and patient satisfaction after conventional root canal treatment between dental profession students, conservative dentistry residents, and conservative dentistry specialists at Dental and Oral Hospital Universitas Airlangga.

Keywords: root canal treatment, quality of life, satisfaction level, health service provider

Citation: Muljadi RP, Arwinda R, Ramadhinta Y, Palupi R. Quality of life and patient satisfaction difference on conventional root care maintenance by dental rofession students, conservative dentistry residents, and conservative dentistry specialist. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3513-20.

Western and post-socialist (eastern christian countries) model of private life rights: Features of formation and development
Andrey V. Krotov, Evgeny S. Streltsov, Vitaly V. Goncharov

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Abstract

During the soviet period of Russia’s, the influence of various philosophical and religious views on the national legal system was mostly denied, which is due to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism, considered the religious worldview to be perverted and illusory, distorting the scientific understanding of actual relations, and the volume of relevant scientific research was minimized. Despite the fact that in the vast majority of countries in the XX century, the influence of religion gave way to secularism, in modern society, the process of “clericalisation of society” is increasing, and religion is increasingly included in the public sphere. This article examines the influence of Christian theology (Western and Eastern Christianity) on the content of the right for private life in the Western and post-socialist (Eastern Christian countries) legal family. The author concludes that the content of the constitutional right for private life, which, as a rule, in post-socialist countries is an adapted version of the Western model of private life law(the result of the paradigm of catch-up growth). It does not coincide with the mass legal consciousness and the system of values established in post-socialist society(collectivist society), the philosophical and religious principles of Orthodoxy, which leads(as follows from modern practice) to conflicts in the national and individual consciousness, differences between the legal and actual content of the right for private life.

Keywords: private life law, Protestantism, Orthodoxy, Christianity, post-socialist model of private life law

Citation: Krotov AV, Streltsov ES, Goncharov VV. Western and post-socialist (eastern christian countries) model of private life rights: Features of formation and development. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3521-6.

The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in molds fermentation on the characteristics of pigeon pea sauce (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)
I Dewa Gede Mayun Permana, Agus Selamet Duniaji, Ni Wayan Wisaniyasa, Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam

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Abstract

This study aimed at examining the effect of waru leaves (Hibiscus tiliaceus L.) as a source of molds, Apergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oligosporus in the process of solid-state fermentation (koji making) and salinity in the process of brine fermentation to yield moromi (baceman fermentation) towards the characteristics of pigeon pea sauce. This study used a factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two factors. The first factor was the inoculum treatments, which included: (1) control: the process of making koji using waru leaves (H. tiliaceus L.); (2) the process of making koji using Rhizopus oligosporus; (3) the process of making koji using Aspergillus oryzae; and (4) the process of making koji using R. oligosporus and A. oryzae. The second factor was soaking in a saline solution with concentrations of 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% (w/v) and the fermented pigeon peas were grouped twice according to the time of processing. The results showed that the mixed inoculum treatments and 20% salt content produced the best pigeon pea sauce characteristics. The characteristics of the pigeon pea sauce were as follows: water content 80.33%, protein content 4.04%, salt content 19.41%, pH 6.2, total acid 0.22%, lactic acid bacteria 2.1 x 107 CFU/g, color (neutral-like), aroma (neutral-like), flavor (neutral-like), and overall acceptance (neutral-like). The pigeon pea sauce produced met the Indonesian National Standard and no aflatoxin B1 contamination was found in the products.

Keywords: waru leaf, A. oryzae, R. oligosporus, pigeon pea, sauce

Citation: Permana IDGM, Duniaji AS, Wisaniyasa NW, Gunam IBW. The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in molds fermentation on the characteristics of pigeon pea sauce (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3527-35.

The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with demographic profile of nurses
Raden Muhammad Ali Satria, Ririk Harlinisari, Iwah Prestiono, Aryo Dwipo Kusumo, Windhu Purnomo

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Abstract

Purpose: to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among nurses in Al-Irsyad Hospital Surabaya; and to know the factors that influence depression, anxiety, and stress among inpatient nurses in Al-Irsyad Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This research was an observational analytic study with cross-sectional study design and is carried out in the inpatient room at Al-Irsyad Hospital, Surabaya. The population in this study were all nurses in the inpatient room in Al Irsyad Hospital, Surabaya. The sampling technique was using a simple random sampling method so that a sample of 100 nurses was obtained. Data were collected by questionnaires and documentation. Data analysis used quantitative descriptive analysis (Descriptive, Univariate, Bivariate). Results: The prevalence of the majority of nurses, level of depression, anxiety, and stress were in the normal categories of 96%, 95%, and 94%. the results of the chi-square analysis showed that there was no relationship between age, sex, marital status, length of work, and level of education with the level of depression and anxiety of nurses, p-value > 0.05. In contrast, there was a relationship between age with a level of stress, p-value 0.001, and there was no relationship between sex, marital status, working experience, and education with the level of stress, p-value> 0.05. Conclusion: there was a relationship between the age and stress level of nurses in the Al Irsyad Hospital Surabaya.

Keywords: relationship of depression levels, anxiety, stress, nurses

Citation: Satria RMA, Harlinisari R, Prestiono I, Kusumo AD, Purnomo W. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with demographic profile of nurses. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3537-42.

Psychological and pedagogical areas of the educational process as components for the harmonious development of students’ personality (preventing asocial behavior among the youth)
Muliat M. Tkhugo, Galina S. Goloshumova, Evgeniya O. Rueva, Natalia V. Belyakova, Olga V. Balaban, Jiang Shangrong, Elena А. Anikudimova

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Abstract

The experience of many educational institutions shows that such spheres of students’ personality as interests, value orientations, and creative abilities often stay beyond the targeted pedagogical and psychological influence. The significance of the study presented in the paper consists in the complexity and multi-faceted character of determining the psychological, pedagogical and social development of students. The paper presents the results of the study focused on the problem of the harmonious development of the students’ personality in the process of educational activity, the prevention of socially negative manifestations among students. The structure and principles of socio-psychological and pedagogical support of students in an educational institution have also been determined. The following research methods have been used: theoretical and methodological analysis of scientific literature on the research problem; empirical methods (survey, testing); methods of mathematical processing of results. As a result of the study, the conclusions have been drawn that the socio-psychological and pedagogical support of students in an educational institution represents a complex of specific social measures (economic, organizational, managerial, cultural, educational and others), implemented with the purpose of full and comprehensive development of students’ personality; and also with the aim of minimizing negative social manifestations in the youth environment by identifying and eliminating the causes and conditions that contribute to destructive behavior. The educational program developed and tested by the authors was proposed as a key component in a set of measures aimed at the harmonious development of students’ personality and minimization of negative impacts in educational institution including psychological and pedagogical areas of the educational process as a component of ensuring the harmonious development of students’ personality.

Keywords: harmonious personality development, student’s personality, value orientations, attitudes, psychological and pedagogical prevention, social and preventive activity, asocial behavior

Citation: Tkhugo MM, Goloshumova GS, Rueva EO, Belyakova NV, Balaban OV, Shangrong J, et al. Psychological and pedagogical areas of the educational process as components for the harmonious development of students’ personality (preventing asocial behavior among the youth). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3543-50.

Priority areas of digitalization in Russia
Olga Y. Ermolovskaya, Tatiana N. Sedash, Vyacheslav P. Cheglov, Lilia L. Timofeeva, Grigori F. Feigin

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Abstract

The development of the digital economy is one of the elements of the post-industrial society and represents a new format for the development of economic relations. In recent years, the digital economy has expanded beyond the commercial realm of buying and selling goods online. This concept has been successfully implemented in the virtual processes of companies, as well as in the internal work of the Russian government. Thanks to the transformation of the economy, non-cash payments and alternative transaction channels are developing in the field of payments and transfers. In the future, financial institutions may face the loss of their intermediary role and control over customer transactions, the disappearance of bank cards, and the development of alternative channels for international transactions.

Keywords: P2P platforms, venture market, integrated and optimized payments, high risks, innovative investments, trading, high profits, venture funds, high costs, advisors-platforms startup, classification of venture projects

Citation: Ermolovskaya OY, Sedash TN, Cheglov VP, Timofeeva LL, Feigin GF. Priority areas of digitalization in Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3551-6.

Chlorophyll quantity in the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the condition of Uzbekistan
N. А. Ismailova

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Abstract

The article revelas the results of the analysis of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b” and carotenoids quantity in the leaves of sweet potato grown in local condition. In accordance to dispersion analysis of obtained data, the quantity of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll “a” and chlorophyll “b” of GulDU 1 and GulDU 2 varieties was in various levels respectively to Hazina, Hazina 1, Hazina 2 varieties. It has been determined from the results that the quantity of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll “a” and carotenoids in GulDU 2 variety was higher than in Hazina, Hazina 1, Hazina 2 and GulDU 1 varieties. It has been concluded that GulDU 2 variety is an effective for local condition and recommended to use it as valuable initial material in selection and breeding.

Keywords: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, sweet potato, variety, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b”, carotenoid

Citation: Ismailova NА. Chlorophyll quantity in the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the condition of Uzbekistan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3557-60.

A theoretical approach and density function theory based to relate the physical and quantum properties of platinum (IV) complex
Lekaa Hussain Khadim

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Abstract

In this paper, we designed platinum complex drug for used anticancer. The geometry optimized structures and physical properties of platinum complex has been investigated by using the Density Functional Theory DFT/B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method with basis set SDD via Gaussian 09W program package. This level of calculation was used for physical and quantum features like total energy, HOMO and LUMO orbitals energies, Band gap, electron affinity, Ionization potential, electronegativity, electrophilicity index, Mullikan charge on the atoms in platinum complex. The geometry optimization have been calculated by different methods such as (B3LYP,B3PW91 and CAM B3LYP) also different basis sets (LANL2DZ, LANL2MB and SDD) from total energy of methods and basis sets, they found of the best them are B3LYP/SDD. The calculation of the FT-IR spectra of platinum complex has been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1,also fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of vibrational bands. In addition, the 1H as well as 13C NMR chemical shifts values of platinum complex in the ground state for DFT/B3LYP/SDD have as well determined by means of Gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The first method includes reduction of prodrug (octahedral) to drug (square planer).the second method involves the binding of drug with nuclear DNA (adenine and guanine).

Keywords: Carboxylation, platinum complex, DFT, B3LYP, SDD, IR, geometry optimization

Citation: Khadim LH. A theoretical approach and density function theory based to relate the physical and quantum properties of platinum (IV) complex. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3561-9.

Distribution of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the vicinity of Maspari Island, Bangka Strait, South Sumatra, Indonesia
Rozirwan, Rezi Apri, Iskhaq Iskandar

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Abstract

Zooplankton species composition has an important role in the food chain that can be used as water fertility indicator. It is strongly influenced by physical-chemical parameters, especially in the strait waters due to the discharge of freshwater as well as strong mixing. This study is aimed to analyze zooplankton distribution and diversity, and their correlation to physical-chemical parameters in the strait water of Maspari Island. The results showed that the zooplankton in the vicinity of Maspari Island can be grouped in 10 taxa, which are dominated by Calanoid (47%) and Harpacticoid (19%). Other taxa (e.g. Cyclopoid, Chaetognatha, Euphausia, Fish egg, Lensia, Ostracod, Brachyura and Polychaeta) only account for less than 10% for each taxa. The abundance of zooplankton obtained in range of 18 to 3205 Ind.L-1, which is mainly found in a high Calanoid. Note that the distribution of zooplankton abundance in these waters found almost at all observation stations. Zooplankton diversity considered as low to moderate categories, with H’ index was 0.51<H’<1.66, and there was no type of zooplankton dominates (C<0.5). PCA Analysis shows the correlation between physical-chemical parameters with the zooplankton distribution and diversity is identifier by density, temperature, salinity, pH, current speed, nitrate, phosphate and turbidity.

Keywords: biodiversity, calanoid, plankton, straits water, zooplankton distribution

Citation: Rozirwan, Apri R, Iskandar I. Distribution of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the vicinity of Maspari Island, Bangka Strait, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3571-9.

Impact of pandemic crisis: COVID-19 on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among food workers in Jordan
Sharaf S. Omar

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Abstract

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the food handler’s knowledge for potential sources of SRS-Cov-2 virus, the potential factors for controlling COVID-19 among food workers and to evaluate the participants' attitude and hygienic practice among food handlers working in food factories in Jordan during pandemic crisis: COVID-19.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study, during the period February to May 2020. Online questionnaire were used study in this study, since all food factories were completely shutdown as part of the Jordanian government's rules to control the outbreak..
Results: The Mean knowledge scores for the potential sources of SRS-Cov-2 virus was 5.8, which was considered as "poor Knowledge for potential sources of SRS-Cov-2 virus. In general, The mean knowledge scores about the awareness of food workers for the minimum requirements to control COVID-19 was 6.1, while the mean knowledge scores for the participants' attitude and hygienic practice among food handlers was 7.2, which considered as good. Our study showed that fair knowledge for food handlers in food safety doesn't necessary reflect their positive attitude. The overall scores for this study were 79.13%.
Conclusions: The overall score of this study was 63%. This revealed that food workers had fair knowledge about food safety and unsatisfied results about the sources of SRS-Cov-2 virus among food workers and need more practice for controlling COVID: 19 in food working areas.

Keywords: SARS_CoV-2, COVID-19 pandemic, Food safety Knowledge, Jordan. Food safety attitudes

Citation: Omar SS. Impact of pandemic crisis: COVID-19 on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among food workers in Jordan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3581-6.

Investigating monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant extracellular domain of the human PD-1 receptor
Kanatbek Mukantayev, Zhansaya Adish, Kanat Tursunov, Kasym Mukanov, Tokhtarova Laura, Kanayev Darkhan, Yerlan Ramankulov

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Abstract

Monoclonal antibodies are used to block control points of the tumor development of many oncological pathologies. One of the critical control points of tumor development of several oncological pathologies is the receptor for programmed cell death (PD-1) and its ligands. Monoclonal antibodies against the PD-1 receptor are laboratory-derived humanized antibodies. An essential step in the humanization of antibodies is the production of murine hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies. This article describes studies of mice monoclonal antibodies against a recombinant human PD-1 receptor (rPD-1) expressed in Escherichia coli. To obtain strains of hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies, BALB/c mice were immunized with rPD-1 protein. B-lymphocytes of immunized mice were hybridized with the myeloma cell line of mice. Clones of hybrid cells were identified for productive activity and cloned by limiting dilution method. The properties of monoclonal antibodies were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and agar gel immunodiffusion. As a result, a hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies to a fragment of rPD-1 were obtained. Strains of hybrid cells have high productive activity in vitro and in vivo. Monoclonal antibodies react with rPD-1 protein, belong to the class of IgG1, and have a high binding constant. They efficiently bind to the PD-1 receptor and block the interaction of rPD-1 with the ligand. These monoclonal antibodies to rPD-1 can be used to obtain recombinant humanized monoclonal antibodies to the human PD-1 receptor.

Keywords: monoclonal antibodies, PD-1 receptor, oncology, recombinant protein

Citation: Mukantayev K, Adish Z, Tursunov K, Mukanov K, Laura T, Darkhan K, et al. Investigating monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant extracellular domain of the human PD-1 receptor. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3587-93.

Electrochemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Co3 O4 nanoparticles and Co3 O4/TiO2 nanocomposite
Noor Mustafa Kamal, Hanaa Kadtem Egzar, Nuha Abdul-Saheb Ridha

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Abstract

Cobalt oxide and Co3O4 / TiO2 hybrid nanoparticle were prepared utilizing the one step electrolytic deposition method. The new nanoparticle antioxidant has been diagnosed according to the infrared spectroscopy by the emergence of new groups in the Co3O4 / TiO2 spectrum, which indicates the formation of a new antioxidant. X-ray diffraction technology has shown the emergence of new diffraction levels in the anti-Co3O4 / TiO2 spectrum compared to the cobalt oxide diffraction spectrum. The morphology of synthesized compounds were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), pure Co3O4 which have sphere-shaped aggregations forms have 30.27 nm size, while TiO2/ Co3O4 nanocomposite shows Hexagonal sheets structure and clearly indicates that the Co3O4 is diffusion on surface of TiO2 with 33.9 nm size. The EDS of the elemental is indicating uniform formation of TiO2 / Co3O4 composite by presented of titanium, cobalt and oxygen. Antioxidant activity of pure Co3O4and Co3O4- TiO2 samples were compared using H2O2 scavenging activities. Considerable in vitro antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner were recorded. Interestingly, Co3O4 / TiO2 showed more elevate scavenging in H2O2antioxidant assays in low concentrations but this activity decrease with increase the nanocomposite concentration.

Keywords: nanocomposite, electrolytic deposition, scavenging in H2O2 antioxidant

Citation: Kamal NM, Egzar HK, Ridha NA. Electrochemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Co3 O4 nanoparticles and Co3 O4/TiO2 nanocomposite. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3595-600.

Food safety knowledge of street food vendors in downtown Amman-Jordan
Sharaf S. Omar

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Abstract

Background: Foods that are prepared and sold and in the street can be defined as street food, such food still a weak point in food safety, despite street foods provide people with a convenient meal with low cost, they are associated with many food poisoning outbreaks. Methods: A total of 120 street vendors participated in this study during the period from May to August 2019. Structured written questionnaires were developed according to the Jordan of Food and Drug Administration street food safety code of practice (JFDA, 2007a). The questionnaire consists from two parts; the first part was designed to collect demographic data about the respondents, the second part used to evaluate food safety knowledge and attitudes of vendors. Results: In our study, it was found that 48.3% of food vendors had not received any food safety training courses, and 67.5% had experienced years below 3 years. The mean food safety knowledge score for street food vendors was 54 points, which indicated insufficient knowledge in food safety. street food vendors had weak understanding of food safety attitudes with total mean score 53.2±11. Conclusions: Street food vendor training should be given first priority to improve the safety of street food.

Keywords: street food, food safety attitude, food safety knowledge, food safety behavior, vendors, downtown Amman

Citation: Omar SS. Food safety knowledge of street food vendors in downtown Amman-Jordan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3601-6.

Evaluation of cellular oxidative stress levels in aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a reaction of photo catalyst modify nanoparticles exposure
Moatasem Al-Salih, Syakirah Samsudin, Alaa Raisan Rashid

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Abstract

Objectives to estimate the cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level– as a measure of lipid peroxidation in Aedes aegypti with exposure by Nanoparticles Photo Catalysts, Mg-doped TiO2, this study also aimed to evaluate the difference in MDA levels in each of life stage and between treatment group and control. Treatment and a case-control study including 100 adults (50 females and 50 male) 100 larva and 100 pupae Aedes aegypti whose follow-up was carried out at the Virology Lab. All the subjects were subjected to estimation malondialdehyde (MDA) at the time of admission, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and hence an indicator of free radical activity by Nanoparticles Photo Catalysts, Mg-doped TiO2, the Nano powder prepared by modification of the TiO2 band gap by doping with Mg ،Mg) atoms using sol-gel method. XRD and AFM recognition shows clear peaks assigned to TiO2 (mainly peaks: 2theta = 45 and 52o) indicating that a Mg, ions were safely incorporated into the titanium anatase framework. All sample treated with manpower than This method is based on the principle that acetic acid detaches the lipid and protein of a tissue, thiobarbituric acid reacting with lipid peroxide, hydroperoxide, and oxygen-labile double bond to form the color adducts with maximal absorbance at 530 nm. Student ‘t’ test was used for unpaired samples to compare the means of the control and the cases and also the various inter-group differences. Significance was accepted if the null hypothesis was rejected at p < 0.05. The difference in MDA levels in cases and controls was seen to be statistically significant (p < 0.001), suggesting an increase in the level of lipid peroxides The mean MDA level in the control population was 1.9 ± 0.4 nmol/dl (1.9 ± 0.1 in males; 1.9 ± 0.8 in females), while the corresponding value in pupae and larva groups were 4.16 ± 1.04 nmol/dl (4.01 ± 1.9 in pupae; 4.5 ± 1.1 in larva) and 4.03 ± 1.1 nmol/dl (3.76 ± 0.7 in males. In conclusion, in present found high concentrations of products derived from lipid peroxidation while assessing levels of an adult, larvae, pupae, and the oxidative damage of circulating protein according to the carbonyl content of cellular protein peroxidation. Our results suggest the association of cellular damage caused by oxygen free radicals with the pathogenesis of antioxidant system in Aedes aegypti of presented highly marked modifications related to the presence of nanoparticles oxidative stress, characterized by intense lipid and protein peroxidation and reduced antioxidant defense system of Aedes aegypti.

Keywords: aedes aegypti, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nanoparticles, Oxidative stress

Citation: Al-Salih M, Samsudin S, Rashid AR. Evaluation of cellular oxidative stress levels in aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a reaction of photo catalyst modify nanoparticles exposure. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3607-16.

Mentoring in higher education: Aspect of innovative practices interaction in development of student professional and personal competencies
Nataliya P. Tagirova, Anna M. Yudina, Lidiya N. Krasnova, Mikhail A. Gorbunov, Denis G. Shelevoi, Elena V. Spirina, Tatiana B. Lisitsyna

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Abstract

The relevance of the research is due to the new formats of higher education. On the one hand, modern reality requires students to have knowledge and readiness to apply it in dynamic, sometimes radical, changes in the socio-economic environment, on the other hand, in the conditions of mass introduction of remote technologies, it dictates the need to develop professional and personal planning competencies for the future, to form their own life and professional development trajectory, to independently choose individual solutions. These problems have made educational institutions need to expand the resources of mentoring activities in student training. In this regard, this study reveals the features of mentoring in the process of innovative practices interaction. The article reveals the priority areas of mentoring in the educational space of a modern University, and establishes the structure and content of innovative mentoring practices (coaching, mentoring, supervision, tutoring). Based on the results of the research, the authors of this article substantiate the model of partnership interaction of innovative mentoring practices in the development of professional and personal competencies of students. The effectiveness of the model is proved by the results of its use in the mentoring activities of the University. The materials of the article are recommended to teachers, mentors, methodologists and University students.

Keywords: educational space of the University, mentoring, individualization of student learning, innovative practices of mentoring, coaching, mentoring; supervision, tutoring, professional and personal competencies of the individual, model of partnership interaction, pedagogical monitoring

Citation: Tagirova NP, Yudina AM, Krasnova LN, Gorbunov MA, Shelevoi DG, Spirina EV, et al. Mentoring in higher education: Aspect of innovative practices interaction in development of student professional and personal competencies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3617-23.

Assessing methodology development for the service organizations advertising campaign effectiveness in audio blogs (Podcasts)
Elena I. Makrinova, Elena V. Matuzenko, Natalia A. Zaitseva, Anna A. Larionova, Olga V. Eliseeva, Olga S. Mysova, Natalia G. Nagai

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Abstract

The relevance of the research topic lies in the emergence and rapid spread of advertising communication new channels with the target audience. One of these advertising platforms is modern audio blogs called podcasts. The aim of the study is to develop a scientifically based methodological approach to assessing the effectiveness of advertising campaigns on a communication channel - podcasts. During the research, the authors of the article used methods of quantitative and qualitative assessment, comparative and factor analysis, analysis and synthesis, grouping and comparison, when formulating conclusions based on the research results - the method of logical generalization. The use of these scientific methods and approaches in a complex allowed us to determine the meaningful essence of service organizations activities to create podcasts as a promising means of advertising. The authors of the article identified the advantages and disadvantages of service organizations advertising in podcasts, analyzed the target audience of the communication channel, highlighted the types of advertising placed by service organizations on podcasts, analyzed platforms for its placement, and summarized and systematized indicators that can be used to evaluate the advertising effectiveness on podcasts, depending on the placement on various hosting. Article submissions can be of interest to the service and other organizations planning advertising campaigns using audio blogs (podcasts).

Keywords: podcasts, advertising campaign, service organizations, audio blogs, efficiency

Citation: Makrinova EI, Matuzenko EV, Zaitseva NA, Larionova AA, Eliseeva OV, Mysova OS, et al. Assessing methodology development for the service organizations advertising campaign effectiveness in audio blogs (Podcasts). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3625-32.

Potency of pomegranate extract (Punica Granatum L) to heat shock Protein27, Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of pulmonal artery smooth muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension rat models
Mahrus A Rahman, Gina Noor Djalilah, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Congenital Heart Disease’s related Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) frequently develops into progressive, causing vascular proliferation and ending with heart failure and death. Definitive therapy on anatomical defect often delayed due to facilities and infrastructure. Medical therapy is needed to decrease morbidity and mortality during awaiting definitive therapy. Pomegranate extract has antiproliferation activity through antiinflammation, ACE inhibitor, and antioxidant mechanism. The antifibrotic effect can be evaluated by the decreasement of cells expressing HSP27 and Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of smooth muscle pulmonal artery.
Purpose: Knowing the effect of pomegranate extract (Punica Granatum L) in cells expressing HSP27 and Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of smooth muscle PAH rat models.
Method: This randomized post-test only control group carried out on 24 paraffin block from monocrotaline induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The monocrotaline dose is 60 mg/kg body weight. The amount of cells expressing HSP27 and Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of smooth muscle evaluated on week 2 and week 4.
Result: There are significant difference on cells expressing HSP27 and Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of smooth muscle between 2 weeks treatment by pomegranate extract group and 4 weeks treatment group lower than controls.
Conclusion: Pomegranate extract decrease cells expressing HSP27 and Laminin 5 γ2, and inhibit thickening of smooth muscle on PAH rat models.

Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension, PAH rat model, pomegranate extract, HSP27, Laminin 5 γ2, smooth muscle thickness

Citation: Rahman MA, Djalilah GN, Utamayasa IKA. Potency of pomegranate extract (Punica Granatum L) to heat shock Protein27, Laminin 5 γ2, and thickening of pulmonal artery smooth muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension rat models. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3633-9.

The increase of dysplasia level in Wistar rats oropharyngeal mucosa exposed by sidestream cigarette smoke
Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Adiastuti Endah, Annisa Permatasari, Fatma Yasmin, Saka Winias, Bagus Soebadi, Hening Tuti

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Abstract

Background: Sidestream cigarette smoke contains several elements that can trigger cancer. The risk of various types of cancer, such as oral cancer, will increase in the number of people exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Dysplasia is a histopathological change that shows abnormal activities in the normal epithelium. Examination of oral epithelial dysplasia is vital in predicting the development of malignancy. This study aimed to determine the risk of malignant transformation in the oropharynx of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke through the observation of the degree of dysplasia in the oropharyngeal mucous in the 4th and eighth weeks after the exposure began.
Method: Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely treatment group one, exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks; treatment group two, exposed to cigarette smoke for eight weeks; and a control group that was not exposed to cigarette smoke. Oropharyngeal mucous of rats from each group were examined histopathologically to find the degree of dysplasia based on 2005 WHO classification. Degrees of dysplasia were treated quantitatively and analyzed statistically.
Results: A significant increase in the degree of dysplasia was found more in the treatment group 2 than in the control group. A significant increase in the degree of dysplasia was also found in treatment group 1 compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The oropharyngeal mucosa of Wistar rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for four weeks and eight weeks experienced an increase in the degree of dysplasia.

Keywords: dysplasia, oropharyngeal mucosa, sidestream cigarette smoke

Citation: Ayuningtyas NF, Endah A, Permatasari A, Yasmin F, Winias S, Soebadi B, et al. The increase of dysplasia level in Wistar rats oropharyngeal mucosa exposed by sidestream cigarette smoke. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3641-6.

Health services and job satisfaction in the era of health insurance
Ismatut Thobibah, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

Background: The Public Satisfactory Index for the service of Glagah District Primary Health Center in Lamongan District tends to decreasing. It can be caused by employee dissatisfaction with their job. This study aimed to determine the association between the determinant factors and the level of job satisfaction.
Methods: This was descriptive observational study with cross sectional design. Data collection was carried out in December 2018.
Results: Saturaded sample was used in which 70 employees of Public Health Centre surveyed. It was found that the amount of health service salary from health insurance and the knowledge on health service has weak relationship with the PSI. Its contingency coefficient was only 0.273 and 0.181, respectively. Meanwhile, the attitudes towards health service and support for giving health service show strong relationship with contingency coefficient of 0.719 and 0.622, respectively.
Conclusion: Attitudes to health care and to supportive services are determining the fulfilment of the job satisfaction.

Keywords: health service, job satisfaction, Glagah District Health Center

Citation: Thobibah I, Damayanti NA. Health services and job satisfaction in the era of health insurance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3647-51.

Opportunistic mycoses among hepatitis patients in Iraq
Hussein Al-Nasrawi

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Abstract

Opportunistic mycoses are the human fungal infections associated with immunocompromised patients. Due to wide world incidences of Hepatitis infections, Opportunistic mycoses became more prevalence among patients with Hepatitis A virus (HAV) , Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) in Iraq. The current study focused on detection of Candida species as an opportunistic mycoses causative agents among HAV, HBV and HCV patients admitted to Misan Hospitals in Iraq. A swab samples from oral cavity were taken from patients with HAV, HBV and HCV during 1st Jan 2018 – 31 December 2018. The present study revealed that Sub- districts residents recorded higher number of viral infections (53) compared with urban residents (37). From total of 90 samples infected with Hepatitis viruses (HAV 40 , HBV 40 , and 10 with HCV) ,11 (27.5%) samples were infected with opportunistic mycoses among HAV patients , 19 (47.5%) from HBV patients and  7( 70%) from HCV patients, whereas Control Group  revealed 14 infections only with Candida species from total of 90 samples (15.5%).  The study recorded   different fungal species from oral cavity included: Candida albicans (32), C.krusei (2), C.dubliniensis(1), C.tropicalis (1) ,and Fusarium verticillioides (1).

Keywords: hepatitis, opportunistic, mycoses, Iraq

Citation: Al-Nasrawi H. Opportunistic mycoses among hepatitis patients in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3653-6.

The prolonged effect of using hormonal contraception in female patients with ischemic stroke in developing countries
Virna Puspaningtyas, Baksono Winardi, Sulistyowati

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Abstract

Background: Hormonal contraception is a common method used by the FP receiver in Indonesia. Usually, hormonal contraception contains progestins and/or in combination with estrogens. Estrogens known has a potential of complication such as the development of thromboembolism thereby increasing the risk of developing ischemic stroke. While in other studies, the impact of progesterone contraception on cardiovascular disease cannot yet be explained. 
Objective: This study aims to determine the characteristics of hormonal contraceptive users in ischemic stroke patients.
Method: This study used a descriptive observational study with a successive sampling of all stroke ischemic patients with a history of hormonal contraceptive users. Research variables include age, occupation, medical records, type and duration of hormonal contraceptive use, also the time that a stroke has struck after stopping contraception. Univariate or descriptive analysis is applied to the frequency distribution of this variable
Results: The highest age group was obtained from the ‘Middle Age Begins’ Patients (46-55 years) (40%) as many as 42% of respondents worked as housewives. About 40% of respondents have suffered from hypertension and also 50% have a history of hereditary hypertension. 54% of respondents used hormonal contraception for more than 5 years with the most frequent type of hormonal contraception being injection only progestin (42%) 68. stroke episodes that appear at the age of fewer than 12 years after the termination of hormonal contraception.
Conclusion: the characteristics of hormonal contraceptive users in ischemic stroke patients as follows: the majority of the age group is ‘Middle Age Begins’ (46-55 years) with most of them working as housewives, with a history of hypertension, most sufferers of hereditary disease, the highest proportion used hormonal contraception more than 5 years with most types of use injected with progesterone only, and the average respondent stopped using hormonal contraception at a low of 12 years before the occurrence of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: the combination of hormonal contraception, progestin contraception, ischemic stroke, thromboembolism

Citation: Puspaningtyas V, Winardi B, Sulistyowati. The prolonged effect of using hormonal contraception in female patients with ischemic stroke in developing countries. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3657-61.

The effect of pomegranate extract against Endothelin-1 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Dan thickness of smooth muscles in pulmonary artery media tunics
Mahrus A. Rahman, Citra Ganesha Putri, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Congenital Heart Disease which if not corrected on time can result in increased pulmonary artery pressure or what is referred to as Pulmonary Artery Hypertension (HAP). The pathogenesis of HAP involves remodeling of the pulmonary artery Pomegranate extract (EBD) can be developed as a therapy in cardiovascular disease as anti-proliferation and anti-inflammatory.
Purpose: Analyzing the effect of pomegranate extract administration on the expression of Endothelin-1 (ET-1), Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), and thickness of the tunica smooth muscle media of pulmonary arteries in rats modeled by pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Method: This study was an observational analytic retrospective cohort study design. Analysis of the data used is a descriptive analysis of the number of cells expressing ET-1 and iNOS as well as the thickness of the tunica smooth muscle media of the pulmonary arteries for each group.
Result: In the HAP model mouse group that was given EBD, the average number of cells expressing ET-1 decreased sharply from observation after 2 weeks to observation after 4 weeks. The mean number of cells expressing iNOS and the mean thickness of smooth muscle of the pulmonary artery also experienced a sharp decline from observation after 2 weeks to observation after 4 weeks.
Conclusion: The administration of EBD can reduce the expression of ET-1, iNOS, and smooth muscle thickness in tunica pulmonary artery media in hypertensive mice.

Keywords: congenital heart disease, pulmonary artery hypertension, pomegranate, endothelin, nitric oxide synthase

Citation: Rahman MA, Putri CG, Utamayasa IKA. The effect of pomegranate extract against Endothelin-1 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Dan thickness of smooth muscles in pulmonary artery media tunics. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3663-7.

Enhancement effect of sesame seeds oil on some physiological parameters in the serum of female mice treated with tamoxifen
Najdat Ali Al-kadhi, Kasim Sakran Abass, Shaheen Ekram Jaafar

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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of SSO against toxicity of TMX and enhances fertility criteria. The study included 25 female mice randomly divided to five groups, were rodent chow and water given ad libitum. First group served as control, 2nd group included ovariectomized mice, 3rd group received TMX 0.5 mg/kg, 4th group received SSO 5ml/kg, and 5th group received TMX + SSO.
Blood samples were collected and serum were kept in deep freeze (-20 c). Biochemical tests carried out for detection of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinin in addition to hormonal assay estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH. Histological study carried out after laporatomy to estimate thickness of uterine wall, and diameter with number of uterine glands, while ovarian specimen used to calculate number of follicles and corpus luteum.
The results of the study recorded significant increase (p<0.05) in the hepatic enzymes and renal function test parameters in TMX group, also the same results were recorded in OVX group except AST, ALP and creatinin parameters. While SSO + TMX group not recorded significant differences (p>0.05) in above parameters and in the concentration of studied hormones. Number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum recorded a significant decrease (p<0.05) in TMX treated group, but recorded non significant differences (p>0.05) when co-treated with SSO, but there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the diameter and number of uterine glands. Concluded co-treatment SSO with TMX have protective and enhancement effect on some physiological and fertility parameters.

Keywords: sesame oil, fertility enhancement, concentration of hormones, physiological parameters, tamoxifen, female mice

Citation: Al-kadhi NA, Abass KS, Jaafar SE. Enhancement effect of sesame seeds oil on some physiological parameters in the serum of female mice treated with tamoxifen. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3669-81.

The fluoride and calcium effect of drink water on dental caries prevalence in children of 6-8 years old (Observational research in Bangkalan regency)
Ajeng Sminingrat, Soegeng Wahluyo, Tania Saskianti

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Abstract

Background: In Indonesia, caries is one of many dental and oral health problems which has a high incidence rate. Caries prevalence, according to Riskesdas (2013), is 1.4%. This figure is higher than the target aimed by WHO aimed, which is a caries index (DMFT-T) of 1%. Caries experience sufferers increased by 5.1% from 67.2% in 2007 to 72.3% in 2013. About 60-90% of school children have cavities which often cause pain and discomfort.
Aim: This research aims to determine the relationship of Fluoride and Calcium levels in drinking water to dental caries in children of 6-8 years in the city of Bangkalan.
Method: This study is a community-based observational analytic study. This study uses a cross-sectional design.
Results: During the test of the levels of fluoride and calcium in the urban area – precisely in SDN Demangan 01 – the result of the fluoride level was 0.058 mg/dL, and the calcium one was 103.3 mg/dL. During the test of the levels of fluoride and calcium in the coastal area – precisely at SDN Pangeranan 05 – the result of the fluoride level was 0.072 mg/dL, and the calcium one was 168.1 mg/dL.
Conclusion: People’s behavior is an important factor in caries increment besides fluoride and calcium. Predisposing factors in the study led to an increase and treatment among the two research sites.

Keywords: calcium, caries, fluoride

Citation: Sminingrat A, Wahluyo S, Saskianti T. The fluoride and calcium effect of drink water on dental caries prevalence in children of 6-8 years old (Observational research in Bangkalan regency). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3683-7.

Methodical approaches to the evaluation of economic rationality criteria in business design
Evgenia V. Ziuzya, Irina N. Sycheva, Elena I. Zatsarinnaya, Vasily I. Kuts, Regina Z. Valieva, Olga S. Zinisha

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Abstract

This article is concerned with the justification of the developed methodological approaches to the evaluation of the economic rationality criterion in business design, which is applicable to any organization. An important aspect in the methodology under consideration is the formation of sound intersectoral relations. According to the authors, a complete, objective and reliable evaluation of the effectiveness of the establishment of the intersectoral relations occurring in any area of production activity is an option for solution of the problem under consideration. Not one, but a system of indicators ensuring the reliability of the conclusions drawn should be applied to evaluate production efficiency. The system of indicators makes it possible to specify the leading criterion of efficiency, to present a generalized quantitative and qualitative characteristic of the economic processes taking place in the industry. This justifies the choice of the economic rationality criterion, which is objective and universal in nature, can be easily interpreted and makes it possible to adequately assess the status of business design in an organization, not only at the current time, but also for the future.

Keywords: organization, production, business process, business design, economic rationality, criterion, performance evaluation, efficiency

Citation: Ziuzya EV, Sycheva IN, Zatsarinnaya EI, Kuts VI, Valieva RZ, Zinisha OS. Methodical approaches to the evaluation of economic rationality criteria in business design. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3689-5.

Dimensions change and left ventricular function carvedilol post therapy due to heart failure cases in children with congenital heart disease left-to-right
Mahrus A. Rahman, Dewi Astasari, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common congenital disorder in newborns with a prevalence of 9.1 per 1000 live births. In left-to-right PJB shunts occur excessive volume burden on the ventricles, resulting in heart failure.
Purpose: Knowing the difference in changes in the dimensions and function of the left ventricle on echocardiography after standard therapy plus placebo with the standard therapy group plus carvedilol in children with heart failure due to left-to-right CHD.
Method: Using a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) research design by giving a Double Blind Study treatment. Research data including comparison of initial data and final data of the two groups were analyzed by independent sample t test.
Result: The results of measurement of left ventricular mass showed a significant decrease to 40.56 ± 23.63 g / m2 (p <0.001). There was a significant decrease in left ventricular volume to 42.23 ± 20.36 m3 (p = 0.05). There was a significant increase in the mean left ventricular ejection fraction to 74.16 ± 4.10% (p = 0.03). There was an increase in the left ventricular shortening fraction to 42.18 ± 3.66% (p = 0.04).
Conclusion: There are differences in the dimensions of the left ventricular at the end of systolic (DVKI-AS), the left ventricle at the end of diastolic (VKI-AD), the thickness of the back wall of the left ventricle at the end of diastolic (DBVKI-AD), and the thickness of the interventricular septum at the end of diastolic (SIV-AD).

Keywords: congenital heart disease, heart failure, pomegranate, carvedilol, left ventricle

Citation: Rahman MA, Astasari D, Utamayasa IKA. Dimensions change and left ventricular function carvedilol post therapy due to heart failure cases in children with congenital heart disease left-to-right. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3697-01.

Buccal and labial mucosa dysplasia in Wistar rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke as early detection of precancerous lesions
Nurina F Ayuningtyas, Shifa Nabila Putri, Hening Tuti, Saka Winias, Priyo Hadi, Bagus Soebadi

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Abstract

Background: Sidestream cigarette smoke contains cancer-causing substances. Risks of cancer, especially oral cancer, will most likely increase in people who are exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Dysplasia is a histopathological picture that indicates abnormal activities in the normal epithelium. The assessment of epithelial dysplasia in the oral cavity is vital to predicting malignancy development. This study aims to identify the existence of buccal and labial mucosa dysplasia in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that are exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke by observing the level of dysplasia in both buccal and labial mucosa in the fourth and eight weeks after the initial exposure.
Method: The Wistar rats were divided into three groups: group 1 that was exposed to the smoke for four weeks; group 2 that was exposed to the smoke for eight weeks; and the control group that was not exposed to any smoke. The buccal and labial mucosa of the rats were then examined histopathologically to identify the level of dysplasia, following the 2005 WHO classification. After that, the dysplasia levels were processed quantitatively and were analyzed statistically.
Results: There was a significant result of dysplasia in both group 1 and group 2 if compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The exposure of side stream cigarette smoke to Wistar rats resulted in the existence of buccal and labial mucosa dysplasia.

Keywords: buccal mucosa, dysplasia, labial mucosa, side stream cigarette smoke

Citation: Ayuningtyas NF, Putri SN, Tuti H, Winias S, Hadi P, Soebadi B. Buccal and labial mucosa dysplasia in Wistar rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke as early detection of precancerous lesions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3703-8.

Microbial examination outcome of sputum at tertiary hospital in Baghdad-Iraq
Sarab K. Jameel, Amel H. Abbas, Noor A. Mohammed, Ali H. Hayyawi, Ahmed M. Al Ismee, Enas M. Ibrahim, Zakaria Y. Younus, Manar S. Assi

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Abstract

The lungs are a common site for infection by prevalent pathogens which be faced in worldwide, include bacteria, atypical, viruses, fungi and other infectious agents. Ten million persons became infected with TB and 1.6 million died of this disease. This study was designed to explore the rate of AFB, the most common bacteria and fungi in the sputum specimen obtained from patients with respiratory tract infection. Positive sputum culture was 1155 (5.6%).The prevalence of Gram negative 752 (80.1%) was higher than Gram positive 187 (19.91%). The most common Gram-negative bacteria were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.91%), Moraxella catarrhalis (17.14%), then Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (15.86%), (13.31%) respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae (15.0%) is at the top of Gram-positive bacteria. A significant greater proportion of TB in West Baghdad than in the East Baghdad. Bacterial isolates exhibited a high frequency of resistance to most of common antibiotics such as: Ticaricillin (TI), Amoxacillin (AMX), Rocephin (CTR), Gentamycin (GEN). Gram negative bacteria population was the most common organisms for RTI then TB and fungi, higher prevalence of microbial infection in men than women and increased of antibiotic resistance especially β-lactam antibiotics.

Keywords: tuberculosis, respiratory infection, sputum, bacterial

Citation: Jameel SK, Abbas AH, Mohammed NA, Hayyawi AH, Al Ismee AM, Ibrahim EM, et al. Microbial examination outcome of sputum at tertiary hospital in Baghdad-Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3709-18.

The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and type I collagen on the right ventricle of rat models with pulmonary arterial hypertension administered with pomegranate extract
Mahrus A. Rahman, Ilham Bondan Pramudiawan, I Ketut Alit Utamayasa

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Abstract

Background: The level evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen are the basic instructions for the occurrence of myocardial fibrosis process, especially in the right ventricle. Pomegranate extract is an alternative therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by reducing systolic blood pressure and by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) serum.
Purpose: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of pomegranate extract on the fibrosis process due to PAH, particularly in the RV myocardium.
Method: This study used an experimental laboratory design with a randomized post-test only control group design. The samples were divided into four groups, i.e., K1 and K2, as control groups and E1 with E2 as treatment groups. The data analysis used the ANOVA test and multiple comparisons or Least Significance Difference (LSD). The Kruskal Wallis test was used if the distributed data was not normal.
Results: There were no significant differences in body weight between the groups in K1, E1, K2, and E2. The average systolic and diastolic pressure and pulmonary artery between the E1 and E2 groups were lower than those in the K1 and K2 control groups. The average amount of cells and the immunohistochemical results expressing TGF-β1 and type I collagen in the E1 and E2 groups were less than those in the K1 and K2 groups.
Conclusion: Pomegranate extract effectively decreases the number of cells expressing TGF-β1 and type I collagen in the right ventricle of the rat models of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Keywords: pulmonary artery, pomegranate, fibrosis, right ventricle

Citation: Rahman MA, Pramudiawan IB, Utamayasa IKA. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and type I collagen on the right ventricle of rat models with pulmonary arterial hypertension administered with pomegranate extract. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3719-23.

Features of student virtual social capital: Characteristics, opportunities and limits
Valentina A. Arkhipova, Larisa G. Vasilyeva, Vladimir L. Gurdzhiyan, Alexandr L. Makarov, Nikolay A. Mashkin, Anna A. Nikitina, Sharafetdin A. Magaramov

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Abstract

The relevance of this article lies in the need to study the possibilities of accumulating virtual social capital, maintaining it with the help of virtual social networks and using it in the educational, labor and leisure spheres. Since such resources can make a significant contribution to any area of a person’s life: assistance in the field of education, and significant bonuses for employment. The purpose of the study is to identify mechanisms for acquiring, preserving and strengthening virtual social capital. Research methods: as a research method, a questionnaire survey was used to describe and analyze the features of using virtual social networks in the educational, labor and leisure spheres of users’ lives. Research results: the article considers the features of virtual social capital formation. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time students’ idea of virtual social capital is considered. It is shown that virtual social networks are very popular with students. The factors that encourage users of virtual social networks to use their capabilities in solving significant issues in each of the studied areas are identified. It is determined that the social network is used mainly as a means of communication and information transfer, as well as a tool for organizing leisure, goals pursued in the educational sphere, in the field of career and leisure can be no less successfully implemented with its help. It is revealed that undergraduate students do not consider study groups in social networks to be effective, while master’s students consider such groups effective. It is shown that it is more difficult to accumulate virtual social capital in the labor sphere than in the educational sphere, since this is due to the closeness of working groups and low career mobility of employees. It is determined that for the formation of virtual social capital in the labor sphere it is necessary firstly to find good real contacts. It is shown that it is necessary to form virtual social capital in the labor sphere depending on the type of work: if the work is in the classical sphere, then personal acquaintances and further real communication will be better suited here, and if the work is in the innovative sphere, it is better to build and maintain relationships in the virtual space. It is revealed that the use of social networks in the field of leisure is the most popular for the formation of virtual social capital. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, labor psychology, management, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: virtual social capital, virtual communication, Internet resources

Citation: Arkhipova VA, Vasilyeva LG, Gurdzhiyan VL, Makarov AL, Mashkin NA, Nikitina AA, et al. Features of student virtual social capital: Characteristics, opportunities and limits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3725-9.

Particularities of the Internet-based virtual social environments within the context of information warfare
Gennadi B. Pronchev, Aleksander P. Mikhailov, Aleksey P. Lyubimov, Andrey A. Solovyev

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Abstract

The research deals with questions of information warfare in virtual social environments of the Internet. In the work, statutory and legal documents of the Russian Federation in the domain of information protection are analyzed. Particularities of the Internet-based virtual social environments are discussed: the popularity of virtual social environments among users, the existence of users’ virtual identities, the network structure of information dissemination on the Internet, isotropy of virtual social environments, process capacities for manipulating users. The authors put forward the sociological substantiation for the mathematical model of information dissemination in virtual social environments having the network model of information dissemination; the conceptual description of the process is suggested. Although the state makes significant efforts at the legislative level for preventing the harmful information action on its citizens on the Internet, there is a number of particularities of virtual social environments which allow completing them only in part. The research findings can be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of information warfare and information security of virtual social environments.

Keywords: information warfare, virtual social environments, the Internet, mathematical modeling, isotropy of social environment, virtual identity, manipulations

Citation: Pronchev GB, Mikhailov AP, Lyubimov AP, Solovyev AA. Particularities of the Internet-based virtual social environments within the context of information warfare. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3731-9.

Effect of using Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)  and Sprout germinated barley as a prebiotics to the diets of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) fingerling on the rates of apparent digestible coefficient and apparent protein digestible
Hazem S. Abedalhammed, Sadam Mohamad Hassan, Ahmed S. Naser, Mohammed Hamed AL-Maathedy, S. M. Abdulateef, Th. T. Mohammed

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Abstract

This study was conducted to find out the effect of adding different levels of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) (JAT) powder and Sprout Germinated Barley (SGB) powder to common carp diets (Cyprinus carpio L.) on the rates parameters of Apparent Digestible Coefficient (ADC%) and Apparent Protein Digestible (APD%). 147 fish were distributed to seven treatments, 7 fish in each aquarium with three replications per treatment, for a period of 70 days. It was fed with 3% of weight of the biomass and was given twice a day. The (JAT) powder was added at the rate of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/kg, for the first, second, and third treatments respectively, add (SGB) powder 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/kg for the fourth, fifth and sixth treatments respectively. ADC% Rate, third treatment which was 7.5 g/kg of JAT significantly P≤0.05 outperformed, for ADC (69.915%) on all treatments, It did not differ did not differ significantly P≤0.05 with both the fifth treatment (5 g/kg SGB) and the sixth one (7.5 g/kg SGB), They recorded 69.090% and 69.715%  respectively. APD% Rate: The second treatment (5 g/kg SGB) and the third treatments (7.5 g/kg SGB) it recorded (79.215%) (79.650%) respectively, significantly P≤0.05 outperformed for the APD on all treatments.  It did not differ significantly P≤0.05 with the fifth treatment (5 g/kg SGB) and sixth (7.5 g/kg SGB) and recorded 75.985% and 76.945% respectively.

Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, germinated barley, common carp Cyprinus carpio L., apparent digestible coefficient, apparent protein digestible

Citation: Abedalhammed HS, Hassan SM, Naser AS, AL-Maathedy MH, Abdulateef SM, Mohammed TT. Effect of using Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)  and Sprout germinated barley as a prebiotics to the diets of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) fingerling on the rates of apparent digestible coefficient and apparent protein digestible. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3741-5.

Toxicity test of shrimp shell (Litopenaeus Vannamei) chitosan as bone graft scaffold on BHK-21 fibroblast cell cultures
Benny Saputra, Utari Kresnoadi

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Abstract

Background: Chitosan is a material that is biocompatible, biodegradable, bioadhesive, and nontoxic when it comes to human cells. Chitosan has potential to be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant material. Chitosan’s biocompatibility still depends on its origin, method of manufacture, and degree of deacetylation. To be used as an alternative scaffold material for bone augmentation that is safe to use in the field of dentistry, the authors are interested in conducting toxicity tests on BHK-21 fibroblast cell cultures.
Aim: To determine the toxicity of chitosan from shrimp shells (Litopenaeus Vannamei) on BHK-21 fibroblast cell cultures.
Method: This type of research is a laboratory experiment with a Post Test Only Control Group Design. Treatment was conducted by administration of chitosan from shrimp shells (Litopenaeus Vannamei) with a concentration of 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% on the BHK 21 fibroblast cell cultures.
Results: The percentage of remaining fibroblast cells at concentrations of 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% respectively were 51%, 53%, 54%, and 56%. Toxicity results were obtained by using the MTT assay technique after 24 hours. Optical density absorbance values describe the viability of living cells and the readings were conducted by using ELISA readers.
Conclusion: The results of the toxicity test of shrimp shells (Litopenaeus Vannamei) chitosan did not show toxic effects on BHK-21 fibroblast cells.

Keywords: shrimp shell chitosan, toxicity, BHK-21 fibroblast cells

Citation: Saputra B, Kresnoadi U. Toxicity test of shrimp shell (Litopenaeus Vannamei) chitosan as bone graft scaffold on BHK-21 fibroblast cell cultures. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3747-51.

Multiplier effects of the development of socially responsible tourism
I. Y. Shvets

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Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyse the multiplicative effects of the influence of the development of socially responsible tourism. The main approaches to the tourist multiplier effect, tourist multiplier are considered and analysed. The multiplicative effect of the tourism sector is a mechanism for additional stimulation of the economy and social environment of the territory as a result of the impact of sources of demand. The essence of the tourism multiplier is the value of the coefficient of the indirect influence of tourism on related sectors of the economy. Visions of principles of socially responsible tourism, which relate to three main aspects: environment, economy and socio-cultural dimension. Various types of tourist multipliers and the main effects are analysed. The multiplier effect in tourism has a direct, indirect and induced impact on the local economy and can often be very different from one country to another. The factors influencing the development of multiplier effects are analysed: capital investments in tourism, government spending on tourism, effects from the supply chain. The analysis of the direct, indirect and induced impact of travel and tourism on the GDP of countries is carried out. The chain of relationships in the field of socially responsible tourism, direct and indirect contribution to the economies of countries is analysed.

Keywords: tourism, socially responsible tourism, multiplier, multiplier effect

Citation: Shvets IY. Multiplier effects of the development of socially responsible tourism. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3753-8.

Perception and knowledge of patients towards teeth whitening treatment
Priskila Naomi Widodo, Nadia Liliani Soetjipta, Nawira, Retno Palupi

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Abstract

<b>Background: </b>Aesthetics is the study of beauty and efforts to improve certain details of a static or dynamic object so as to make it more interesting. In general, the color of adult teeth is yellow, gray, white-gray, or yellowish-white.<br />
<b>Purpose</b><b>:</b> of this study is to find out about the perception and knowledge of patients about teeth whitening treatment.<br />
<b>Method</b>: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional design survey method. The subjects chosen were 56 patients who came to Aesthetics. Data analysis was Pearson Chi-Square test.<br />
<b>Results</b>: There was a significant correlation between age and patient's perception of the condition of the oral cavity (p = 0.030), gender and tea/coffee drinking habits (p = 0.007), age and patient's knowledge regarding the safety of the bleaching procedure (p = 0.018), age and patient's knowledge about the price of bleaching (p = 0.018), marital status and patient's knowledge about the length of bleaching procedure that has been done (p = 0.018), work and patient's knowledge about bleaching products used at home (p = 0.018), as well as education and origin patient knowledge about bleaching (p = 0.043).<br />
<b>Conclusion</b>: There is a significant relationship between age, sex, level of education, marital status, and type of work on the perception and knowledge of patients regarding teeth whitening treatment in patients who come to the Dental and Oral Hospital of Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya.

Keywords: perception, knowledge, teeth whitening treatment

Citation: Widodo PN, Soetjipta NL, Nawira, Palupi R. Perception and knowledge of patients towards teeth whitening treatment. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3759-64.

Transverse strength of Robusta-soaked (Coffea canephora L.) acrylic resin denture
Bambang Agustono, Harry Laksono, Ni Nyoman Astari

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Abstract

Acrylic resin is an artificial base material that is often used in dentistry because it has a resistance to the load that is received at the time of mastication known as transverse strength. The high consumption of Robusta coffee in Indonesia gives denture users easy access for the beverage. Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora L.) contains high chlorogenic acid which can affect the transverse strength of heat cured acrylic denture. This study aims to determine the transvesal strength of acrylic resin denture which were soaked and not soaked with Robusta coffee liquid (Coffea canephora L.). This type of research is an experimental laboratory research study with Post Test Only Control Design Group. The size of the acrylic plate was 65 mm x 10 mm x 2.5 mm acrylic, immersed in Robusta coffee liquid; light roasted, medium roasted, dark roasted for 7 days. Transversal strength was tested using "Tensile tester".  One way Anova Test was applied for the data analysis. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the transverse strength of the heat cured acrylic denture after being immersed with Robusta coffee (p = 0.322). There was no reduction in the transverse strength of the heat cured acrylic resin denture after being soaked with Robusta coffee liquid.

Keywords: acrylic resin, transverse strength, Robusta coffee

Citation: Agustono B, Laksono H, Astari NN. Transverse strength of Robusta-soaked (Coffea canephora L.) acrylic resin denture. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3765-8.

Antifungal power of chitosan extract from squid pen powder towards Candida albicans
Imam Safari Azhar, Utamayasa, Lila Narisya

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Abstract

Chitosan is a natural material that can be obtained from fishery waste such as crustacean shells and squid pens. Squid pen is a waste produced from the processing of squid with transparent structures with feather-like shapes attached to the dorsal inside a squid mantle. Chitosan from squid pen has been developed in the medical field because it has biocompatible properties, biodegradable, non-toxic, and also has antifungal activity. Being able to eliminate the Candida albicans fungus which is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of denture stomatitis due to the use of long-term dentures. This study aims to determine the antifungal activity of chitosan extracted from squid pen against Candida albicans. Candida albicans was planted in Saboraud broth liquid media tubes and given Chitosan suspension 1.5% (w / v) with each sample group consisting of 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56%, 0.78% and there are two control groups namely positive and negative controls. All samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C Then a visual observation of turbidity on liquid Saboraud broth media was then carried out by planting culture on SDA media with 7 replications, incubated for 2x24 hours at 37 ° Gmd counted the number of living colonies. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Post hoc tukey test. At the concentration of 25% there was no fungal growth in saboraud dextrose agar media. Chitosan extracted from squid pens has antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi with a minimum concentration of 25%.

Keywords: chitosan, squid pen, antifungal activity, Candida albicans

Citation: Azhar IS, Utamayasa, Narisya L. Antifungal power of chitosan extract from squid pen powder towards Candida albicans. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3769-72.

Morchella steppicola (Morchellaceae) in the Belgorod region of the Russian Federation
Alexandr V. Dunaev, Viktoriya N. Zelenkova, Elena N. Dunaeva, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Igor V. Lyashenko, Anna N. Doborovich

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Abstract

Morchella steppicola (Morchellaceae) Zerova is included in the main list of the Red Book of the Belgorod Region of the Russian Federation. It has been assigned category and status 3 - a rare species. However, information about it is clearly incomplete, which is due to the peculiarities of its phenology and ecology, as well as the lack of systematic research aimed at finding its existing habitats. At the beginning of the 2020 season, reconnaissance surveys of characteristic ecotopes revealed 2 new localities of Morchella steppicola in unknown habitats (in the Belgorod and Shebekinsky administrative regions). The article describes these habitats in connection with the available data on the occurrence and distribution of this species, both within the region and beyond. The fact that new habitats have been identified should in no way call into question that Morchella steppicola is a species in relation to which the recommended measures should be followed: preserving existing habitats and searching for new ones, taking the identified populations under territorial protection, monitoring the abundance in known habitats.

Keywords: Morchella steppicola, fruit body, Belgorod oblast, location, habitat, rare species, micropopulation

Citation: Dunaev AV, Zelenkova VN, Dunaeva EN, Tokhtar VK, Lyashenko IV, Doborovich AN. Morchella steppicola (Morchellaceae) in the Belgorod region of the Russian Federation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3773-8.

Antibacterial and solubility power differences of luting cement, resin reinforced glass ionomer, bioactive, and resin-based composite in dental restoration
Utari Kresnoadi, I Ketut Budi Santosa

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Abstract

There was still high caries incidence in abutment teeth (30.3%) in fixed denture treatment. One of the important components in luting cements to prevent caries in abutment teeth is the antibacterial and solubility properties of cement materials. This study aims to determine the difference of antibacterial activity and the solubility of three luting cements against S. mutans. 3 luting cement materials were RRGI (Fuji plus), Bioactive luting cement (Activa luting) and Resin Based composite (Relyx U200). Each of the materials had 7 samples sized of 5x1.5mm for antibacterial test against S. mutans and 15x1mm for solubility test. Data analysis was subsequently performed using an ANOVA test. There was a significant difference between the three luting cement in antibacterial tests against S. mutans, while in the solubility test gived no different to each other dental luting cements p = 0.107. Luting cement with the highest antibacterial is bioactive luting because the material can improve more hydroxyapatite and more fluorine against S. mutans.

Keywords: antibacterial, luting cement, solubility, S. mutans

Citation: Kresnoadi U, Santosa IKB. Antibacterial and solubility power differences of luting cement, resin reinforced glass ionomer, bioactive, and resin-based composite in dental restoration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3779-83.

Collagen fiber increase due to hydroxyapatite from crab shells (Portunus pelagicus) application in post tooth extraction in Wistar rats
Agus Dahlan, Hanoem Eka Hidayati, Shasadhara Pramesti Hardianti

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Abstract

Tooth extraction will be followed by alveolar bone resorption process. Loss of alveolar bone support will affect retention, stability and comfort in the use of dentures. This can be solved by doing bone graft with hydroxyapatite (HA) material. This study used HA-derived crab shell (Portunus pelagicus) because it contains protein, calcium carbonate, and chitin. A good synthetic bone graft is the structural and composition similar to natural bone. Bone consists of collagen and HA as the main component and a few percent of the other components. The type of collagen that has an important role in bone formation is type I collagen, because this collagen can undergo the process of mineralization. Determine the enhancement of collagen fibers in the post-extraction after being given hydroxyapatite from crab shells on the 14th and 28th days. 36 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups consisting of control and the treatment group on day 14 and day 28. HA from crab shell was applied to the rats’ sockets after extraction of lower left incisor. After the 14th and 28th days, the mandible was cut and HPA microscope slide set were made by staining Masson's Trcihome (MT). The collagen fibers was seen using a binocular light microscope at 400x magnification. The research data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The collagen fibers increased significantly between the control and treatment groups.  Giving hydroxyapatite from crab shells in post extraction Wistar tooth sockets can increase the amount of collagen.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, crab shells, collagen, Wistar rats

Citation: Dahlan A, Hidayati HE, Hardianti SP. Collagen fiber increase due to hydroxyapatite from crab shells (Portunus pelagicus) application in post tooth extraction in Wistar rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3785-9.

Toxicity test on Meniran extract (Phyllanthus niruri L.) as a medicated mouthwash towards fibroblast cell culture
Sofi Choirum Muzamil, K Michael Josef

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Abstract

The main problem for denture users is denture stomatitis caused by Candida albicans which in a pathogenic state can release endotoxins that damage the oral mucosa. Meniran plant contains antifungal compounds that can be used as an alternative mouthwash for denture users. This study aims to determine the level of toxicity of Meniran plant extracts as mouthwash ingredients for dentures towards gingival fibroblast cell cultures. This study is an experimental research. There is a fibroblast cell control group and fibroblast cell treatment group that was added with Meniran plant extracts. All samples were incubated in the media for 24 hours. The samples were then given MTT material and incubated again for 4 hours. Cell culture on the plate was then read by ELISA reader. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and HSD-Tukey. The results showed that there were significant differences between the cell groups and the treatment groups. The treatment results showed the percentage of living cells in the treatment group giving Meniran plants of 40%, 20%, 10%, and 5% respectively, which were 61.1%, 67.3%, 73.6%, 78.1%.  Meniran plant extract is not toxic and can reduce the excess amount of Candida albicans.

Keywords: toxicity, Meniran plants, MTT-assay, gingival fibroblast cells

Citation: Muzamil SC, Josef KM. Toxicity test on Meniran extract (Phyllanthus niruri L.) as a medicated mouthwash towards fibroblast cell culture. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3791-4.

Survey on medicinal plants in the flora of Al Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia
Ramadan A. Shawky, Nurah M. Alzamel

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Abstract

The present study aims to assess medicinal plants in Al Riyad region comparing with total medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. This may be useful in developing strategies for sustainable use of one of the threatened natural resources in Saudi Arabia. The result revealed that there are 108 specie were recorded, belonging to 36 families and 94 genera. The most dominated families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Charyophlaceae and Zygophyllaceae. About 97% of the total recorded species have at least one aspect of potential or actual economic uses i.e., 165 species are having medicinal value. This means that this region has a large number of medicinal plants, which needs to be discovered and surveyed. This study confirms on importance of medicinal plants protection because almost of them are rare or endangered species.

Keywords: flora, medicinal, grazing, life form, economic uses, vegetation

Citation: Shawky RA, Alzamel NM. Survey on medicinal plants in the flora of Al Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3795-800.

Communities structure displayed by pathogenic polypore fungi types in oak groves of various viability levels
Alexandr V. Dunaev, Elena N. Dunaeva, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Alina S. Korotkikh, Elena S. Danilova

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Abstract

The paper focuses on the study of composition and species correlation in typical specific communities of nemoral biocenoses with Quercus robur L. Species of various viability levels growing in the south-west of Central Russian Upland have been examined. Three polypore fungi types living on oaks have been found to make up the characteristic combination of species in dendro-trophic pathogenic polypore fungi communities growing on oaks in upland and ravine groves, namely, Fistulina hepatica, Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomitiporia robusta. These ones are constant species in the communities’ composition, displaying the highest dominance in terms of population, with 44.9%, 28.8%, 20.4%, respectively, in upland groves, and 45.0%, 26.3%, 20.5%, respectively, in ravine groves. F. hepatica is an indicator species which characterizes the vitality of oak stand: the higher dominance is displayed by the species, the poorer is oak stand condition.

Keywords: specific structure, pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF) community, Quercus robur, oak stand viability category (VC1-6), dominance index (D)

Citation: Dunaev AV, Dunaeva EN, Tokhtar VK, Korotkikh AS, Danilova ES. Communities structure displayed by pathogenic polypore fungi types in oak groves of various viability levels. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3801-4.

The effectiveness of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) leaf extract as a denture cleanser against Candida albicans in acrylic plate
Olivia Ananto Putri, Utari Kresnoadi, Agus Dahlan

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Abstract

Denture wearers use cleanser with chemical cleaning solution to eliminate the formation of plaque, tartar and food scraps, as well as bad breath. Thus, many natural materials used as alternative synthetic materials have recently been developed. One of natural materials developed is Taro Leaf. To determine the effectiveness of Taro leaf extract as a denture cleanser against Candida albicans on acrylic plate. The acrylic plate was soaked in sterile saliva and then soaked in Candida albicans for 24 hours. Those samples then were divided into four groups, namely one control group and using Taro leaf extract at concentrations of 40%, 60%, and 80%. After the treatment, they were planted on Sabaroud Dextrose Agar and then incubated for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the visible growth of Candida albicans colonies was measured. The results then were analyzed by using the Kolmogrov Smirnov, Levene test, one way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test. There was a significant difference in the growth of Candida albicans colonies between the treatment group using Taro leaf extract at the concentration of 40%, 60% and 80%. This study can be concluded that the immersion of acrylic resin plate in taro leaf extract (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) with a concentration of 80% can effectively decrease the number of colonies of Candida albicans on acrylic resins.

Keywords: antifungal, taro leaf extract, denture cleanser, resin acrylic, Candida albicans

Citation: Putri OA, Kresnoadi U, Dahlan A. The effectiveness of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) leaf extract as a denture cleanser against Candida albicans in acrylic plate. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3805-8.

Growth of Streptococcus mutans in developer solutions with water supply and aquadest solvents
Ridha Rasyida Arif, Otty Ratna Wahjuni, Eha Renwi Astuti

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Abstract

Background: Radiographic processing involves intraoral film which contaminated with oral cavity that has Streptococcus mutans in it, then it can contaminate equipment in a dark room. Therefore, it can be the source to cross-infection. Developer solution made at Universitas Airlangga Radiology Clinic uses tap water from river in Surabaya as its solvent. The results of the tap water quality test shows various minerals such as manganese, zinc, and iron. Manganese, iron, and zinc are proven can influence the growth of Streptococcus mutans and biofilm development. This bacteria can contaminate the developer solution during the radiographic process and its growth can be affected by the mineral in the tap water as a developer solvent.
Purpose: To determine the growth of Streptococcus mutans in developer solution with water supply and aquadest as solvent and to know the differences between them.
Method: The concentrated developer was dissolved in the tap water and aquadest then routinely used at radiology clinic in dental hospital of Universitas Airlangga. Samples was taken before any films washed as control and sample of test taken 16 times each. Every sample can be taken after 8 films were washed. Control and test samples were diluted on BHIB media, planted in TYC media, and incubated for 2x24 hours. Bacteria were identified and then the number of colonies can be counted.
Result: There was growth of Streptococcus mutans as much as one colony in two samples of developer solution with a water supply solvent. There was no growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria in the developer solution with aquadest solvent. There was no significant difference in growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria in the solution of the developer of the water supply and the aquadest solvent.
Conclusion: The growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria in the developer solution with a water supply solvent is more increasing than the aquadest solvent.

Keywords: developer solution, tap water, aquadest, Streptococcus mutans

Citation: Arif RR, Wahjuni OR, Astuti ER. Growth of Streptococcus mutans in developer solutions with water supply and aquadest solvents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3809-13.

The problem of career guidance of the youth in domestic pedagogical theory and practice
Irina V. Kudrinskaia, Alexey V. Kidinov, Elena P. Kabkova, Olga A. Mechkovskaya, Sophia A. Mudrak, Sergey B. Novikov, Emilia R. Agadzhanova

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Abstract

The most important mechanism for raising competitiveness in the labor market is career guidance which represents a set of special measures in the framework of professional self-determination and the choice of the optimal type of employment, achieving a balance between the professional interests of a person and the needs of the labor market. Career guidance is one of the main objectives of educational institutions of all types. It is combined with the preparation of young people for work in conditions of a market economy, the formation of appropriate motivations for work in the younger generation, conscious planning and choice of professional activity and form of employment, taking account of personal interests, health status, individual characteristics and inclinations of each person, and requirements of professions and the labor market. The problem of the study presented in the paper is that the labor market has contradictions in two aspects: the first one is self-determined personnel who is capable of finding a solution in non-standard situations, the second one is the lack of readiness among contemporary adolescents to build their own professional prospects. The purpose of the study is to uncover the specifics of the organization of career guidance activities with students in educational institutions. Object of the study is career guidance activities. Subject of the study is the specifics of organizing career guidance activity with students in educational institutions. The methods used in the study comprise theoretical and empirical methods: survey, observation, analysis of the literature, statistical analysis, test “Life-meaning orientations” (the technique of LMO). Based on the results of the study, the authors of the paper disclosed the concept of career guidance, its essence, approaches, directions; specifics of organizing career guidance activity with students; innovative methods and forms of career guidance have been described; a career guidance program for young people has been designed.

Keywords: career guidance of the youth, career guidance program, educational institutions, students of educational institutions

Citation: Kudrinskaia IV, Kidinov AV, Kabkova EP, Mechkovskaya OA, Mudrak SA, Novikov SB, et al. The problem of career guidance of the youth in domestic pedagogical theory and practice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3815-21.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) differences analysis in term of gender, age and working period factors
Siti Saerah, Anis Wulandari, Retno Palupi, Windhu Purnomo

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Abstract

Purpose: To find out the differences in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) seen from the factors of gender, age, and years of service of employees at the Ewa Pangalila Gunungsari Marine Hospital in Surabaya.
Method: The design of this study was a cross-sectional study with 48 respondents. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Then the data were analyzed with a descriptive analysis test and Mann Whitney test.
Results: Characteristics of respondents with high OCB dimensions were male (52.0%), age> 36 years (46.4%) and years of service> 5 years (47.1%) and there were no significant differences between OCB dimensions based on gender, age and years of service (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: To improve OCB values for employees, priority can be given to female staff, younger age groups, and new employees, so that organizational treatments can be more efficient and effective.

Keywords: gender, working period, age, Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Citation: Saerah S, Wulandari A, Palupi R, Purnomo W. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) differences analysis in term of gender, age and working period factors. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3823-5.

Anaerobic processing and microbiological analysis of agricultural waste properties for obtaining highly concentrated methane
Kaipova Zhanar Nurmahanbaevna, Satayev Marat Isakovich, Imomov Shavkat Jahonovich, Makhatov Zhaksylyk Baumanuly

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Abstract

In this article, the authors analyzed the known and modern methods of obtaining biogas, their advantages and disadvantages, and proposed a method and installation for cleaning biogas from harmful impurities: hydrogen sulfide, CO2 and water vapor. In laboratory units studied the main process parameters: the compositions of nutrient medium, stirring speed (to remove the cork education and improve metabolism), stop, and loading of fresh substrate supply for methanogenic bacteria, and pH.

Keywords: microbiology, analysis, agricultural waste, methane, biogas, enzymes

Citation: Nurmahanbaevna KZ, Isakovich SM, Jahonovich IS, Baumanuly MZ. Anaerobic processing and microbiological analysis of agricultural waste properties for obtaining highly concentrated methane. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3827-33.

Preselectional study of Triticum aestivum samples from VIR collection by productivity indicators
Lyudmila V. Tsatsenko, Alexey V. Logvinov, Dmitry L. Savichenko, Viktor V. Moiseev, Arkady V. Moiseev

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Abstract

The preselection study of wheat sample collection included the identification of the research object characteristics in order to identify the best candidates for use in selection practice. The object of the study was 19 samples of soft winter wheat from the collection of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources named after N.I. Vavilov (VIR). The following characteristics were used as the indicators of ear productivity in the analysis of the collection material: the length of the main ear (cm), the number of spikelets in the main ear (pcs.), the number of grains in the main ear (pcs.), the weight of grain from the main ear (g), the weight 1000 grains (g). The height of the plants was one of the basic indicators of the studied material, because a number of samples differed in alleles of short-stemmed genes. According to the results of two years of research, and according to the indicator "the weight of 1000 grains", the cultivar Cologna lunga razza 188 (Italy) stood out and made 71.20 g. According to the indicator "the number of grains per ear", the cultivar Fenotipo 1 (Italy) - 57.3 g., according to the totality of indicators, the cultivar Kaloyan (Bulgaria) was selected with an average weight of 1000 grains over two years of research - 51.77 g., the number of grains per ear - 51.6 pcs. and the mass of grains from an ear - 2.71 g.

Keywords: soft wheat, plant height, ear productivity, 1000 grain weight

Citation: Tsatsenko LV, Logvinov AV, Savichenko DL, Moiseev VV, Moiseev AV. Preselectional study of Triticum aestivum samples from VIR collection by productivity indicators. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3835-9.

The relationship between characteristic factors of Lavalette Hospital staff to patient safety culture behavior
Ossy Wijaya Iriandoko, Indra Gunawan, Elida Hari Ratu Ulya, Ahmad Samsul Hadi, Retno Palupi, Windhu Purnomo

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Abstract

Background: Patient Safety Incident in Malang Lavalette Hospital based on data from the Committee for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety shows that there was a decrease in the incident report that occurred from 2016 to 2018. Building a culture of patient safety is an important element to improve patient safety and service quality.
Purpose: This study aims to determine the relationship between the characteristics of hospital staff characteristics with patient safety culture behavior.
Method: This research was conducted in April 2020 with a sample of 196 respondents. The design used for this research was Cross-sectional analytic research. The necessary data was collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) version 2.0, which was designed by the Health Research and Quality Agency (AHRQ) in 2019. Data analysis was performed using multiple regression statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05.
Result: The variables after the opposite effect on the behavior of safety culture with a calculated value of -0.200 and p-value of 0.032. The calculated F value was obtained that the F count <F table (1,779 <2.15), and the p-value of 0.105> 0.05, so it can be said that the characteristic factors of Lavalette Hospital staff did not influence the patient safety culture behavior.
Conclusion: based on the measurement of 10 dimensions of HSOPSC, the culture of patient safety in Malang Lavalette Hospital is included in the positive category.

Keywords: patient safety culture, health care system, Lavalette Hospital

Citation: Iriandoko OW, Gunawan I, Ulya EHR, Hadi AS, Palupi R, Purnomo W. The relationship between characteristic factors of Lavalette Hospital staff to patient safety culture behavior. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3841-6.

Study of relationship between gout and infection with various kinds of renal stones in some biochemical variables
Muna H. Jankeer, Huda Y. Al-Attar

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Abstract

The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between Biochemical variables which are considered an indicator to kidneys function with uric acid concentration in patients with gout and various kinds of renal stones. This study was included 76 patients (42 males & 34 females) infected in gout and various kinds of renal stones, whose ages ranged (15-75) years, attending to Al-Salam Teaching Hospital and the special laboratories in Mosul city, the patients whose cases were diagnosed by the specialist physicians. Moreover, 50 healthy of both sexes with the same ages of patients were used a control for comparison. The results showed a significant increase in concentration of each of uric acid, urea, and creatinine, associated with a significant decrease in conc. of each of the total protein, albumin, and calcium but showed non-significant decrease in conc. of globulin in compared with control. The results also showed existing of a strong (+) relationship between conc. of uric acid and conc. of each one of urea and creatinine in the male patients, but that relationship was found strong (+) between conc. of uric acid, and conc. of each one of total protein, and albumin was found with the female patients. While, rest of the studied Biochemical variables showed no relationship between them and uric acid. In this study, 90 stones were collected from those patients after surgical operations, or after dropping of the stone with the urine involuntarily, so the results showed that the high ratio of the infection with pure calcium oxalate stones at 23.3%, stone of pure uric acid at % 17.9, cystine stones at 15.6%, stones mixed with each of calcium oxalate and uric acid, stones mixed with pure calcium  and calcium oxalate at the ratio of 10%, then the ratio of the stones composed of pure calcium reached 6.7%. We concluded that infection with gout and increasing conc. of uric acid led to infect in uric acid stones and other kinds of stones indicating to existing of metabolic dysfunction in the kidneys and urinary system.

Keywords: gout, renal stones, uric acid, biochemical variables

Citation: Jankeer MH, Al-Attar HY. Study of relationship between gout and infection with various kinds of renal stones in some biochemical variables. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3847-54.

The development of goal setting and planning skills in comprehensive school teachers
Svetlana A. Zaitseva, Tatiana V. Mayasova, Oksana V. Kolesova, Elena G. Gutsu, Nadezhda N. Demeneva, Valeriia A. Demareva

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Abstract

The relevance of the study: The problem addressed is highly relevant since diagnostic and methodological tools for the assessment of professional skills (goal setting and planning) in comprehensive school teachers that they need to effectively organize and manage the development of students’ personality are insufficiently developed. The aim of the study: The purpose of the article is to study the features of goal setting and planning actions as they develop in teachers of general education school within the framework of a competence-based approach to education. Methods: The questionnaire “Goal Setting and Life Planning”; author’s questionnaire “Goal setting and planning in the educational process” were used as empirical research methods. Results: The article demonstrates the effectiveness of the system of formative activities aimed at optimizing the level of goal setting and planning skills in secondary school teachers. Practical significance: The study proves the need for a set of activities that are tailored for development of professional skills of goal setting and planning in teachers in the context of modern school.

Keywords: goal setting, planning, professional actions, a teacher of comprehensive school, competence-based approach

Citation: Zaitseva SA, Mayasova TV, Kolesova OV, Gutsu EG, Demeneva NN, Demareva VA. The development of goal setting and planning skills in comprehensive school teachers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3855-61.

Features of communication between spouses during long-term forced self-isolation as a factor of constructive marital relationships
Elena A. Sorokoumova, Natalya E. Matveeva, Elena I. Cherdymova, Elena B. Puchkova, Larisa V. Temnova, Evgeniia L. Chernyshova, Dmitry V. Ivanov

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Abstract

The relevance of this article lies in the need to study the communication strategies of spouses in conditions of forced self-isolation during quarantine, since the features of communication between spouses affect the degree of constructiveness of marital relationships. In a difficult situation of uncertainty, when the question is not clear: about the virus itself, about the time of the end of quarantine and the financial side of family life, many family members have an emotional reaction to each other, disputes and unsolvable conflicts arise, some of which end in a breakup or quarrels between spouses, parents and children. The aim of the study is to identify the features of communication between spouses during the period of self-isolation. Research methods: as a research method, a questionnaire survey was used to identify the features of communication between spouses as a factor of constructive marital relationships in conditions of self-isolation due to quarantine. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the features of communication between spouses during forced self-isolation are considered for the first time. It is shown that ego positions, communicative control, listening skills, and the ability to establish emotional contacts in relationships affect the degree of constructiveness of marital relationships. It was found that in a stressful situation of uncertainty related to the coronavirus quarantine, all strategies, both adaptive and non-adaptive (aggression, irritability, manipulation, illness, depression), developed by the family members during their joint family life deteriorate, when these family members spend a lot of time together in a closed space during the quarantine and when they do not have personal psychological spaces (which are required for all people). Men often have a tendency to drink alcohol. It was revealed that during the period of forced self-isolation under quarantine due to the coronavirus pandemic, families with a constructive type of relationship are characterized by a coincidence of representative systems, and spouses have similar systems for searching, receiving and processing information. It is determined that the ability to control behavior in relationships in a situation of forced self-isolation, the ability to use the psychotherapeutic function of communication between family members, the skill of mood management, is also characteristic of families with a constructive type of relationship. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in family psychology, extreme psychology, social psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: married couples, marital relationships, communication, forced self-isolation

Citation: Sorokoumova EA, Matveeva NE, Cherdymova EI, Puchkova EB, Temnova LV, Chernyshova EL, et al. Features of communication between spouses during long-term forced self-isolation as a factor of constructive marital relationships. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3863-8.

Study the electromagnetic radiation effects on testicular function of male rats by biochemical and histopathological
Ban Mohammed Hussein Ali

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Abstract

The mobile phone has become not only a communication tool, but a necessity of life. Indeed, the widespread use of radio-frequency (RF-EMR) electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone has higher significant concerns about the negative effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones as well as the random distribution of radio-base stations (base), especially in Iraq. The present study has been prepared to investigate the effects of RF-EMRs emitted from mobile phone and radio-generating stations on the testes. Wistar male mice weighing 180g - 200g were randomly assigned and divided into groups: the sham-exposed group (off mode) and the exposure group for 1/2 hours (the exposure for 1/2 hour), and the 1-hour exposure group (1 hour exposure and 2 hour exposure range (2 hour exposure). Animals were exposed to RF-EMR from Samsung Note 9 for 14 days. Biochemical and histological measurements were performed. Serum levels of male sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone) decreased significantly (P <0.05) in the exposure groups 1/2 H and 1 H compared to the sham-exposed group. The study shows that chronic exposure to RF-EMR from a cell phone causes the impaired testicular function accompanied by a decrease in the value of sexual hormones. Sperm microscopy also showed a decrease in sperm count, altered shape and development in the experimental groups. Also, changing histological parameters showed a change in cross-section, luminal and bacterial epithelium diameter in all experimental groups.

Keywords: radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormones, mobile phone

Citation: Ali BMH. Study the electromagnetic radiation effects on testicular function of male rats by biochemical and histopathological. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3869-73.

Antibacterial activities of chlorine gas and chlorine dioxide gas against some pathogenic bacteria
Amal Talib Al-Sa’ady, Habeeb S. Nahar, Faisal Fayez Saffah

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Abstract

Infection control in hospitals is the key strategy for prevention of nosocomial infections by breaking down the transmission rout of infection from the source to susceptible patient by using of suitable disinfectants. Chlorine Dioxide Gas and Chlorine Gas are promising alternative to other chlorine-releasing disinfectants. Sixty-five samples were collected from clinical and environmental sources of Babylon Hospital for Pediatric and Gynecology and Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital through a period from September 2018 to March 2019. An antibacterial efficacy test of ClO2 and Cl2 was performed against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results indicated that both of ClO2 and Cl2 revealed a remarkable antibacterial potency against all of tested bacteria but ClO2 was more active compared with Cl2. This antibacterial activity was a variable with the concentration and the type of bacteria.

Keywords: Chlorine Dioxide Gas, Chlorine Gas, antibacterial activities, pathogenic bacteria

Citation: Al-Sa’ady AT, Nahar HS, Saffah FF. Antibacterial activities of chlorine gas and chlorine dioxide gas against some pathogenic bacteria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3875-82.

Unaddressed local anesthesia reversal action of phentolamine mesylate after plain mepivacaine
Hanadi Hadi Jasim Al-Khafaji, Majid Kadhoom Abass, Ameer Hamdi Al-Ameedee

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Abstract

Background and Aim: Clinical studies concerning the effect of intraoral injection of phentolamine mesylate on the duration of soft tissue anesthesia and its related functional deficits after using a plain local anesthetic are scarce. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of phentolamine mesylate as a local anesthesia reversal agent after plain mepivacaine using mental/incisive nerve block.
Methods: Twenty patients who received plain mepivacaine as a local anesthetic were randomly assigned into two groups: group I (sham injection group) and group II (phentolamine mesylate group). Sham injection or phentolamine mesylate injection was given 30 minutes after mepivavaine injection. Time to return to normal soft tissue sensation and normal oral functions was recorded to assess efficacy of phentolamine mesylate. Intraoral assessment, monitoring hemodynamic vital signs and presence of any drug-related adverse effects were used to assess safety of phentolamine mesylate.
Results: there were statistically significant differences (p< 0.001) in the mean duration to recovery of normal sensation in the lower lip, chin and gums between group I and group II. Also there were statistically significant differences (P<0.001) in the mean duration to perceive normal sensation and in the mean duration to demonstrate normal oral functions between the two groups. No statistically significant differences were observed in hemodynamic vital signs between periods of measurements in each group nor between the two groups. No changes were observed on intraoral examination and no drug related adverse events occurred. All patients were satisfied with the rapid recovery of normal sensation and oral functions.
Conclusion: Phentolamine mesylate is efficient and safe for rapid recovery of normal sensation and oral functions after using plain mepivacaine

Keywords: local anesthesia, phentolamine mesylate, vasoconstrictors, soft tissue anesthesia, oral functional deficits, mental/incisive nerve block

Citation: Al-Khafaji HHJ, Abass MK, Al-Ameedee AH. Unaddressed local anesthesia reversal action of phentolamine mesylate after plain mepivacaine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3883-8.

The antimicrobial activity of Olive pomace (OLP) and Pomegranate peels (POP) extracts and mix them against different bacteria isolated from clinical specimens
Anwar A. Khadim, Zwida K. Khadur, Fatima A. Abdul-Jabar, Sameer M. Yaseen

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Abstract

This study carried out to evaluate the antibacterial effect methanol and chloroform extraction of Olive pomace (OLP) and Pomegranate peels (POP) extracts and mixture of them against different bacteria isolated from clinical specimens include three bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and two isolates from Staphylococcus epidermidis and one isolate from Streptococcus viridians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, E. aerugenes and Streptococcus pyogens. The results of study showed that methanol extracts effect on all bacterial species. The higher inhibition rate of Pomegranate peels (POP) of staphylococcus aureus3 was (26.1) mm while the lower inhabitation rate was (16.3) mm of Staphylococcus epidermidis1 and methanol extracts of Olive pomace (OLP) extract, the higher inhibition rate of staphylococcus aureus1 was (22.5) mm while the lower inhabitation rate for Staphylococcus epidermidis1 was (16.6)mm while mixture of them showed that the higher inhibition rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was (24.0)mm while the lower inhabitation rate for Staphylococcus epidermidis1 was(15.6)mm,While treatment with chloroform extract did not show any effect on bacterial isolates.

Keywords: extract, inhibition, bacterial, infection chloroform

Citation: Khadim AA, Khadur ZK, Abdul-Jabar FA, Yaseen SM. The antimicrobial activity of Olive pomace (OLP) and Pomegranate peels (POP) extracts and mix them against different bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3889-6.

Effect of vitrification on spermatozoa quality in bull semen
Falah Baiee, Bassam Ali Al-Wahab, Asaad Alaa Almusawi, Lee Lian Yu, Wan-Nor Fitri, Abd Wahid Haron, Ghadeer Sabah Bustani

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Abstract

Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is part of the assisted reproductive biotechnology to enhance reproductive capacity in livestock. Conventional cryopreservation applies slow-gradual freezing method permitted ice crystallization and causes cryodamage resulting in poor post-thawed semen quality. Hence, vitrification is introduced by solidifying the solution into glassy state without causing any crystallization in fast and inexpensive manner. This ultra-rapid cooling method requires high concentration of cryoprotectants that potentially toxic the spermatozoa. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of vitrification on the quality of bull semen. A total of 24 bull semen samples were collected using an electro-ejaculation technique. Tris-based extender was compared with vitrification using solution of different concentration of cryoprotectants at 10% (Vitrification Solution 1; VS-1) and 20% (VS-2) containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol respectively. The result revealed that high mortality and nearly zero motility in all post-warmed vitrified spermatozoa, but the general and progressive motilities parameters in VS-1 at initial evaluation was 22.45% and 24.87% respectively better than Tris-based extender and was statistically significant. In conclusion, vitrification has potential as an alternative for cryopreservation. Therefore, further research on spermatozoa vitrification technique on enhancement in cooling and warming should be conducted and investigated.

Keywords: bull, spermatozoa, cryopreservation, vitrification, electro-ejaculation

Citation: Baiee F, Al-Wahab BA, Almusawi AA, Yu LL, Fitri W, Haron AW, et al. Effect of vitrification on spermatozoa quality in bull semen. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3897-04.

β-globin gene (XmnI) polymorphism relation to β-thalassemia patients
Nuha Shaker Ali

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Abstract

Our study aims to the investigation of polymorphism of the β-globin gene (XmnI) in children patients with β-thalassemia in Diwaniyah province/ Iraq. the study is done by taking of the blood sample from (30) children patients with β-thalassemia at (4-10) years old, and (20) individual healthy used as control at (5-10) years old children from Al-Diwaniyah Hospital, at Diwaniyah province, Iraq. The blood samples were subjected placed in EDTA tubes and stored in the freezer until DNA extraction and make PCR-RFLP Technique by using specific primers that provided for this purpose, then the samples submitted to immigration and separation by (2) % agarose gel electrophoresis then visualized under ultra-violate Transilluminator. Our findings are showed a percentage of the XmnI-/ - (homozygous wild type) of the beta-globin gene 25/30 (83.3) %, while the percentage of the XmnI +/- (heterozygous) of the beta-globin gene was 5/30 (16.6) % in children patients with beta. Furthermore, our study showed all the children healthy group have XmnI -/ - homozygous wild type of the beta-globin gene. Finally, the most children patients with beta-thalassemia have two same polymorphism of the beta-globin gene (homozygous) at (83.3) %, while rest children patients with beta-thalassemia have two different polymorphism of the beta-globin gene (heterozygous) at (16) % furthermore the healthy group (control) have homozygous alleles of the beta-globin in normal children.

Keywords: β-globin gene, (XmnI), polymorphism, β-thalassemia

Citation: Ali NS. β-globin gene (XmnI) polymorphism relation to β-thalassemia patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3905-9.

Evaluation of Salmonella enterica serotype typhi Lipopolysaccharide immunization induction in rats
Ibtisam Habeeb Alazawi

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Abstract

Background: Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (SeT) is a bacterium with a gram-negative staining characteristic. This pathogen is globally known for its responsibility of causing typhoid fever. Controlling the disease burden is a great deal especially in the developing countries. According to this, finding a sufficient vaccine against the bacterium may provide a successful tool to prevent detrimental outcomes induced by the disease especially in the health and economic sectors. Objectives: This study was conducted to test if a purified lipopolysaccharide (PLPS) from SeT was able to induce neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against SeT O and H antigens in rats. Materials and methods: First, traditional cultivation and biochemical assays, Api-E20 test, and a 16S rRNA based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing (PGS) analyses were employed to confirm the identity of the bacterium. Then, PLPS was obtained using a modified hot phenol-water extraction method and fractionated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After that, bacterial-protein- and nucleic-acid-based contaminations of the PLPS were tested using silver and coomassie blue staining (SCBS) and ethidium bromide electrophoresis (EBE), respectively. Later, 10 rats were subcutaneously injected with PLPS at week 0 (wk-0) followed by booster doses at wk-2, wk-4, and wk-8. Then, a challenge test was applied to those rats using (3.8×109cells/ml) of SeT. This was followed by slide-agglutination screening of NAb-O and NAb-H complexes. Those complexes also were visualized using SDS-PAGE. Results: The identity of SeT was positively recognized using the confirming tests. The purity tests showed clearly that there were no protein and nucleic acid contaminations accompanied PLPS. The PLPS based immunization revealed successful NAb-O and NAb-H slide agglutination which later was successfully confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Conclusions: LPS induces successful neutralizing antibodies in the serum of the tested rats that show high agglutination activity against the O and H antigens of the S. Typhi. Collectively, LPS may be considered as a vital candidate vaccine against the bacterium.

Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide, Salmonella Typhi, typhoid, vaccine

Citation: Alazawi IH. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica serotype typhi Lipopolysaccharide immunization induction in rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3911-5.

Improvement of competitive performance in handball through targeted development of significant physical qualities
Anastasia V. Stafeeva, Anatoly V. Laptev, Svetlana S. Ivanova, Irina Y. Burkhanova, Maxim M. Kutepov, Nikolay B. Vorobyov

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Abstract

The relevance of the presented topic is due to the need to study the impact of significant in handball physical qualities on the effectiveness of competitive activities. The main technical actions of handball players are throws from different distances, as well as from different positions. These actions require from the athlete a sufficient level of special strength qualities, and in particular, speed-force. Thus, the strength of the arm muscles and shoulder belt of handball players and handball players is an important quality that largely determines the speed of throwing movements, in this regard, a specific difficulty is precisely to combine at a sufficiently high level of manifestation of power and speed motor capabilities. The research has developed and experimentally proved the method of speed-force training of handball players of the advanced sports specialization stage. The positive influence of significant physical qualities of sportsmen on the efficiency of competitive activity was revealed. The purpose of the study was to provide a theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of the effectiveness of the method of speed-force training for professional handball players. As a result of the research the positive influence of significant physical qualities of sportsmen on the effectiveness of competitive activity was revealed. The work presents the method of high-speed force training of handball players. This technique can be used by handball coaches to improve the effectiveness of special handball training. Also, this method will be useful for coaches of high-speed and power sports, such as javelin or core throwing, as well as in fitness training, as a means of CrossFit.

Keywords: handball, competitive activities, significant physical qualities, speed-force capabilities

Citation: Stafeeva AV, Laptev AV, Ivanova SS, Burkhanova IY, Kutepov MM, Vorobyov NB. Improvement of competitive performance in handball through targeted development of significant physical qualities. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3917-24.

Study on the improvement strategies for evaluation and management capabilities of China-ASEAN Expo
He Xue

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Abstract

China-ASEAN Expo was established in 2003 and has been held for 15 sessions so far. In the context of China’s comprehensive implementation of the “Belt and Road” strategy and the integration and upgrading of China-ASEAN international cooperation, it has made outstanding contributions to the economic and trade development of Nanning and Guangxi, as well as friendly political, economic and cultural exchanges with ASEAN countries. 
Based on the CIPP evaluation model, this article explores the improvement of the management capabilities of the China-ASEAN Expo by evaluating the background, input, process management and results of the China-ASEAN Expo, and attempts to provide effective improvement plans for the future.

Keywords: China-ASEAN Expo, CIPP evaluation model, improvement of the management capabilities

Citation: Xue H. Study on the improvement strategies for evaluation and management capabilities of China-ASEAN Expo. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3925-34.

Milk consumption among patients with acne vulgaris
Azhar Jabbar Khalaf Al Subaihawi, Taqi Mohammed Jwad Taher

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Abstract

Background: Milk is one of the dietary products containing hormones which stimulate the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 that affects the skin and leading to acne development. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between acne vulgaris and the intake of dairy milk (full fat, low fat, skim). Methods: This study conducted on patients complaining from acne from Al-Karama teaching hospitals during the period between 1st May till the end of June 2019. The selected age group was from 10-45 years old. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire adopted by a dermatologist and public health specialist for that purpose and analyzed by SPSS version 21using frequency and percentages. Results: The result of this study was obtained by the analysis of 40 patients. Females represented 72.5% and those patients with age groups (21-35) years were represented 52.5% followed by 37.5% for those with within the age group (16-20) years old. About 60% of patients have acne in their faces. All of them mentioned milk-drinking especially skimmed type in 60% of them and 37.5% drank milk daily and at least one cup in (90%). 57.5% noticed an improvement in acne when leaving milk drinking for a while. Conclusion: Milk products was associated with increased acne in individuals especially in young age females.

Keywords: acne vulgaris, milk products, insulin-like growth factor 1

Citation: Al Subaihawi AJK, Taher TMJ. Milk consumption among patients with acne vulgaris. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3935-8.

Combination of advancement and rotation flap for large defect closure of basal cell carcinoma on the cheek, lip and nose
Khairuddin Djawad, Evi Arisandi, Airin R. Nurdin, Siswanto Wahab

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Abstract

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is a type of skin cancer, which is associated with UV radiation exposure. Modalities for treatment BCC such as Mohs surgery or delayed Mohs surgery remains the gold standard of current treatment. The choice of therapy is based on the type of histology, lesions, cost, size and location, the patient’s age, and the patient’s medical condition. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma located on the cheek and nose. The case of basal cell carcinoma located on the cheek and nose, and a closure procedure was carried out using a combination of forward and rotational movements, then evaluated during 6-month intervals and obtained good results.

Keywords: advancement flap, basal cell carcinoma, rotation flap

Citation: Djawad K, Arisandi E, Nurdin AR, Wahab S. Combination of advancement and rotation flap for large defect closure of basal cell carcinoma on the cheek, lip and nose. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3939-43.

Best formulation of cacao butter and powder for chocolate bar production
Jumriah Langkong, Mulyati M. Tahir, Rahmawati A. Nadja, Syarif Hidayat, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

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Abstract

Background: Chocolate is one of the most popular consumer products worldwide. But its high-calorie content means that it is often avoided for health considerations. Manufacturers faced with this issue in the formulation of chocolate products therefore often focus on the improvement of cocoa quality.
Aim: This research aimed to determine the best formulation of fat and chocolate powder for chocolate bar production based on the latter’s organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Methods: Bars were produced using cocoa butter (15, 20, and 25%) and cocoa powder (20 and 25%). The analysis was undertaken regarding parameters including fat content, melting point and stability, and organoleptic properties including color, odor, flavor, and texture.
Results: The results showed that the addition of 20% cocoa butter and 20% cocoa powder produced chocolate bars with the best flavor and texture parameters. The concentration of fat and cocoa powder in the manufacture of the chocolate bars influenced organoleptic taste and texture but did not affect color and aroma.
Conclusion: Cocoa butter levels in chocolate formulations had a significant effect (p <0.05) on fat content.

Keywords: best formulation, chocolate bar, cacao butter, cacao powder

Citation: Langkong J, Tahir MM, Nadja RA, Hidayat S, Sirajuddin SN. Best formulation of cacao butter and powder for chocolate bar production. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3945-9.

The effect of fermentation on physicochemical properties of Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour using L. plantarum bacteria
Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida, Syane Yacoba Claudia Angeline, Dedid Cahya Happyanto, Nur Hapsari

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Abstract

The cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) is contains many carbohydrates that can be used as a source of starch modification. Unmodified starch has a long cooking time, low viscosity, solubility and swelling power. Modification of cocoyam flour was done with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum). This study aimed to explore the capability of local tubers and to determine the physicochemical characteristics of modified cocoyam flour with lactic acid bacteria. This research method using a randomized block design with two factors. Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance method and a further test of DMRT. The concentrations of L. plantarum used were 3%, 5% and 7% and fermentation time of 48, 72 and 96 h. The best result of this research was obtained using 7% L. plantarum bacteria and fermentation time of 96 h yielding physicochemical characteristics of water content 8.28%, ash 1.05%, swelling power 5.78%, solubility 51.93%, starch 76.47%, amylose 26.28% and color 87.42%. Fermentation significantly increased the swelling power, water content and solubility, while starch and amylose decreased.

Keywords: cocoyam flour, fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum, local tubers, physicochemical characteristics, starch modification, Xanthosoma sagittifolium

Citation: Rosida DF, Angeline SYC, Happyanto DC, Hapsari N. The effect of fermentation on physicochemical properties of Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour using L. plantarum bacteria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3951-5.

Eugenia caryophyllus toothpaste reduces periodontal pathogens in saliva of Indonesian subjects
Rosalina Tjandrawinata, Armelia Sari Widyarman, Dewi Liliany

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Abstract

Eugenol, an essential oil extracted from Eugenia caryophyllus, or clove, is used as an antiseptic and anesthetic agent in dentistry and is known for its antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of Eugenia caryophyllus in toothpaste against the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients’ saliva. Patients (n = 10, age 19 to 21) brushed their teeth using toothpaste containing Eugenia caryophyllus twice a day for 120 sec at a time, for a period of 2 weeks. Saliva was collected at baseline and after two weeks. The bacterial DNA in the saliva was extracted using a DNA extraction kit, and the numbers of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were calculated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers for each bacterium. The difference in the numbers of the periodontal pathogens at baseline and after two weeks of using the toothpaste was analyzed using a t-paired test. A significant reduction in the numbers of A. actynomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis was observed after two weeks (p < 0.05). Eugenia caryophyllus may be useful as an ingredient in toothpaste for periodontal disease prevention. Further studies are needed to prove its mechanism against oral pathogens.

Keywords: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, antibacterial, Eugenia caryophyllus, eugenol, Porphyromonas gingivalis, toothpaste

Citation: Tjandrawinata R, Widyarman AS, Liliany D. Eugenia caryophyllus toothpaste reduces periodontal pathogens in saliva of Indonesian subjects. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3957-61.

Modification of native and hydrolyzed tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starch by succinic acid (succinylation)
Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida, Rahma Nusandari

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Abstract

Background: Tannia (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), a staple corn crop grown in many tropical countries including Indonesia, is used to make flour. Tannia is a potential source of industrial food starch, but the use of native starch in food production is highly limited due to retrogradation and instability under acidic conditions and at high temperatures. To overcome these challenges and extend starch application, native starch is modified by chemical, physical, and enzymatic procedures. Succinylation is one such modification method, using succinic acid to increase the utilization of native starch. Methods: In this study, tannia starch was modified by different concentrations of succinic acid (2.44, 4.76, and 9.09%) and type of starch (native or hydrolyzed starch enzyme α-amylase). The modified starches were analyzed for yield determination, moisture content, ash, degree of substitution (DS), dextrose equivalent (DE), syneresis, swelling power, gelatinization properties, and viscosity. Results: In general, starch characteristics were significantly affected by the concentration of succinic acid. Conclusion: Resulting characteristics of starch were closest to ideal using 9.09% succinic acid.

Keywords: Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Native starch, Hydrolized starch, Succinylation, Succinic acid

Citation: Rosida DF, Nusandari R. Modification of native and hydrolyzed tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starch by succinic acid (succinylation). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3963-71.

Beef cattle farming characteristic to formal financing access
Aslina Asnawi, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Vidyahwati Tenrisanna

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Abstract

This study investigates the effect of beef cattle farmers and farm characteristics on access to formal financing. This study has been made in subject or area of economy of agriculture especially beef cattle farming. Data were collected using survey approach and questionnaires. The statistical analyses include descriptive e statistics and logit model estimation using STATA. The results indicate that farmers and farm characteristics influence financial accessibility in beef cattle farmers. Education affects the accessibility of financing as a facilitator of the farmers in the search for information, making financing proposals and regarding the ability to convince formal financial institutions.

Keywords: agriculture, breeding animal, economy, financial institution, managerial competence

Citation: Asnawi A, Sirajuddin SN, Tenrisanna V. Beef cattle farming characteristic to formal financing access. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3973-7.

Cooperation as an effective form of transition of industrial enterprises to the concept of “Industry 4.0”
Alsu A. Lubnina, Lyudmila N. Abutalipova, Marina V. Shinkevich, Indira G. Salimyanova, Oksana N. Kiseleva

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Abstract

One of the most promising forms of industrial enterprises effective transition to the concept of “Industry 4.0” is cooperation. The paper proposes a methodology for assessing the development level of industrial enterprises, thus allowing to calculate the integral indicator “Industry 4.0”, consisting of three components: indicators of levels of digitalization, eco-efficiency, and resource efficiency. This monitoring method of the production level organization on the basis of new management principles allows to identify and track problem areas in the Industry 4.0 triad of an industrial enterprise sphere. Also, the article provides an overview of modern forms in industrial enterprises cooperation, their effectiveness assessment in types of activities and reveals a close relationship between the enterprise industrial development level and cooperation in the creation of SEZs and industrial parks.

Keywords: cooperation, “Industry 4.0”, eco-efficiency, resource efficiency, digitalization, industrial enterprises

Citation: Lubnina AA, Abutalipova LN, Shinkevich MV, Salimyanova IG, Kiseleva ON. Cooperation as an effective form of transition of industrial enterprises to the concept of “Industry 4.0”. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3979-84.

Measure of input/output efficiency of agricultural supply and marketing cooperative implementing service innovation strategy
Chenin Chen

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Abstract

Recently, governmental reformation is all the rage worldwide. One after another, any nations execute entrepreneurial government reformation of new public strategy. The innovation of government department is to enhance nationals’ well-being and national competitiveness. Agricultural supply and marketing cooperative has been working on enhancing farmers’ well-being and promoting agricultural development for a long time. It plays an important part in being the entry level organization for farmers and has been doing a great job. Therefore, in order to strengthen market competitiveness, the cooperative should be service innovation oriented and look for all kinds of business strategies and then discuss how to execute the service plan more precisely.
This research use supply and marketing cooperative in Shanghai as research objects, and furthermore pick out more representative ones to run data empirical analysis through Delphi Method and Data Envelopment Analysis. There’re 15 DMU in all. The research results are shown as following: 1.One DMU presents strong-form efficiency, revealing that supply marketing cooperative implementing service innovation strategy is strongly efficient; Five DMUs show efficiency value between 0.9 and 1, which means marginal inefficiency; Nine DMUs appear efficiency value below 0.9, which means obvious inefficiency. 2. Slack variable analysis brings up the way to improve the excess and shortage input problem in supply and marketing cooperative. Lastly, according to the results, the author proposed some suggestions, hoping they could help the cooperative earning profit, increasing customer confidence and loyalty. After that, they could take it one step further and increase the competitiveness of agricultural supply and marketing cooperative.

Keywords: agricultural supply and marketing cooperative, service innovation, innovation strategy, performance appraisal

Citation: Chen C. Measure of input/output efficiency of agricultural supply and marketing cooperative implementing service innovation strategy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3985-9.

Seborrheic dermatitis in children caused by Malassezia restricta and Malassezia furfur detected by polymerase chain reaction
K. Djawad, A. Melistri, F. Tabri, A. Adriadi, N. Massi

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Abstract

Seborrheic dermatitis is a recurrent skin disease with a predilection in areas having many sebaceous glands. The etiology of seborrheic dermatitis is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its etiopathogenesis, such as Malassezia, activity of sebaceous disorders, and individualized education. The diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis is based on the clinical morphology of the scales and erythema, which is typical in sebum-rich areas. If necessary, the diagnosis requires histopathological examination and species identification through culture or polymerase chain reaction. The goal of the management of seborrheic dermatitis is to release and eliminate scales and crust, change fungal colonization, control infections, and regulate erythema and itching. Therapies, such as topical antifungals and corticosteroids, can be given. This literature presents a case of a baby diagnosed with seborrheic dermatitis established through history, physical examination, and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the causative microorganism. The results of the examination carried out showed the involvement of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia restricta. We then provided topical corticosteroid and antifungal treatments which led to repair of the lesion within 2 weeks.

Keywords: Malassezia furfur, Malassezia restricta, Polymerase chain reaction, Seborrheic dermatitis in children

Citation: Djawad K, Melistri A, Tabri F, Adriadi A, Massi N. Seborrheic dermatitis in children caused by Malassezia restricta and Malassezia furfur detected by polymerase chain reaction. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3991-6.

Clinical and laboratory evaluation 9 months after the benzathine penicillin treatment in secondary syphilis patients
Astri Melistri, A. M. Adam, Khairuddin Djawad, Safruddin Amin, Idrianti Idrus, Muji Iswanty

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Abstract

Syphilis is one of the sexually transmitted infections caused by Treponema pallidum, having clinical features that vary depending on its stage. Early stage consists of primary, secondary, and early late syphilis, whereas advanced stage consists of late latent and tertiary syphilis. The serological examination of syphilis is used for presumptive diagnosis. Venereal disease research and laboratory (VDRL) test and treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) are among the serological tests that are easy to conduct and inexpensive. Proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary not only to reduce transmission rates but also to avoid complications that occur in the advance stage of this disease because no single typical dermatological clinical features are present at this stage. Follow-up and response to treatment should be considered. By comparing the post-treatment VDRL titer with the titer at the start of treatment, a serologic response after treatment may be evaluated, whether the patient is cured or not. Here, a case of a 55 year-old man who suffered from secondary syphilis is reported based on anamnesis, physical examination, and investigation of VDRL and TPHA. The patient was treated with benzathine penicillin with a single dose of 2.4 million UI intramuscularly and provided a good clinical response. On VDRL clinical and laboratory evaluations after 9 months of treatment, there was significant progress, meaning the treatment was success.

Keywords: benzathine penicillin, secondary syphilis, VDRL

Citation: Melistri A, Adam AM, Djawad K, Amin S, Idrus I, Iswanty M. Clinical and laboratory evaluation 9 months after the benzathine penicillin treatment in secondary syphilis patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3997-4003.

Organizing of the pre-university training in specialized Russian for prospective international medical residents
Tatyana V. Samosenkova, Оlga V. Lyutova, Raisa V. Kuleshova, Arsen G. Martirosyan, Anastasia D. Strzhalkovskaya

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Abstract

The paper focuses on professional communication issues which are directly linked to training international students, who are prospective medical residents, in Russian for medical professionals, at the pre-University stage. The authors describe the training process organization as a system. They suggest the system structure and analyze its constituent elements and inter-connection between them. The researchers define the skills and abilities necessary for communication in a professional environment and reveal difficulties which may arise when professional communication takes place in a foreign language. The paper analyzes the specifics of building professional speech competencies in international students in compliance with their future profession. It enables the authors to define the main methodological principles of training international students in specialized Russian. All the ideas suggested by the researchers are exemplified with medical contexts.

Keywords: international medical residents, professional communication, training principles, education approaches, methods and means of training

Citation: Samosenkova TV, Lyutova ОV, Kuleshova RV, Martirosyan AG, Strzhalkovskaya AD. Organizing of the pre-university training in specialized Russian for prospective international medical residents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4005-10.

The effect of a selective arginase 2 inhibitor imidamethazoline class on the development of monocrotoline-induced pulmonary hypertension
Sergey A. Demchenko, Ivan S. Koklin, Anna V. Zagrebelnaya, Ludmila M. Danilenko, Andrey S. Nagich

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Abstract

Introduction: The study of innovative drugs at the molecular, tissue, organ, systemic and organismic levels with an assessment of their safety are part of preclinical studies. In this case, studies aimed at specific pharmacological targets are especially important. The search for a selective arginase 2 inhibitor is necessary in terms of the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. One of the most common models of LH is the monocrotalin model of pulmonary hypertension.
Research tasks: To evaluate the protective effects of a selective arginase 2 inhibitor, including the right ventricular contractility parameters on a monocrotalin model of pulmonary hypertension in rats.
Material and Methods: A study was conducted of 5 groups of animals of 10 rats. After using a selective arginase 2 inhibitor, blood pressure, heart rate, Fulton’s index, BT index, and condition of the right ventricle were evaluated.
Results and Discussion: It was found that L207-0525 at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg and tadalafil 10 mg/kg prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension. This is expressed in preventing an increase in systolic pressure in the right ventricle, Fulton, RV/BW and WT indices. L207-0525 showed a dose of 3 mg/kg for the activity shown.
Conclusion: The results indicate a dose-dependent protective activity of the selective arginase 2 inhibitor L207-0525 in relation to the development of monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension.

Keywords: arginase 2 inhibitor, tadalafil, the monocrotalin model, pulmonary hypertension

Citation: Demchenko SA, Koklin IS, Zagrebelnaya AV, Danilenko LM, Nagich AS. The effect of a selective arginase 2 inhibitor imidamethazoline class on the development of monocrotoline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4011-6.

Impact of the lowest unit price of arabica coffee on increasing farmers’ income in North Toraja Regency
Rico, Rahim Darma, Laode Asrul

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Abstract

The aims of the research is to determine the impact of setting the lowest unit price of Arabica coffee on increasing farmers’ income in North Toraja Regency. The study was conducted in Buntu Pepasan Subdistrict, North Toraja Regency. Research data were collected carried out for three months, from June 2019 to September 2019. Sampling (respondents) of this study was conducted on farmers and key informants involved in the policy of setting the Lowest Unit Price for Arabica coffee commodities through the value added approach in Toraja Regency North. Research data were collected by conducted a survey using data collection techniques, such as interviews by using a questionnaire. Data analysis is descriptive quantitative. The results showed that with the determination of the Lowest Unit Price, the impact on farmers ‘income increased by IDR. 7,009,280 / farmer and farmers’ income per hectare, which was IDR. 3,721,741 / Ha. In addition, the determination of the Lowest Unit Price aims to improve the welfare of coffee’s farmers such as increasing the productivity of coffee fields, increasing the quality of beans and increasing regional income without harming other parties, namely the collecting traders and the Home Industry / Coffeshop (which also has a role as inter-island traders even exporters at the time of the study).

Keywords: lowest unit price, arabica coffee, added value, farmers’ income

Citation: Rico, Darma R, Asrul L. Impact of the lowest unit price of arabica coffee on increasing farmers’ income in North Toraja Regency. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4017-21.

Frailty and age dynamics of separate clinical indicators in patients of therapeutic profile
Kirill I. Prashchayeu, Natalia N. Zubareva, Oleg M. Kuzminov, Svetlana G. Gorelik, Elena A. Voronina, Marina V. Silyutina

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Abstract

Age-related dynamics of body homeostasis individual indicators in patients with risk of developing frailty and without frailty was studied in the research. Clinical indicators mostly associated with age were determined: muscle strength, glomerular filtration rate, total protein, potassium, hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase activity, and blood plasma glucose. The contribution of reduced overall renal function, as well as anabolic activity of the liver in the development of age-related changes and frailty was studied. The important role of the renal function condition in the development of geriatric syndromes was noted, which must be taken into account when conducting therapeutic and rehabilitation measures for elderly and senile patients. It was noted that age-associated integral indicators, such as body weight and muscle strength, change noticeably more significantly than individual biochemical constants. This confirms the multiple nature of pathogenetic mechanisms and the role of comorbidity in the formation of geriatric syndromes, in particular, frailty.

Keywords: geriatric syndromes, frailty, sarcopenia, age related body indicators, comorbidity

Citation: Prashchayeu KI, Zubareva NN, Kuzminov OM, Gorelik SG, Voronina EA, Silyutina MV. Frailty and age dynamics of separate clinical indicators in patients of therapeutic profile. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4023-8.

The use of biocides for rendering polyamide materials antimicrobial
Elena Pekhtasheva, Elena Raykova, Marina Polozhishnikova, Aleksandra Utkina

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Abstract

The paper studies the questions of the use of antimicrobial products (biocides) which can increase resistance of textile materials to the action of microorganisms and confer antimicrobial properties. Antimicrobial textile materials have broad opportunities of use both for daily and technical purposes. Hence, the development of efficient products for rendering textiles antimicrobial and enhancing their biostability against widespread microorganisms is relevant. The objective of the conducted research was chemical modification of polyamide textile materials with biocides and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of the resulting materials. Textile polycaproamide yarns and nonwoven materials were selected as the research object. During the experiment, the test portions under study were treated with biocides: nitrofuryl-acrolein, chloramine B, and catamine AB. Then, the direct action of the test portions on live cells growing on the nutrient medium was evaluated. Antimicrobial activity was identified according to the area of sterile zones which were formed around test portions. The research results have shown that the greatest antimicrobial action was observed in test portions treated with nitrofuryl-acrolein (NFA) and catamine AB. It has been shown that antibacterial action (bacterial growth inhibition zone) of yarns chemically modified with NFA amounts to: 14,3 mm when acting on the Erwinia herbicola bacteria, while it is 24,1 mm when acting on the Bacillus mesentericus bacteria. NFA-containing nonwoven polyamide materials had the diameter of sterile zones ranging from 21,4 to 24,9 mm with gram-negative bacteria, and from 32,3 to 36,4 mm – with the gram-positive ones (under the action of the 250 g/m2 surface density material). It has also been found out that the said materials feature fungicidal action - after two days of exposure to the standard set of microscopic fungi, these fabrics had the fungicidal action zone diameter equal to 39,0 mm; in 8 days, the diameter of the zone was 2 times smaller; however, asporogenous mycelium was observed around the test portions, which gives evidence about fungistatic action of these materials. In the work, chemical modification of polycaproamide yarns and nonwoven materials with nitrofuryl-acrolein (NFA) has been performed. The research results have shown that both yarns and nonwoven materials made of polycaproamide containing NFA have antimicrobial activity both against bacterial cultures, and against microscopic fungi.

Keywords: biocides, yarns, nonwoven materials, antimicrobial properties, protection of fibrous materials, catamine B

Citation: Pekhtasheva E, Raykova E, Polozhishnikova M, Utkina A. The use of biocides for rendering polyamide materials antimicrobial. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4029-34.

The impact of a physical education teacher’s style of pedagogical communication on the efficiency of professional activity
Nikolay B. Vorobyov, Irina Y. Burkhanova, Gerold L. Drandrov, Marina P. Konovalova, Maxim M. Kutepov, Svetlana S. Ivanova, Anastasia V. Stafeeva

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Abstract

The relevance of the topic presented is since an important condition for improving the effectiveness of the physical education process at present is the development of a high level of motivation in physical education practitioners. Achieving this high level of motivation can be achieved by optimizing the time spent in the lesson, i.e. by increasing the motor density of the lesson. This paper assumes that one of the important components of a physical education teacher’s activity that affects the motor density and therefore the motivation of students to engage in physical education is his style of pedagogical communication. At the same time, an analysis of the scientific and methodological literature and one’s own pedagogical experience makes it possible to highlight the contradiction between the need to target certain styles of physical education teachers and the lack of attention to this problem by specialists in physical education and sports. Thus, the relevance of this work is beyond doubt regarding the development of recommendations for physical education teachers that help correct certain style characteristics that reduce the effectiveness of teaching. The aim of this study is to develop psychological and pedagogical recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of physical education teachers by correcting certain style characteristics. The research has made it possible to formulate psychological and pedagogical recommendations, which make it possible to have a targeted impact on certain manifestations of the style of pedagogical communication that reduce the effectiveness of pedagogical activities. During the pedagogical experiment, the effectiveness of the developed recommendations was proved and reliable indicators of the motor density of the lesson were obtained.

Keywords: styles of pedagogical impact, motor density of lesson, efficiency of pedagogical activity

Citation: Vorobyov NB, Burkhanova IY, Drandrov GL, Konovalova MP, Kutepov MM, Ivanova SS, et al. The impact of a physical education teacher’s style of pedagogical communication on the efficiency of professional activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4035-41.

Advantages and disadvantages of experimental glaucoma models
Anna S. Pobeda, Nikolai V. Solovev, Elena B. Karpunina, Nikita S. Zhunusov, Elizaveta Yu. Lepetyukha, Ramon D. Nunez Z, Ekaterina Yu. Rusanova, Maria P. Teleshchenko, Evgeniya A. Beskhmelnitsyna, Alexander V. Faitelson

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Abstract

Glaucoma is a disease accompanied by a progressive degenerative lesion of the retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve, being one of the leading causes of blindness all over the world. The search for the new drugs for the treatment of glaucoma, aimed directly at reducing intraocular pressure and neuroprotection, and in some cases neuroregeneration, is impossible without the creation of appropriate experimental models. The current variety of models does not always provide a sufficient level of functional changes or is accompanied by a number of disadvantages that impede further research. There is a wide variety of glaucoma models. This article discusses the main ones, as well as describes the advantages and disadvantages of glaucoma models performed in small laboratory animals. Hypertensive and normotensive models of glaucoma are described, which correlates with human pathogenesis. This review forms a representation and describes most models of glaucoma in rodents. The search for models of certain forms of glaucoma remains as an indisputable fact. Based on testable hypothesis and experimental validity this data should be interpreted in the context of the experiment. Despite modern achievements, the improvement of experimental techniques and the search for new models continues till the present day.

Keywords: glaucoma, neurodegeneration, renoprotective, ganglionic cells, pathology model

Citation: Pobeda AS, Solovev NV, Karpunina EB, Zhunusov NS, Lepetyukha EY, Nunez Z RD, et al. Advantages and disadvantages of experimental glaucoma models. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4043-7.

The quality of the lollipops use in the making of the anterior upper teeth periapical radiography of in paediatric patients
A P W Monika, Eha Renwi Astuti, Sri Wigati Mardi Mulyani

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Abstract

Background: Periapical radiography is a technique that is routinely used in the field of dental radiology. Deficiencies in this procedure require patient cooperation, especially paediatric patients and during the procedure of making radiographs of intraoral film placement. Poor co-operability of paediatric patients has great potential to cause periapical radiographic failure. Vomiting reflexes are the most commonly reported complaints in children where one of the triggers for vomiting reflexes is in the palate which can affect the taking of periapical radiographs of the maxilla. The use of lollipop aids is one of the desensitization methods to overcome the problem of child cooperation during periapical radiography. Objective: To determine the quality of periapical radiographs of maxillary anterior teeth in paediatric patients using lollipops. Methods: This study used an experimental analytic study by taking periapical radiographs using lollipops and without assistive devices for paediatric patients. The lollipop used is made from tamarind candy (licensed by the Republic of Indonesia Food and Drug Supervisory Agency) which is melted and packaged into lollipops. This study has 52 samples and for each sample periapical radiography was taken by using a lollipop tool or not using a device, hence 26 radiographs were obtained for each technique. Periapical radiography was observed visually by three observers and then the observer filled the radiographic quality evaluation indicator table to obtain a score of quality evaluation results for each periapical radiography. Results: There were significant differences in quality evaluation results between periapical radiographs taken by using lollipops and without assistive devices (p-value 0.008). Conclusion: The quality of the maxillary anterior periapical radiographs of paediatric patients made using lollipops is better than without using aids.

Keywords: periapical radiography; cooperative children; radiographic quality evaluation; lollipop

Citation: Monika APW, Astuti ER, Mulyani SWM. The quality of the lollipops use in the making of the anterior upper teeth periapical radiography of in paediatric patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4049-53.

Determine the relation between the prosthesis and splinting of the implant differences in relation to the type of prosthesis and the splinting of the implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Naeime Moslemian, Soheil Hariri, Nasrin Faal Rastegar, Soheil Pakroo

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Abstract

Background and aim: The aim of present Systematic Review and Meta-analysis was determine the relation between the prosthesis and splinting of the implant differences.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2015 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. For Data extraction, two reviewers blind and independently extracted data from abstract and full text of studies that included. Moreover, mean differences between two groups (Immediate Loading and Delayed Loading) with 95% confidence interval (CI), fixed effect model and Inverse-variance method and Odds ratio between two groups (Immediate Loading and Delayed Loading) with 95% confidence interval (CI), fixed effect model and Mantel-Haenszel were calculated. Random effects were used to deal with potential heterogeneity and I2 showed heterogeneity. The Meta analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program available in the market (i.e., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Stata V16).
Result: A total of 243 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of three publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Mean difference of Crestal bone loss was (MD, -0.29 95% CI -0.54, -0.04. P= 0.02), and Odds ratio of Implant loss was (OR, -1.91 95% CI -3.44, -0.38. P= 0.01) among 3 studies.
Conclusion: The present study shows to implant loss, there was statistically significant difference between immediate loading and delayed loading, and delayed loading is preferred to removable prostheses.

Keywords: splinting, delayed loading, immediate loading, implant, prosthesis

Citation: Moslemian N, Hariri S, Rastegar NF, Pakroo S. Determine the relation between the prosthesis and splinting of the implant differences in relation to the type of prosthesis and the splinting of the implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4055-9.

Determination of important genetic parameters, including better-parent heterosis and degree of dominance, in hybrids of potato cultivars in spring cultivation
Milad Asghari, Mansoor Kalantar, Davoud Hassanpanah, Mehdi Dehghani-Zahedani

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to observe the genetic variation of quantitative and qualitative traits and to determine important genetic parameters, including better-parent heterosis and the degree of dominance of hybrids over their parents, and their application in breeding programs. A randomized complete block design was conducted using 42 potato hybrids and 4 control cultivars with 3 replications over 2 years at the Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. The highest coefficients of genotypic and phenotypic variation were related to the number of main stems per plant and the number of tubers per plant. General heritability was estimated to be between 2.27% for the days to maturity and 98.36% for the percentage of dry matter. The general heritability for tuber yield was 84.88%. The heritability and GAm were high and interconnected for the following traits: number of main stems per plant, the number of tubers per plant, tuber yield and percentage of tuber dry matter. The highest heterosis for tuber yield was observed in the LK5 hybrid from the ♀Caesar ×Luta♂ cross (66.77%) and the highest heterosis for percentage of tuber dry matter was observed in the LS7 hybrid from the ♀Savalan × Luta♂ cross (39.30%). The tuber yield of the 12 hybrids from the ♀Caesar ×Luta♂ cross indicated 58% overdominance, 33% partial dominance, and 8% reduction by dominance. The tuber yield of the 13 hybrids from the ♀Savalan ×Luta♂ cross showed 15% overdominance, 47% partial dominance, and 38% reduction by dominance, while the 12 hybrids from the ♀Caesar × Savalan♂ cross exhibited 8% overdominance, 42% partial dominance, and 50% reduction by dominance.

Keywords: potato, genetic diversity, heterosis, yield, yield components

Citation: Asghari M, Kalantar M, Hassanpanah D, Dehghani-Zahedani M. Determination of important genetic parameters, including better-parent heterosis and degree of dominance, in hybrids of potato cultivars in spring cultivation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4061-71.

Effect of lead on the viability of red blood cells and amniotic fluid cells of white rats
Olga S. Shubina, Natalya A. Dudenkova, Marina V. Egorova, Larisa V. Gryzlova, Vladimir S. Bardin, Anna I. Kisileva

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Abstract

The unfavorable ecological state of the environment at present is as a result of man-made human activity. Among the main pollutants of the habitat at present time is recognized the lead, which has a polytropic effect on the organism. With the help of morphometric and statistical methods, the viability has been explored of red blood cells and amniotic fluid cells of control and experimental animals which are subjected to lead acetate toxicity. To identify the belonging of amniotic fluid cells to stem cells (SC), we carried out their cultivation in the special environment «Amniokar» of the company LLC PanEco Company, Russia. Studies have been carried out using an Axio Imager.M2 digital microscope (ZEISS, Japan) and a Countess ™ automatic cell counter (Invitrogen, USA). The effect of lead acetate led to the formation of aggregates of erythrocytes of blood of the type of «coin columns», to decrease in the concentration of living erythrocytes and their viability. The study of amniotic fluid under intoxication conditions has showed that only the squamous epithelium cells remained in the suspension which has been obtained as a result of centrifugation kept squamous cells only. Lead acetate leads to a decrease in the number of viable red blood cells in the blood, as well as to an increase in their aggregation properties.

Keywords: cerebellar cortex, cortex, lead acetate, nuclear cytoplasmic ratio (NCR)

Citation: Shubina OS, Dudenkova NA, Egorova MV, Gryzlova LV, Bardin VS, Kisileva AI. Effect of lead on the viability of red blood cells and amniotic fluid cells of white rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4073-7.

Social goals and social essence of human resources management: on student youth employment problem
Galina P. Novikova, Konstantin B. Ilkevich, Oleg M. Ovchinnikov, Sergei P. Zhdanov, Valery K. Tsechoyev, Magomedrasul M. Shuaipov, Katib T. Vezirov

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Abstract

Today, the situation of human resources management is in a situation when the number of foreign, Federal and regional personnel companies, as well as companies applying for services to recruitment agencies, is growing. In this regard, the personnel companies today are very significant and dynamically developing participants in the labor market, and their functioning, both in the service market itself and in the process of social interaction between market participants, requires careful study. The purpose of the study is to analyze the features of human resources management functioning. Research methods: within research methods, we used a questionnaire survey as a method for collecting primary information, which allowed us to study effectively the features of human resources management formation and development as a significant link in the employment of students. Research results: the article considers the main formal and informal rules and norms of interaction between a personnel company and a customer and a candidate for a vacancy. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the social goals and essence of human resources management are considered. For the first time, it was revealed that the following types of organizations represent human resources management: employment Agency, Human Resources Company, state employment center, University graduates’ employment center. It is shown that depending on the subject of interaction, that is, the customer who pays for services, all Human Resources companies can be divided into three groups: recruitment agencies, employment agencies, and hiring agencies. It is determined that most of the Human Resources companies specialize in providing such services as: classic recruitment, testing and evaluation of personnel. It is revealed that only large Federal and international companies are ready to offer leasing services. It is shown that the main methods of searching for candidates for a vacancy that HR management specialists use today are direct search, active search in open sources, and engagement of a specialist in whom the customer is interested. It is revealed that at the present stage of recruitment agencies development, such a method as posting information about vacancies on sites specializing in job search, posting vacancies and resumes of clients should be noted. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in marketing research, management, economic psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: HR management, recruitment agencies, employment

Citation: Novikova GP, Ilkevich KB, Ovchinnikov OM, Zhdanov SP, Tsechoyev VK, Shuaipov MM, et al. Social goals and social essence of human resources management: on student youth employment problem. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4079-84.

Psychological and pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior among the student youth (theory and practice of domestic studies)
Zara A-M. Albakova, Victoria A. Matanis, Irina N. Zakasovskaia, Valery O. Malaschenko, Boris V. Ilkevich, Yuri S. Zharikov, Lalita A. Dzhamalkhanova

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Abstract

The significance of the research problem presented in the paper consists in the contradiction between the need to improve deviant behavior prevention among adolescents in the activities provided by psychological and pedagogical services and insufficient research into this issue. The object of the study was deviant behavior of adolescents. The subject of the study was deviant behavior prevention in adolescents as a component of the activities provided by specialists of psychological and pedagogical services. The purpose of the study consisted in exploring the features of deviant behavior prevention among adolescents as a component of the activities provided by specialists of psychological and pedagogical services. Research methods: the study and analysis of scientific literature on the research problem; comparison, analysis and synthesis of regulatory documents and statistical data; questioning; analysis of empirical data. As a result of the conducted study, the following data were obtained: the theoretical bases were presented that contain deviant behavior prevention in adolescents as a component of the activities provided by specialists of psychological and pedagogical services; the experience of deviant behavior prevention among adolescents in educational institutions was analyzed; the problem of prevention was studied and the risk factors that form deviant behavior of adolescents were determined.

Keywords: deviant behavior, students, educational institutions, prevention of deviant behavior among the youth

Citation: Albakova ZA, Matanis VA, Zakasovskaia IN, Malaschenko VO, Ilkevich BV, Zharikov YS, et al. Psychological and pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior among the student youth (theory and practice of domestic studies). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4085-93.

Survival rate and marginal bone loss of zirconia dental implants restored with single crowns or fixed dental prostheses: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Seyed Mohammad Monajem Zadeh, Hadi Kaseb Ghane, Maryam Khoshkhahesh, Amirreza Hendi

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Abstract

Background and Aim: A systematic review and meta-analysis studies that has not comprehensively reviewed the existing studies, MBL, survival rate has not been performed, so the purpose of this study was evaluate the Survival rate and marginal bone loss of zirconia dental implants restored with single crowns or fixed dental prostheses.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2010 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. The meta-analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program available in the market (i.e., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Stata V16).
Result: A total of 486 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic search. Finally, a total of eleven publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Survival rates as high as 85% to 98% could be observed. Mean difference of marginal bone loss after final follow-up period was (MD, 0.08mm 95% CI -0.05mm, 0.22mm. P= 0.23) among 7 studies. The marginal bone loss of zirconia implants can be considered similar to the ones reported for titanium implants.
Conclusion: Survival rate and marginal bone loss of zirconia dental implants supporting single crowns and fixed dental prostheses after 12 months to five years are promising

Keywords: zirconia dental implants, single crowns, fixed dental prostheses

Citation: Monajem Zadeh SM, Kaseb Ghane H, Khoshkhahesh M, Hendi A. Survival rate and marginal bone loss of zirconia dental implants restored with single crowns or fixed dental prostheses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4095-100.

Reactions of Malaysian citizens towards Movement Control Order (MCO) during the transmission of COVID 19 Pandemic
Muhammad Ridhwan Sarifin, Nur Hafizah Yusoff

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Abstract

COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic situation. It does not only affect the health of an infected individual indirectly, but also poses extinction in one’s country if no quick and smart measure is taken to overcome it. Social distancing as publicly announced by World Health Organization (WHO) is one public health preventive measure that is effective in breaking the COVID-19 chain. Therefore, this article evaluates the reactions of society and their compliance of MCO implemented by Malaysian government. The research used quantitative approach as the main method that is by using a survey form which was distributed online using google form. A number of 959 respondents answered the survey. The main outcome is, the majority of respondents reacted positively towards MCO. In terms of compliance, majority show compliance to MCO. However, it was found that the reason of the compliance is because of the visibility of the authorities all over the country. It is better if all citizens of this country are compliant with MCO because of self internalization about the awareness on the importance of following MCO, which is to ensure the chain of COVID-19 is destructed as opposed to the concern of getting captured by the authorities.

Keywords: social distancing, reactions of society, social interaction, COVID-19, sociology

Citation: Sarifin MR, Yusoff NH. Reactions of Malaysian citizens towards Movement Control Order (MCO) during the transmission of COVID 19 Pandemic. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4101-8.

The effectiveness of SCAMPER techniques on creative thinking skills among fashion design vocational college
Arasinah Kamis, Widihastuti, Che Ghani Che Kob, Gwendolyn Hustvedt, Norhanisah Mat Saad, Rahimah Jamaluddin, Baity Bujeng

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of SCAMPER technique in the Vocational College students’ perspectives. Besides, the study was to survey how helpful is the SCAMPER technique to the students in exploring the skill of coming out with ideas spontaneously in step of enhancing creativity. The research design was qualitative in which interview method was used. Sampling technique was used to select 7 Vocational Certificate Malaysia (SVM) 1st year students in Vocational College in the field of Fashion Design. The data obtained were analyzed and transcribed verbatim. The findings showed that SCAMPER techniques were already been applied by students indirectly, but they were unaware that they are using this technique. As a matter of fact, some of these techniques had been applied by the students however they did not notice it. Overall, this SCAMPER technique shall affect and contribute a great impact on students especially to enhance and develop their thinking and creativity skills in learning. It is proposed that educators in the field of fashion should apply this technique to strengthen students' thinking and creativity in producing designs.

Keywords: SCAMPER, effectiveness, creativity, creative thinking, fashion design

Citation: Kamis A, Widihastuti, Kob CGC, Hustvedt G, Saad NM, Jamaluddin R, et al. The effectiveness of SCAMPER techniques on creative thinking skills among fashion design vocational college. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4109-17.

An economic assessment of the coastal tourist area in Pasir Bogak beach, Pangkor Island using the Travel Cost Method (TCM)
Farah Zulaikha Mokhtar, Fauziah Che Leh, Norimah Rambeli @ Ramli

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Abstract

A coastal tourist area is a natural resource of non-market goods where its economic value is important to assess and should be calculated due to the available resources to maintain for further generation use. The economic value of coastal tourist area was determined by the willingness to pay (WTP) among the tourist to assess to the tourist site. This article aims to determine the economic value of coastal tourist area in Pasir Bogak beach, Pangkor Island using Travel Cost Method (TCM). By adopting the travel cost method (TCM), the individual travel costs and expenses paid by local tourists for their visit to the coastal tourist area in Pasir Bogak beach were measured. A total of 64 local tourists were selected as respondents of the survey method. The findings suggested that the mean of the total expenses paid by an individual tourist for the duration of between two to three days stay in Pasir Bogak Beach was around RM 219.39 per visit. The studies show that Pasir Bogak beach receive less touristy and a lower economic value because of the attribute of the beach which is very close to the main road, narrow beach size, less beautiful sea watercolour and strong wave.

Keywords: coastal tourism, natural resource, Travel Cost Method, economic value, local tourist

Citation: Mokhtar FZ, Leh FC, Ramli NR@. An economic assessment of the coastal tourist area in Pasir Bogak beach, Pangkor Island using the Travel Cost Method (TCM). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4119-28.

The system of training and passing control standards for the physical training of football referees
Oleg A. Musin, Yuri S. Zhemchug, Vasiliy V. Sokolov, Igor Y. Gryaznov, Timofey A. Savchenko, Yulia V. Shlykova

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Abstract

This article reviews the problem of training football referees for the professional activity, since a football referee must constantly be at the distance from game episodes in order to have a possibility to estimate the situation and to make the right decision. The aim of the article is to study the system of the training process of football referees. The principal research approach to the training of football referees is a structural analytical approach. The research methods are analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature and informational environment on training football referees, questionnaire, pedagogical observation, experiment and methods of mathematical data processing. In the article there are results of monitoring the motional activity of football referees of various qualifications. Moreover, it was found that during matches the heart rate varied in different pulse zones with variable power of work. The program of physical training of football referees of different qualifications has been developed with the help of athletics in the annual cycle. The relation between the level of competition, the load felt by the referee and the parameters of motional activity was determined. The results that prove the positive effect of the usage of the author’s program for training referees are presented and discussed. The article will be useful to football referees: from beginners to experienced ones, in order to correct their training. Also it will be useful for educators and coaches who work with future football referees. The referee should constantly be at the distance from the game episodes in order to have possibility to estimate the situation and make the right decision. The correct choice of location on the football field, the referee’s position while assessing game episodes shows not only the qualification of the referee, but also shows the level of physical preparedness. Thereby it is very topical question in modern football to study not only the system of training of football players, but also football referees too.

Keywords: football referee, the system of educational training, motional activity, indicators of physical activity, physical preparedness

Citation: Musin OA, Zhemchug YS, Sokolov VV, Gryaznov IY, Savchenko TA, Shlykova YV. The system of training and passing control standards for the physical training of football referees. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4129-36.

Indigenous knowledge and cultural tourism among the Mah Meri people in Malaysia
Norwaliza Abdul Wahab, Ramle Abdullah, Siti Irene Astuti, Nor Aizal Akmal Rohaizad

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Abstract

Cultural tourism is a great potential source of economic gains for local industries and indigenous people. The aboriginal people of Malaysia known as Orang Asli have used their indigenous knowledge (IK) as part of their cultural tourism. This study aims to explore the attractions of cultural tourism by the Mah Meri tribe. This qualitative study includes semi-structured interviews of ten research participants, participant observation, and document analysis. The intrinsic case study is conducted at a well-known indigenous cultural tourism site at Carey Island in Selangor. The in-depth interviews are audio-taped, transcribed, and checked for converging themes to understand the community resources of IK which contribute to cultural tourism practices. Findings showed that wood carvings, mask carvings, pandanus weavings, and cultural performance are the most important practices of the Mah Meri tribe. These practices contribute to their income and the development of indigenous cultural tourism. The observations show that the community is extremely proud of its cultural heritage and often perform their cultural practices, especially for tourists. This study also provides major implications for the improvement of cultural tourism. Tourism authorities play an important role in the development of local cultural tourism quality standard. Specifically, tourism authorities can promote local cultural tourism and preserve the IK by passing it to the younger generations.

Keywords: cultural tourism, education, indigenous knowledge, indigenous people, Malaysia

Citation: Wahab NA, Abdullah R, Astuti SI, Rohaizad NAA. Indigenous knowledge and cultural tourism among the Mah Meri people in Malaysia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4137-43.

Detection of the amount of contamination of some foods manufactured with deadly fungal toxins
Rasha Abdullah Neamah, Hadeel Ali Ghegeri

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Abstract

About 40 isolates backed to 17 species of fungus belonging to 11 genera as well as sterile fungus were isolated from five types of processed foods (corn chips, tomato paste, pasta, milk powder, canned Peas) Of these, Most of the isolates isolated during the study were deficient fungi (Deuteromycotina) and fungus fungi (Zygomycotina). Aspergillus fungal species recorded a clear appearance and achieved the highest frequency ratios. 13 were due to the fungus that has the ability to produce toxins, the most famous is the fungus Aspergillus flavas, which has the ability to produce dangerous aflatoxin toxicity and revealed its ability to produce toxins through the use of coconut agar. The results of the statistical analysis using the square (X2) showed that the total number of fungal isolates produced by aflatoxin (P <0.05) was significantly different depending on the type of food.

Keywords: fungal toxins, contamination, biological activity, Deuteromycotina

Citation: Neamah RA, Ghegeri HA. Detection of the amount of contamination of some foods manufactured with deadly fungal toxins. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4145-8.

Paleotectonic development features and assessment of perspective of oil and gas possibility of Paleozoic sediments of the Pre-Caspian basin
D. K. Azhgaliev, K. M. Taskinbayev, O. S. Obryadchikov, S. Akhmetov, S. N. Nursultanova

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Abstract

The analysis of the history of the development and formation of the Pre-Caspian basin, the characteristics of the main stages of development from the Middle Devonian to the Lower Permian (Artinsky and Kungurian stages) are given. The main tectonic elements are identified, the analysis of which is used to assess the internal structure and prospects of oil and gas potential of the Paleozoic sediments. Separate analysis of sedimentation conditions and paleotectonic reconstructions along the northern, eastern, and southern pre-bead part of the Pre-Caspian basin was performed. Local structures and zones that are of exploratory interest in relation to the prospects of oil and gas potential are identified. Separately, an assessment and forecast of the conditions for the formation of the central regions of the deep Pre-Caspian basin are given.

Keywords: zone, Pre-Caspian basin, Paleozoic complex, oil and gas prospects, sediments, reservoir, paleo-depths, sedimentation

Citation: Azhgaliev DK, Taskinbayev KM, Obryadchikov OS, Akhmetov S, Nursultanova SN. Paleotectonic development features and assessment of perspective of oil and gas possibility of Paleozoic sediments of the Pre-Caspian basin. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4149-63.

Neuroprotective effects of Vitex agnus castus extract in rats’ model of Alzheimer’s disease
Hebah Majed Hamood, Adeeb A. Al-Zubaidy

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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common degenerative neurological disorders and is characterized by a variety of symptoms such as memory loss, reduced of cognitive functions, abnormal behavior and psychiatric problems. Vitex agnus castus (Vac) has been reported to have both antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The preset study was designed to study the effect of Vac extract in lipoploysacchride - induced AD - like features in rats. Material and method : Rats were divided equally (7 rats/group) into five groups; control group, induction group (rats were administered lipoploysacchride 250 μg/kg i.p. once daily for 7 days), and the further three treatment groups included rats received tested drugs prophylactically for 21 days then the induction done by lipoplysacchride (250 μg/kg) i.p. once daily together with continuation of the same oral doses of the tested drugs for further 7days; these treatment groups included donepezil group (0.5 mg/Kg orally once daily), VCA extract group (80mg/Kg orally once daily) and combination group (donepezil 0.5mg/Kg and Vac extract 80mg/Kg; both were administrated orally once daily). Behavioral parameters like Ymaze and novel object recognition were evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory cytokines were carried out in the sample of brain tissues. Result: vitex agnus castus extract have significant improvement in memory and cognition, and improve the level of oxidative stress parameter, and inflammatory cytokines.
Conclusion: The present study revealed the neuroprotective effect of Vac against lipopolysacchride-induced AD -like features in rats. Such beneficial effect seemed probably due to Vac significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as been proved in the present study.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, lipopolysaccharide, Vitex agnus castus

Citation: Hamood HM, Al-Zubaidy AA. Neuroprotective effects of Vitex agnus castus extract in rats’ model of Alzheimer’s disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4165-9.

Pathological influence of concomitant infestation of Cystoisospora SP. and Giardia SP. in dogs
Yu.A. Vatnikov, S.A. Shemyakova, E.V. Kulikov, V.S. Lyhina, V.M. Byakhova, E.A. Кronova, A.M-A. Ebzeeva, A.V. Shvets, A.M. Orlova, N.V. Petukhov, E.D. Sotnikova, V.I. Semenova, A Norezzine

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Abstract

Research on the clinical analysis of protein and cobalamin malabsorption in dogs with protozoal pathology in 83 animals of various breeds and ages has been carried out. There were 44 dogs under the age of 3 years with established intestinal protozoa. 19 of them were found to be parasitized by Giardia sp., 18 by Cystoisospora sp., and 7 dogs were found to be parasitized by Giardia sp. and Cystoisospora sp., as well as 39 dogs from 8 to 12 years old, with confirmed intestinal protozoosis: in 22 Giardia sp., in 11 - Cystoisospora sp. Combined invasion of Giardia sp. and Cystoisospora sp. observed in 6 dogs.
Changes in blood biochemical parameters, blood folate levels were evaluated, and structural changes in the mucous membrane of the small intestine in dogs with combined invasion of Cystoisospora sp. and Giardia sp.
Young dogs and animals 8-12 years old, invaded by intestinal protozoa, had a decrease in the level of urea, total protein, albumin and globulin, and cholesterol. The bile acid level remained within the normal range.
Among dogs with confirmed giardiosis, a decrease in vitamin B12 levels was noted in 73.7%, with isosporosis - in 88.8%, and with combined invasion in 100% of animals.
Biopsy specimens of 6 young dogs parasitized by Giardia sp. showed predominantly duodenitis with moderate changes in accordance with the recommendations of the WSAVA Gastrointestinal Standardization Group (2008). Two dogs showed marked duodenitis in the samples. In older animals, a pronounced process became predominant. In dogs with Cystoisospora sp. was established duodenitis with moderate changes.

Keywords: malabsorption, folate, mucosal pathology, Cystoisospora sp., Giardia sp., Dogs

Citation: Vatnikov Y, Shemyakova S, Kulikov E, Lyhina V, Byakhova V, Кronova E, et al. Pathological influence of concomitant infestation of Cystoisospora SP. and Giardia SP. in dogs. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4171-8.

COVID-19 knowledge, attitude and practice among medical undergraduate students in Baghdad City
Nawar Sahib Khalil, Dhafer Basheer Al-Yuzbaki, Ruqaya Subhi Tawfeeq

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Abstract

Background: Exceptional procedures have been adopted by many countries to stem ongoing spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The individuals’ adherence for the preventive and control measures are largely influenced by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19. The current study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical undergraduate students within Baghdad City towards COVID-19.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1380 medical students were surveyed online using developed, validated and piloted questionnaire during two week period. Unpaired t-test and One Way ANOVA test were used to assess the association between students’ general knowledge, attitudes, practice, and satisfaction to their demographic characteristics.
Results: The overall score of students’ knowledge about COVID-19 is 91.8% that relied mainly from social media as source of information (36%). More than 90% and three quarters of students have positive attitude and practicing preventive measures towards COVID-19. More than half of students are satisfied with roles played by local health authorities to combat COVID-19. Significant differences were observed among students’ KAP with satisfaction and most of their demographic characteristics particularly medical branch of study (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Medical students in Baghdad City had generally a higher level of knowledge, possess a positive attitude, and performed a good practice and proactive behaviors of preventive measures towards COVID-19. However, the students were moderately satisfied about the defeating role of the local health authorities towards the illness, hence, our results could be helpful for local health authorities in their awareness campaigns to stem current outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, knowledge, perception, practice, satisfaction, preventive measures

Citation: Khalil NS, Al-Yuzbaki DB, Tawfeeq RS. COVID-19 knowledge, attitude and practice among medical undergraduate students in Baghdad City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4179-86.

Cytogenetic studies and cytotoxic effect of Ruta chalepensis extract on Swiss Albion mice and MCF-7 tumor cells
Ruqaya Mohammed Al-Ezzy, Ali Z. Al-Saffar, Hadeel Mohamed Khalaf

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Abstract

Ruta chalepensis is a native herb of the Mediterranean region used in the traditional medicine of many countries. Phytochemical screening has shown the presence of bioactive molecules that are responsible for its pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of R. chalepensis methanolic extract on metaphase index and micronucleus formation in bone marrow of Swiss albino BALB/c male mice as well as in vitro cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 tumor cell line. The results of cytogenetic evaluations indicated that a treatment with R. chalepensis was associated with a significant increase in metaphase index and reduction in micronucleus formation in dose-dependent pattern comparing with blank control and vehicle control. The results of methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay on MCF-7 tumor cells indicated a significant increase in cell proliferation inhibition in dose-dependent manner after treatment with R. chalepensis methanolic extract with potent IC50 of 51.31 µg mL-1, comparing with WRI68 normal cell line.

Keywords: Ruta chalepensis, metaphase index, micronucleus, MTT assay, MCF-7

Citation: Al-Ezzy RM, Al-Saffar AZ, Khalaf HM. Cytogenetic studies and cytotoxic effect of Ruta chalepensis extract on Swiss Albion mice and MCF-7 tumor cells. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4187-92.

A taxonomical study of new cultivated types of Malus from the Rosaceae family in central of Iraq
Ali T AL-Taie, Muazaz Azeez AL-Hadeethi, Areej A. Farman AL-Rawi

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Abstract

The breeding and cultivation of new apple cultivars are among the most charming and significant issues for apple researchers. The vegetative and reproductive traits studied of Malus species appear varying in many characters and can be used as a taxonomic feature to distinguish among the species and put in the groups, on the other hand, the leaves of plants show highly diverse and elaborate patterns of leaf venation. The venation in all species under study is pinnately reticulate that’s mean the type is simple craspedodromos in all species where all secondary veins and their branches end at the edge also the study refers to the cascade venation pattern, Areoles, zones and segments of leaf lamina.

Keywords: leaves venation, Malus, rosaceae, taxonomy

Citation: AL-Taie AT, AL-Hadeethi MA, AL-Rawi AAF. A taxonomical study of new cultivated types of Malus from the Rosaceae family in central of Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4193-7.

The therapeutic effects of apremilast (phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor) on histological outcome, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameter in experimental Induced Colitis
Hanaa Raheem, Abdulkareem H. Abd, Ban Jumaa Qasim

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Abstract

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is idiopathic, chronic, relapsing inflammation of the intestines with no effective line of treatment. Therefore, novel and safer drugs with sufficient therapeutic efficacy are needed. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of apremilast on histological outcome, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameter in experimentally induced colitis. Material and method: Experimental colitis was induced in rats by 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) enemas. Rats with colitis were received either apremilast 25mg/kg or sulfasalazine 100mg/kg orally for 7days. Macroscopical and microscopical assessment and the measurement of the colonic cytokines (IL-4 and TNF-α), oxidative stress marker myeloperoxidase (MPO), and adhesion molecule (E-Selectin). Result: Results showed that both apremilast and sulfasalazine significantly reduced the macroscopical and histological injury in colon that induced by acetic acid. In addition to the downregulation of colonic proinflammatory cytokines, MPO and E-Selectin. Conclusion: These results concluded that artemisinin had effective role in experimental colitis in rats through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with downregulation the colonic adhesive molecule E-Selectin.

Keywords: Acetic acid, apremilast, IL-4, E-Selectin, Ulcerative colitis

Citation: Raheem H, Abd AH, Qasim BJ. The therapeutic effects of apremilast (phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor) on histological outcome, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameter in experimental Induced Colitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4199-206.

Determination of genes responsible for some virulence factors of bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater
Israa Hammood Abed AlDoori, Jihad Diab Mahal, Mohammed Nadhir Maaroof

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Abstract

The current study is conducted to detect bacterial contamination of groundwater in Al-Dour district within Salah al-Din Governorate for a distance extending about 35 km by eight wells with depths ranging between (65-90) meters during the study period extending from spring 2018 to winter 2019. The study includes isolation and identification of the most important species of bacteria contaminating well water and investigating its virulence factors with molecular diagnosis. The Isolates were detected as being able to produce some virulence factors, which included hemolycin, lipase and protease, lecithinase, biofilm, urease, and beta-lactamases, is detected. The results show that Klebsiella pneumoniae produces biofilm, hemolysin, lipase and lecithinase by 100%, while beta-lactamase and both urease and protease enzymes are not produced. As for Enterobacter cloacae, it produced hemolysin, protease and lipase by 100%, while it produced the enzymes beta-lactamase and lecithinase by 50%, and did not form or produce the biofilm and the urease enzyme. Concerning Aeromonas veronii, it produced beta-lactamase, lipase, biofilm, protease and lecithinase by 100% and hemolysin by 50% and did not produce urease enzyme. Enterococcous cecorum produced beta-lactamase, urease, protease and biofilm by 100%, and produced hemolysin and lipase enzymes by 66.7% and lecithinase enzyme by 33.3%, while Enterococcous columbae produced beta- lactamases, urease and biofilm by 100% but unable to produce lipase, lecithinase, hemolysin and protease. Granulicatella elegans were shown to be producing beta-lactamase, lecithinase, biofilm and protease by 100%, but did not produce hemolysin, urease and lipase enzymes. As for Aeromonas hydrophila, they appeared to be producing lipase, urease and hemolysin by 100%, but produced protease, lecithinase and beta-lactamase by 50% but did not produce the biofilm. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) show the use of specialized primers of some genes of virulence factors in the isolated bacteria. The protease gene encoded ProA and beta-lactamases gene encoded MOXM are found in Enterobacter cloacae, the hemolysin gene encoded HemK and the biofilm gene encoded LuxS found in Klebsiella pneumonia, the urease gene encoded UreA and lipase gene encoded lip found in Aeromonas hydrophila. As for A.veronii, it has been detected holding the protease gene encoded ProA and the lipase gene encoded lip the. With respect to the genera Enterococcus sp., Tuf biofilm encoded is found in both Enterococcous columbae and Enterococcous cecorum. In Granulicatella elegans, the presence of the RpoB gene is detected.

Keywords: groundwater, bacterial species, virulence factors, specific primers, PCR

Citation: AlDoori IHA, Mahal JD, Maaroof MN. Determination of genes responsible for some virulence factors of bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4207-15.

Study the adhesion capacity on abiotic surfaces by acinetobacter baumannii isolated from drinking water
Sanaa R. Oleiwi, Entissar F. Ahmed, Shaymaa F. Rasheed

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Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii ability to form biofilm makes it to be opportunistic pathogen causing of nosocomial infections and to be good survivor in adverse environmental conditions including medical devices and hospital environments.
Six isolates of A. baumannii were isolated from drinking water and tested to investigate biofilm formation capacity on three different type of abiotic surface, also several factors were examined such as hydrophobicity, PH and temperature.
All A. baumannii isolates displayed a positive biofilm on congored aga test CRA (pigmented colonies with black color) and Christensen’s test (adhesive layer of stained material to the inside surface of the tube).The obtained data of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay (MATH) assay revealed that the percentage of all isolates ranged between (45-75%).
Results of recent study revealed that optical density OD values were consistently higher on catheter than on that of the polystyrene and glass at any of the PH and temperature Temperature 37◦C and PH 4 have greatest positive effect on biofilm formation process than other values, Current study may help in additional understanding of A. baumannii ability to form biofilm on abiotic surface which may be is used in medical devices’ manufacturer and role of this in spreading of this pathogen in hospital environment.

Keywords: biofilm, hydrophobicity, Christensen test, congored aga test, catheter

Citation: Oleiwi SR, Ahmed EF, Rasheed SF. Study the adhesion capacity on abiotic surfaces by acinetobacter baumannii isolated from drinking water. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4217-23.

Characteristic aspects of patriotic education of the student youth at the border of two cultures (The Russian and the Dagestanian) in the late 19th - early 20th centuries
Sariyat A. Alieva, Nikapatimat G. Atalaeva, Patimat D. Gadzhieva, Siyadat Z. Zakariyaeva, Meren G. Kurbanismailova, Omar N. Omarov, Raisat V. Suleymanova

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Abstract

The topic under research is highly relevant as patriotism is a historical phenomenon, and a central role in patriotic education belongs to learning the historical past of our “big” and “small” Motherlands. Front and foremost for this paper is the determination to ensure the historical succession of generations and promote respectful attitude to the historical and cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia and Dagestan. In connection therewith, the intent of this paper is to instill patriotism in the student youth at the border of two cultures, the Russian and the Dagestanian, and on this foundation to foster their patriotic consciousness, strengthen their sense of inclusion and raise their awareness of the historical and cultural community among the peoples of Russia and Dagestan. The leading approach to examining this topic was a theoretical cognition method allowing for a comprehensive review of the problem under research. This paper reveals the essence and content of the notions patriotism and culture; overviews distinct characteristics of the Russian culture in the late 19th - early 20th centuries; describes ethno-social conditions and unique features of the Republic of Dagestan; examines the ties and the relationships between Russia and Dagestan; shows the impact the Russian culture has had on the culture of the peoples of Dagestan within a new cultural space.

Keywords: instilling patriotism, patriotism, culture, patriotic education at the border of two cultures, ethno-social conditions, Russian culture, culture of peoples of Dagestan

Citation: Alieva SA, Atalaeva NG, Gadzhieva PD, Zakariyaeva SZ, Kurbanismailova MG, Omarov ON, et al. Characteristic aspects of patriotic education of the student youth at the border of two cultures (The Russian and the Dagestanian) in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4225-32.

Features of cultural and leisure services market: Student youth regulations problems and demand presence
Larisa I. Tararina, Ekaterina I. Sokolova, Aleksandr A. Novikov, Rezeda R. Gainullina, Marina N. Tuktagulova, Tatiana A. Dugarskaya, Elena V. Novikova

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Abstract

The Article Relevance. At present, with the social changes growth increasing, the importance of culture, which is increasingly becoming the center of public attention and social interests, is undoubtedly becoming more and more important. People of the modern world who are constantly experiencing stress, fatigue from everyday problems and psychological stress at work are looking for an opportunity to escape and relax. The purpose of the study is to determine the demand for cultural and leisure services among students. Research methods: as a research method, the researchers use the questionnaire method, which allows them most effectively to determine main groups of consumers of cultural and leisure services and whether students are in demand for these services. Research results: the article considers the peculiarities of motives for visiting cultural events by students. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that the sources of consumer information for students are considered for the first time. Authors revealed that sources of consumer information by their nature could be personal, public, and empirical. They show that the most effective source of information about upcoming events is outdoor advertising. It is revealed that when attending a particular cultural event, such opportunities are important for students as expanding their own horizons, gaining new skills and relaxing after working days. Visiting the theater for students is a festive event. Less popular among students are such opportunities as meeting with your favorite actors, performers, and spending time with friends. It is determined that the majority of the student audience does not consider the theater as a communication platform. It was revealed that with age, the desire to attend performances for the sake of aesthetic recreation increases, including the role of visiting new theater productions. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, pedagogy, age psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: cultural and leisure services, consumers, students

Citation: Tararina LI, Sokolova EI, Novikov AA, Gainullina RR, Tuktagulova MN, Dugarskaya TA, et al. Features of cultural and leisure services market: Student youth regulations problems and demand presence. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4233-7.

An early and short gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (sandwich) protocol versus conventional gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI
Ali Ibrahim Rahim, Khitam M. Abdulhameed, Hind Hadi Majeed, Manal T. Al-Obaidi

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Abstract

In the field of IVF, the term ‘poor responder’ refers to the patients, with decreased ovarian reserve, that revealed as low retrieved oocytes in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles which is a huge challenge in IVF. This study compares the effectiveness of an early and short gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (sandwich) protocol with conventional (GnRH) antagonist in poor ovarian responders. This randomized clinical trial consisted of 61 poor ovarian responder women enrolled in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles at High Institute for infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Baghdad, Iraq from January 2018 till February 2019. They were divided randomly in to two groups which are an early and short gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (sandwich) protocol group and conventional gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol group in order to compare between the two groups in the outcomes. The mean number of retrieved oocytes was significantly higher in sandwich than in conventional antagonist protocol (P = 0.026). Mean grade 1 embryo was significantly higher in sandwich protocol than in conventional protocol (P = 0.049). The rate of pregnancy was significantly higher in sandwich than that of conventional antagonist protocol (P = 0.026).
Conclusion: An early GnRH antagonist (sandwich) protocol can improve ovarian response in poor responders by stimulating and synchronizing follicle development

Keywords: IVF-ICSI, poor responders, sandwich protocol, antagonist protocol

Citation: Rahim AI, Abdulhameed KM, Majeed HH, Al-Obaidi MT. An early and short gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (sandwich) protocol versus conventional gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4239-43.

In vitro biochemical evaluation the effect of (Cobalt and Nickel-Zinc) ferrite Nanoparticles on beta -thalassemia major erythrocytes
Alaa Anwer Ali, Dina Abd-Alkareem, Israa Ghassan Zainal, Suzan Jameel Ali

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Abstract

Objective: this study evaluate the interaction of Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe2O4) and Nickel-Zinc Iron Oxide (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles with human erythrocytes in relation to the hemolytic activity and the effect of the above nanoparticles on human plasma albumin of patients with β – thalassemia major compared to healthy subjects. Design and Methods: the study include 40 β – thalassemia major patients and 20 apparently healthy subjects. The hemolysis % assay and in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of the above nanoparticles were used. Results: The results indicated that Co ferrite nanoparticles increases the fragility (the hemolysis % was higher) of the erythrocytes more readily in the case of β – thalassemia patients compared to healthy subjects and the Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles increase the fragility of healthy subjects erythrocytes while in the case of thalassemia patients the hemolysis % were decrease with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. The anti-inflammatory effect of the above nanoparticles was evaluated using the inhibition of denaturation method for human plasma albumin, the results have shown significant in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Co ferrite nanoparticles on plasma albumin but lower than the effect of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles. Conclusions: Changes in the morphological features of erythrocytes were noticed due to the interaction of the above nanoparticles. Stability of erythrocytes was observed at lower concentration of these nanoparticles and the possible mechanisms of interaction have been described.

Keywords: cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles, β-thalassemia major and erythrocytes

Citation: Ali AA, Abd-Alkareem D, Zainal IG, Ali SJ. In vitro biochemical evaluation the effect of (Cobalt and Nickel-Zinc) ferrite Nanoparticles on beta -thalassemia major erythrocytes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4245-9.

Foliar application of potassium nitrate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid affect some fruit splitting related characteristics and biochemical traits of mandarin cv. ‘page’
Mehrnaz Alikhani, Babak Babakhani, Behrouz Golein, Mahmoud Asadi, Parvaneh Rahdari

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Abstract

Fruit splitting and quality are the most values in mandarin cv. ‘Page’ since they are playing the main role in the production and exporting potential. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluated the foliar application of KNO3 (0, 1 and 2%) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 0, 50 and 100 mg/L) at three stages (full bloom, end of petal fall, and end of June drop) during two growing seasons (2016 and 2017) on some fruit splitting related characteristics and biochemical traits of mandarin cv. ‘Page’. Foliar application of KNO3 and 2,4-D treatment significantly reduced fruit splitting severity, peel firmness and SSC/TA ratio, but significantly enhanced fruit size, β-galactosidase and PG activity, SSC, TA, vitamin C, TPC, and TAC as compared with control. A negative correlation was revealed between PG and β-galactosidase activity and fruit splitting severity. Moreover, a synergistic effect of KNO3 and 2,4-D treatments was found in treated fruits as the highest content of obtained in KNO3 2% + 2,4-D 100 mg/L treatment. Overall, it is proposed that the foliar application of KNO3 2% + 2,4-D 100 mg/L in mandarin cv. ‘Page’ trees could be more suitable to reduce fruit splitting and improve fruit quality.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, β-galactosidase, KNO3, peel firmness, polygalacturonase

Citation: Alikhani M, Babakhani B, Golein B, Asadi M, Rahdari P. Foliar application of potassium nitrate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid affect some fruit splitting related characteristics and biochemical traits of mandarin cv. ‘page’. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4251-60.

Establishment of mode parameters of extraction of pumpkin pectin-containing extract by enzyme method
M.Zh. Kizatova, G.K. Iskakova, S.T. Azimova, J.S. Nabieva, B.N. Alibaeva

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Abstract

Almaty is the largest megapolis of Kazakhstan, located in a lowland between the mountain ranges of the Northern Tien Shan, where is atmospheric air poorly blown. Therefore, air pollution during weak natural ventilation, especially with salts of heavy metals, has a great influence on the growth of various diseases, especially the respiratory tract and cardiovascular diseases. The degree of increase of the content of heavy metals in the body of pigeons depending on their habitat was experimentally established. The total protein in the blood plasma of pigeons from ecologically safe zones of the city averaged 50 - 55 g / l. With increasing environmental pollution and the accumulation of heavy metals in the body of pigeons, there was a tendency to a decrease in total protein in the range of 35 - 39 g / l. For the correction of pathological conditions of the human body, the prevention and rehabilitation of intoxication, the development of enterosorbents is necessary, one of which is various pectin products.
Based on the conducted experiments, the regime parameters of obtaining pumpkin pectin-containing extract by the enzymatic method were established. Rational regimes for the extraction of pectin from pumpkin pomace of the Karina variety (temperature 40-41 ° C, dose of Pectinase from Aspergillus niger enzyme preparation 2.0%, medium pH 6.0, exposure time 4 hours) were established.

Keywords: ecology, pumpkin pomace, pectin-containing extract, extraction modes, degree of esterification, complexing ability

Citation: Kizatova M, Iskakova G, Azimova S, Nabieva J, Alibaeva B. Establishment of mode parameters of extraction of pumpkin pectin-containing extract by enzyme method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4261-9.

Interesterification of a three-component fat blend for use in bread baking
Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Indira Zh. Temirova, Zhumabek N. Shaimerdenov, Bagila A. Sakenova, Askhat B. Dalabayev, Akmaral B. Aldiyeva, Kuralay Z. Zhunussova

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Abstract

Fat products are an important component of additional raw materials used in the production of bakery products. They are used to improve the rheological properties of the dough, improve the taste and nutritional value of bakery products, and improve their digestibility. In this study, chemical interesterification of a three-component blend based on fully hydrogenated oil, palm oil, and rapeseed oil in a ratio of 20/20/60, respectively, was performed to obtain interesterified fat for use in baking. The article presents the results of the study of fatty acid composition, melting point, content of solid triglycerides (STG) and trans-isomers of fatty acids of interesterified fat. To identify the optimal conditions for the process in enlarged experiments, mathematical processing of experimental data was performed to obtain regression equations, on the basis of which the optimization of the chemical interesterification process was carried out, which allowed determining its optimal operating modes: temperature of the process, amount of catalyst, duration of the interesterification process on the optimization criterion – the content of trans-isomers of fatty acids. The interesterified fat obtained in this way had the specified physical and chemical properties, had the necessary range of plasticity, and the content of trans-isomers of fatty acids met the requirements of the current legislation.

Keywords: trans-isomers of fatty acids, interesterification, hydrogenation, interesterified fats

Citation: Muslimov NZ, Temirova IZ, Shaimerdenov ZN, Sakenova BA, Dalabayev AB, Aldiyeva AB, et al. Interesterification of a three-component fat blend for use in bread baking. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4271-9.

The selection effectiveness of various forms of sugar beet in early ontogenesis
A.V. Logvinov, V.A. Logvinov, V.V. Moiseev, N.N. Neshchadim, L.V. Tsatsenko, A.V. Moiseev

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Abstract

The selection of cold-tolerant forms was carried out during seed germination at a temperature of 90C. Root material was grown in flowerpots, seeds were obtained by self-pollination in individual isolators. After repeated selections, the combining ability of the most valuable forms was studied as the parent components of the cross when creating new hybrids. The offspring of genotypes selected with the help of a cold background exceeded the control on the basis of germination and length of the seedling.
The effectiveness of such studies is shown by the example of new hybrids Azimut, Kuban MS-95, and Uspekh.

Keywords: sugar beet, selection, cold tolerance, seeds, germination, root length, combining ability, hybrid, hybrid productivity

Citation: Logvinov A, Logvinov V, Moiseev V, Neshchadim N, Tsatsenko L, Moiseev A. The selection effectiveness of various forms of sugar beet in early ontogenesis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4281-5.

Fibre extraction from oilseed flax straw for various technical applications
Zhumabek N. Shaimerdenov, Askhat B. Dalabayev, Indira Zh. Temirova, Akmaral B. Aldiyeva, Bagila A. Sakenova, Kuralay Z. Zhunussova, Ayelbek Iztayev

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Abstract

Cultivated primarily for seeds and oil, oilseed flax can be evaluated as a source of natural fibre that can be extracted from straw. However, due to the lack of comprehensive processing of the stem mass, they remain in the fields and are burned. The aim of this research is to study the possibility of obtaining fibre from oilseed flax straw by mechanical processing and to study the technological properties and suitability of the resulting fibre for technical use. In the course of the work, the structural and technological properties of straw samples of 4 varieties of oilseed flax were studied. The chemical composition was studied and fibre samples were obtained according to the scheme consisting of crushing, scutching, milling and shaking machine. Optimal modes of fibre extraction were established by developing a mathematical model of the process. The results of the work show that the fibre of oilseed flax is comparable to textile flax in terms of physical and mechanical parameters, which makes it suitable for technical use.

Keywords: oilseed flax straw, oilseed flax fibre, fibre yield, cellulose

Citation: Shaimerdenov ZN, Dalabayev AB, Temirova IZ, Aldiyeva AB, Sakenova BA, Zhunussova KZ, et al. Fibre extraction from oilseed flax straw for various technical applications. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4287-95.

The problem of distance learning in modern Russian education (theory and practice)
Olga V. Gribkova, Nina N. Shchetinina, Elena P. Kabkova, Victoria V. Solovyova, Vladimir I. Portnikov, Zara A-M. Albakova, Emilia R. Agadzhanova

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Abstract

In modern information society, information technology-based learning is becoming more and more popular. Learning via the Internet, that is, distance learning, has great potential. This paper focuses on the psychological and organizational features of distance learning. The psychological characteristics of the subjects of the educational process in the course of distance learning have been determined. Distance learning is the kind of learning in which the interaction of participants in the educational process takes place in a virtual space using information and communication technologies. Risks and problems of psychological readiness of teachers and students for distance learning have been analyzed. The paper emphasizes the difference between distance learning and the traditional form of education. In the course of theoretical analysis, the author considers the distinctive features of distance learning from correspondence learning in detail. The author brings up a question whether a sharp transition from traditional to distance learning can cause a psychological crisis, emotional instability, and entail negative consequences. The components for assessing the effectiveness of distance learning have been given in the paper: material and technical support; psychological climate in the study group; structure and content of educational material; individual achievements of students; teacher qualifications. The relationship between the type of perception and the effectiveness of distance learning is explored, the forms of interaction and presentation of the training content differ. Concrete steps are proposed for holding an event to optimize the distance educational process. The positive aspects of distance learning are pointed out. In the conclusion, specific preventive measures of psychological support for participants in distance learning have been presented.

Keywords: distance learning, students, teachers, crisis psychology, negative consequences, components of assessing the quality of education, the advantages of distance learning, psychological support

Citation: Gribkova OV, Shchetinina NN, Kabkova EP, Solovyova VV, Portnikov VI, Albakova ZA, et al. The problem of distance learning in modern Russian education (theory and practice). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4297-303.

Access to information resource: problem of openness and privacy in Internet space
Lilia A. Kaletina, Gulnara R. Ibraeva, Evgeny V. Martynenko, Elena P. Sukhodolova, Valery A. Grinev, Aysha A. Magomedova, Sergei P. Zhdanov

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Abstract

The relevance of the research is conditioned by the fact that in the modern world, the global spread of mass communication significantly transforms the traditional systems of people interaction and communication. Publicity comes directly into contact with privacy and transforms it, which leads to a number of contradictions, including ethical ones. The aim of the research is to study the forms of openness and privacy in the Internet space, determined by the context of social networks. As a research method, we used the questionnaire method, which allows us to investigate the motivational, emotional, and behavioral aspects of social openness and privacy in social networks most effectively. The article considers aspects of the relationship between private and public spheres in the Internet space, and identifies the motives for demonstrating private life. It is revealed that modern users believe that posting reliable information about themselves is a safe process. It is determined that the virtual image often broadcasts the social success of the user; event saturation of the user’s life; creation of an intellectual and spiritually developed virtual image of the user. It is shown that users primarily associate the placement of private information about themselves with feelings of anticipation and expectation of responses, likes, and comments from other users. It is determined that the presence of an undefined public is perceived as a positive side of social networks. It is revealed that there is a difference between the information that users post about themselves and their life in social networks, and the information that they present about themselves and their life in reality. For the first time, it is shown that users of social networks not only voluntarily refuse privacy, but also produce a simulation of intimacy, filter information provided to social networks. Virtual space is fixated on the production of images that are consumed as a commodity. A number of behavioral changes have been revealed in users: social approval, the desire to demonstrate the brightness and saturation of their lives are of great importance.

Keywords: internet space, information resource, social networks

Citation: Kaletina LA, Ibraeva GR, Martynenko EV, Sukhodolova EP, Grinev VA, Magomedova AA, et al. Access to information resource: problem of openness and privacy in Internet space. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4305-9.

Modeling the process of enzymatic extraction of pectin substances from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) using an extractor equipped with an ultrasonic emitter and a high-speed mixer
Seit S. Jingilbaev, Assan B. Ospanov, Stepan G. Akterian, Shukhrat M. Velyamov

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Abstract

Deep processing of fruit and vegetable products is one of the most important tasks for providing the population with functional food products. This article presents an analytical review and research on the extraction of pectin from plant raw materials in order to obtain a pectin-containing extract. The aim of the study is to increase the yield of pectin during enzymatic extraction of red beet pomace. The effect of ultrasonic processing of raw materials on the yield of pectin during enzymatic extraction from red beet was studied - the optimal intensity of ultrasound processing was 50 kW/m2 at a frequency of 25 kHz. The effect of the extragent mixing rate on the pectin yield during enzymatic extraction from red beet was studied - the optimal speed of the mixer was 1000 rpm. The results of experiments showed that the use of an ultrasonic emitter in the extractor design, as well as a high-speed mixer, will significantly increase its efficiency by 19-21%. The main functional properties of the obtained samples of red beet pectin extract were also studied. Mathematical modeling of the process of extracting pectin on the proposed equipment is carried out and a criterion equation is proposed that characterizes the intensity of extraction (the intensity of mass transfer in the solid - liquid system). The main functional properties of red beet pectin extract samples were also studied. In vitro, low-esterified pectin from red beet has more pronounced reducing properties than the antioxidant drug Emoxipine, which confirmed the possibility of using the resulting pectin extract as a dietary supplement.

Keywords: extractor, ultrasonic extraction, beet processing, pectin, functional nutrition

Citation: Jingilbaev SS, Ospanov AB, Akterian SG, Velyamov SM. Modeling the process of enzymatic extraction of pectin substances from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) using an extractor equipped with an ultrasonic emitter and a high-speed mixer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4311-21.

The correlation between Mmp7 and fox protein marker in oral sequamou cell carcinoma
Amir A. Majeed, Wafaa Jabbar Hussein, Nagham H. Ali

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Abstract

In Iraqi patients with Oral Sequamou cell cancer, little is understood about the expression of Mmp7 and Fox protein. Fox ‘s positive expression was significantly associated with the location (p=0.016) and clinical appearance. Positive expression of Fox has been noted in all cases of oral sequamoucell carcinomacases that represent their essential function in inflammation, indicating that it can be used as inhibitors for head and neck malignancies to improve anti-inflammation therapies.Oral sequamou cell carcinoma mucocutaneous uncertain cause (of a disease) with an ability (to hold or do something) for harmful change is considered to be oral oral sequamous cell cancer. In Iraqi patients with Oral Sequamou cell cancer, little is understood about the expression of Mmp7 and Fox protein. The current research was aimed at assessing the expression of Mmp7 and Fox protein in the portion of Oral oral sequamou cell carcinomausing immunohistochemical teqnique in Iraq. Parts of 22 embedded formalin-fixed paraffin blocks of Oral oral sequamou cell carcinomawere immunostained to determine the expression of Mmp7 and Fox. The term Mmp7 and Fox in both oral sequamou cell carcinomacases was positive (100 percent). Fox ‘s positive expression was significantly associated with the location (p=0.016) and clinical appearance (p-value=0.003). The positive expression of Mmp7 was substantially statically associated with the location of tumors (p-value = 0.002). There was a non-significant association between Mmp7 and Fox, on the other hand (p-value=0.021). The positive expression of Mmp7 And Fox has been noted in all cases of oral sequamou cell carcinomacases that represent their essential function in inflammation, indicating that it can be used as inhibitors for head and neck malignancies to improve anti-inflammation therapies.

Keywords: OSCC, mmp7, fox, IHC technique, HPV infection

Citation: Majeed AA, Hussein WJ, Ali NH. The correlation between Mmp7 and fox protein marker in oral sequamou cell carcinoma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4323-9.

Formal methods of analysis and synthesis for decisions options during corporate information system development
V.V. Lomakin, T.V. Zaitseva, N.P. Putivtseva, M.A. Petina, I.M. Zaitsev

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Abstract

The article presents a generalized approach to decision making in the process of application development based on cyclically repeating actions, including the synthesis of solution options and their analysis. They considered the basic methods of analysis and synthesis used in decision-making process on the design of corporate information systems (CIS). The description of the proposed generalized semantic model is given on the example of component interaction of the Integrated complex of high-level development tools and the functioning environment of corporate-level information systems (Platform). They analyzed the process of CIS IT infrastructure on the basis of the Platform and the specific steps of making a management decision for this example.

Keywords: formal methods, decision making, IT infrastructure, corporate information systems

Citation: Lomakin V, Zaitseva T, Putivtseva N, Petina M, Zaitsev I. Formal methods of analysis and synthesis for decisions options during corporate information system development. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4331-6.

Hatching of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) (Orthoptera: acrididae) eggs at several of texture and moisture levels in semi-field laboratory
Nikolas Nik, Edhi Martono, Nugroho S. Putra, Suputa

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Abstract

Migration locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) or Kembara (Indonesian) grasshopper is one of the herbivorous insects that lay eggs on the ground. The spawning process requires the right place, humidity, and type of soil. Moist soil and suitable soil texture can accelerate the hatching of grasshoppers into nymphs. This study aims to analyze the effect of texture and soil moisture level on hatching eggs of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.). This research was carried out in a semi-field laboratory in Kefamenanu, North Central Timor Regency. The study was conducted for three months, from October to December 2018. The research method used completely randomized designs and data analysis using the Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) 5% test. The results showed the texture of sandy clay loam with a humidity level of 60% (24.67 days) and 80% (22.33 days) can shorten the time of hatching eggs, and at 40% humidity on the texture of the clay lasts longer for 32.33 days.

Keywords: egg, Kembara grasshoppers, hatching, Locusta migratoria, soil moisture

Citation: Nik N, Martono E, Putra NS, Suputa. Hatching of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) (Orthoptera: acrididae) eggs at several of texture and moisture levels in semi-field laboratory. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4337-45.

The relationship of zinc and magnesium in different male infertility cases
Mustafa F. Hasan, Qussay Noori Raddam

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Abstract

The present study is designed to investigate some variables in some types of trace elements such as zinc and magnesium in some different cases of infertility and lack of fertility in men in the northern governorates of Iraq. The study included (75) samples with ages ranging between (25-50) years, of which (60) samples suffered from infertility and lack of fertility, depending on the medical diagnosis made by infertility specialist consultants in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk Governorate. The samples were distributed into five groups, each group included (15) sample agencies: the Azoospermia group), the Teratozospermia group, the Oligozoospermia group, the Asthenozoospermia group and the fifth group, which included (15) able healthy people On procreation, which is considered a control group. The study included measuring some biochemical variables for the study samples represented by measuring the level of zinc and magnesium in the blood serum.
The results indicated a significant decrease in the levels of trace elements zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in the experimental groups: Azoospermia group, Teratozospermia group, Oligozoospermia group, Asthenozoospermia group compared to Control group.

Keywords: zinc, magnesium, male infertility, fertility, biochemical

Citation: Hasan MF, Raddam QN. The relationship of zinc and magnesium in different male infertility cases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4347-51.

Forecasting of the risks in the agro-industrial complex system
Alexander Sukhodolov, Alla Rasputina

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Abstract

The agro-industrial complex system refers to complex heterogeneous systems often exposed to external and internal risks of various nature: environmental, economic, technical, technological, social and financial. The forecasting of riskogenic events and risk management in the agro-industrial complex system is characterized by imperfection of methodological and tool support. The methods of expert assessment and cognitive modeling are not used enough in the process of risk forecasting. There is a significant number of studies on risk forecasting in the agro-industrial complex, but in general, the level of coverage of risks in the system is insufficient. The algorithms for research and forecasting of risks and risk management in the agro-industrial complex system are presented in our work. Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of expert assessment methods, cognitive modeling, generation of scenarios for riskogenic situations based on a systemic analysis of potential situations are considered in risk forecasting. The algorithms we propose can be successfully applied in the context of digitalization of the agro-industrial complex for planning, monitoring and development of innovations in the technical, socio-economic and eco-economic subsystems of the agro-industrial complex.

Keywords: risk forecasting, systemic analysis, expert assessment method, cognitive modeling, development of scenarios, examination of risk situations, agro-industrial complex system

Citation: Sukhodolov A, Rasputina A. Forecasting of the risks in the agro-industrial complex system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4353-8.

Extraction of (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) of the fruit of plant Capparis spinosa and study effect on breast cancer cells
Amjed Abbawe Salih, Hussein Abood Idham, Nuhad Khaleel Ismaeel

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Abstract

Caper plant (Cappers spinoza) separate have been related with diverse biological activities inclusive anti-cancer properties, In this research, researcher used as a treatment for cancer we observe measurements of significant decrease in the level of breast cancer cells at ≥ 0.05,and identify the compound extract (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) by spectrum methods (IR, 1H.nmr and 13C.nmr) spectroscopy.

Keywords: caper (Cappers spinoza), pyran derivatives, anti-cancer activity

Citation: Salih AA, Idham HA, Ismaeel NK. Extraction of (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) of the fruit of plant Capparis spinosa and study effect on breast cancer cells. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4359-62.

Association between caries experience and body mass index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan
Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Anis Amira Adon, Amyrah Nur Fariesya Husain Ahmad, Susi Sukmasari, Yunita Dewi Ardini

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Abstract

Introduction: Dental caries and obesity are significant and common oral health and general health problems faced by children. Both caries and obesity are reported to share common risk factors. There are conflicting results in the literatures regarding the relationship between dental caries and childhood body mass index particularly among preschool children. Thus, this research aims to measure the prevalence of dental caries and determine the relationship between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in kindergartens in Kuantan using the convenience sampling method. A total of 180 participants were enrolled in this study with 60 participants each for every group. The participants were classified into underweight, normal and overweight based on their BMI. Their caries index was recorded using WHO guidelines. For BMI, participant’s weight and height were recorded and categorized by using the BMI Calculator for Child and Teen (CDC).
Result: Pertaining to dental caries, 73.3% of the participants had dental caries. The overweight group recorded the highest caries index and the highest percentage of visible plaque, but the results were not significant.
Conclusion: Our study concluded that there is no association between dental caries and body mass index among preschool children in Kuantan.

Keywords: dental caries, body mass index, obesity, preschool children

Citation: Ismail AF, Adon AA, Ahmad ANFH, Sukmasari S, Ardini YD. Association between caries experience and body mass index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4363-6.

Histological and histochemical studies of the stomach in the Iraqi falcon (Falcon berigora)
Haifa A. Hussein, Nadhim A. Shehan, Hanan A. Salman, Sameera A. Da'aj

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Abstract

The study aimed to find out the histological and histochemical structures of the walls of the stomach parts in Iraqi Falcon (Falcon berigora).To conduct this investigation, six healthy birds which obtained from a commercial market in (Al Basra city). the stomach of the falcon is constituted by two chambers: the proventriculus (pars glandularis), the gizzard (ventriculus or pars muscularis). Under the light microscopy There is no papilla on the gastric epithelium surface of the proventricular. Both, the mucous tunic of the proventriculus and of the gizzard present folds lined by simple columnar epithelium. The tunica mucosa of the proventriculus is extensively folded due to the presence of well-developed longitudinal muscle bundles. There is no intermediate zone between the proventriculus and the gizzard. The luminal surface of the ventriculus have cuticle, which is sloughed and shed small fine area (around the pyloric opening) and very thin membrane and highly closely adherent to the lining surface of gizzard. Histochemical study of the proventriculus and ventriculus layers showed positive reaction with PAS, Toldian and Mallory stain.

Keywords: falcon, proventriculus, ventriculus, histology

Citation: Hussein HA, Shehan NA, Salman HA, Da'aj SA. Histological and histochemical studies of the stomach in the Iraqi falcon (Falcon berigora). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4367-2.

Molecular docking and analysis of MEP2 protein in Candida albicans membrane
Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil

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Abstract

MEP2 is an important protein for the transportation of ammonium from outside to inner cell for metabolisms and nutrition in Candida albicans. The drug design technique is the best tool to obstruction important mechanism of pathogenic organisms. MEP2 contain identical chain (A and B) which make a crystal structure of protein. Molecular docking of the MEP2 protein has been done by using COACH-D web tool and analyzing the structure by CASTp tool. The results showed that there are three ligands which can be used as inhibitors for MEP2 protein activity, these ligands are NME, XE and NH3 can act and conjugated in many pockets within protein structure.

Keywords: MEP2 protein, Molecular Docking, Candida albicans

Citation: Khalil MI. Molecular docking and analysis of MEP2 protein in Candida albicans membrane. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4373-6.

Screening, enhance production and characterization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil
Nassir Abdullah Alyousif, Wijdan H. Al-Tamimi, Yasin Y. Y. Al-Luaibi

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Abstract

A wide variety of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and were screened for biosurfactant production using conventional methods including oil spreading test, emulsification index, emulsification activity and CTAB agar test. Among the isolated bacteria, A2 isolate, a Gram negative bacterium was selected for further studies based on its highest activity and was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of specific genes responsible for the biosynthesis of mono-rhamnolipid (rhlB) and dirhamnolipid (rhlC) were detected. Optimization of different cultural conditions (carbon source, carbon concentration, nitrogen source, nitrogen concentration, pH, incubation time, and inoculum concentration) were performed to achieve maximum production of biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was estimated in terms of oil spreading test, emulsification index, emulsification activity and biomass as 15 cm, 60 %, 1.831 ± 0.025 and 2.851 ± 0.043 g/l respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the maximum rhamnolipid production (5.42 ± 0.475 g/l) happened using olive oil at a concentration of 2% as carbon source, 2 g/l of urea as nitrogen source, inoculum size of 3 %, pH: 7, and 6 days incubation period at 30°C. The analysis of the extracted biosurfactant by TLC, FTIR spectra and GC-MS analysis confirmed that the biosurfactant nature was rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid could decrease the surface tension of water to 28.49 mN/m and exhibited good stabilities at high temperatures (up to autoclaving at 121°C), salinities (up to 10 % NaCl), and pH values (up to pH: 10 except 4 and 2 pH).

Keywords: Rhamnolipid, Pseudomnas aeruginosa, enhance production, rhlB, rhlC

Citation: Alyousif NA, Al-Tamimi WH, Al-Luaibi YYY. Screening, enhance production and characterization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4377-91.

Molecular detection of staphopain genes (A&B) from staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin lesions
Ali Rahman Hussein, Mohammed Sabri Abdulrazzaq, Wisam Ali Ameen

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Abstract

In this study, A total of 100 clinical swabs obtained from patients with skin lesion and also from healthy individuals from aneroid extend from September to December 2019.
Only 20 isolates were identified and diagnosed by using chemical and cultural features as staphylococcus aureus where 13 isolates obtained from patients and 7 isolates from healthy skin. Molecular study by using PCR was done to show the presence of positive genes, ScpA, SspB, which encodes for staphopain A and staphopain B respectively. It was found that 13 isolates of S aureus (65%) give positive results for the existence of ScpA gene which encodes staphopain A whereas 7 isolates (35%) are free from this gene. Besides, 10 isolates of S. aureus (50%) gave positive results for SspB gene which encodes staphopain B.
All the 10 isolates containing SspB gene have the ScpA gene at the same times. Moreover, two genes associated with skin disease are also investigated; these genes are edin-B gene and etd gene. PCR technique by using specific primers for both genes found that only 10 isolates (50%) possessed edin-B gene whereas 15 isolates of S.aureus (75%) had etd gene.

Keywords: Staphopain, Staphylococcus. aureus, Skin infections, Extracellular matrix

Citation: Hussein AR, Abdulrazzaq MS, Ameen WA. Molecular detection of staphopain genes (A&B) from staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin lesions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4393-6.

The role of Moringa leaf extract to reduce the negative effect of some food additives on gene expression of CYP11A1 gene in male albino rats
Arjwan A Alsudani, Hussein A Alhamadawi

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the gene expression of the Cyp11A1 gene in male white rats treated with some food additives (Carmoisine, Sodium benzoate, Monosodium glutamate).The study included 40 male rats divided into eight groups and each group consist of 5 animals dosed for 60 days. The groups were divided as follows: Negative control group (C1) given drinking water only, Positive control group(C2) given Moringa leaf extract in dose(200mg/kg/B.W),The first treatment group (T1) given orally Carmoisine in the dose (250mg/kg/B.W),The second treatment group (T2) given orally monosodium glutamate in the dose (15mg/kg/B.W),The third group (T3) given orally Sodium benzoate in the dose (50mg/kg/B.W),The fourth group (T4) given orally Carmoisine in the dose(250mg/kg/B.W) then given Moringa leaf extract in the dose(200mg/kg/B.W) Concurrently, The fifth group (T5) given orally monosodium glutamate in the dose (15mg/kg/B.W) then given Moringa leaf extract in the dose(200mg/kg/B.W) Concurrently, and The sixth group (T6) given orally Sodium benzoate in the dose (50mg/kg/B.W) then given Moringa leaf extract in the dose(200mg/kg/B.W) Concurrently. The results showed a significant decrease (P <0.05) in the level of gene expression of the CYP11A1 gene in animal groups (T1, T2, T3) which were given food additives (Carmoisine, Monosodium Glutamate, Sodium Benzoate) compared with the negative and positive control groups. No significant differences between the three groups mentioned. As for the groups (T4, T5, T6), no significant differences appeared between the mentioned groups, but showed a significant increase (P <0.05) compared to the groups (T1, T2, T3), and no significant differences appeared compared to the negative control group (C1), but showed significant differences compared to the positive control group (C2). The positive control group (C2), which included animals that were given Moringa leaf extract, showed significant differences compared to the negative control group (C1).From the current study, we conclude that the Moringa leaf extract plays an important positive role in reducing the harmful effects of some food additives.

Keywords: Moringa, gene expression, Food additives, CYP11A1 gene

Citation: Alsudani AA, Alhamadawi HA. The role of Moringa leaf extract to reduce the negative effect of some food additives on gene expression of CYP11A1 gene in male albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4397-403.

Histological healing effect of olive oil on wounds contaminated with Acinetobacter baumannii
Asmaa Mohammed Mekkey

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Abstract

This research dealing with the restoration homes of olive oil on contaminated wounds in mice, with 3 sets. Group I of Con-ve represented (healthy non injured mice), group II (represented the olive oil-treated injured mice) and group III of Con+ve (injured mice without treatment). The therapeutic method turned into the way of collagen fibers occurrence from the granulation tissue and regenerated the epithelial tissue of the epidermis reformation. The outcomes confirmed that the mice exposed to olive oil had a shorter restoration time as confronted to control. Since pores and skin burn wound are experienced in surgical operation and outcomes showed that the olive oil accelerates the recuperation procedure of wounds, this makes the premises for meaningful research on recovery defected pores and skin as part of the wound-recovery method.

Keywords: histological healing, olive oil, wounds contaminated, Acinetobacter baumannii

Citation: Mekkey AM. Histological healing effect of olive oil on wounds contaminated with Acinetobacter baumannii. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4405-8.

Pollution treatments of Tigris River through the chemical and physical characterization in Waset Governorate
Riedh Abass Abdul-Jabbar

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Abstract

Four stations at twelve sites were selected on Tigris river from Aziziah to the center of Kut city, for a distance more than 90 km. The sites were in a cross -section from both river sides and in the middle. The physical and chemical characterization were studied over the period from June 20l6 to May 2017. Air and water temperatures were varied (11-49) oC and (12-34) oC respectively. Salinity values were (0.410 -0.726) PPT. pH values, conductivity, total dissolved salts and Sulphate were (6.7-8.3), (670 - 1170), (330 -590) and (116.5-242) respectively. Water turbidity was (5.12) and (53) NTU at stations 2 and 1 respectively. Dissolved Oxygen values were low during Summer and high for the other months of the year. BOD values were high during summer.
Total hardness was (650-1190) mg/L. Nutritive values of phosphate was low in March for all stations, while values of Nitrite and Silica were low in June compared with other months. Total alkalinity and chloride were (l14-162) and (74.5-144.9) mg/L respectively.
Results discussion based on the changes of the four stations and the effect of the river sites on the river water. The stations represent the city centres were the river pass through, depending on the population nature and agricultural area and their effect on the water quality and usages.

Keywords: Tigris river, physical and chemical characterization, population nature effect

Citation: Abdul-Jabbar RA. Pollution treatments of Tigris River through the chemical and physical characterization in Waset Governorate. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4409-14.

Application of geographically weighted regression to assess risk factors for water pollution related human diseases
R. Sasikumar, S. Raguraman

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Abstract

Water is essential for survival. Human health may be affected directly or indirectly by the ingestion of contaminated water and by the use of polluted water for purposes of personal hygiene. The water related diseases data and water pollution data were analysed with ordinary linear regression and geographically weighted regression by using R software. The results of the analysis show that geographically weighted regression model can be used to geographically differentiate the relationships of water related diseases with water pollutants. This paper studied the factors affecting human health due to drinking water quality in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu.

Keywords: water pollution, waterborne diseases, water related diseases, ordinary linear regression, geographically weighted regression

Citation: Sasikumar R, Raguraman S. Application of geographically weighted regression to assess risk factors for water pollution related human diseases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4415-20.

Geographical analysis for the chemical characteristics of water and their influences on human health Al Kufa City
Muthanna F Ali, Aqeel Hasan Yasir Alnajim, Dheyaa Baheej AL-bairmani, Alyaa Hussein Salman

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Abstract

The chemical characteristics of water differ according it place and time in the area of study. Its influences also differ according to the different concentration of chemicals in the water. This paper searches the geographical analysis of the chemical characteristics for some samples of water of the Euphrates River at Kufa city; those samples of water were compared with samples from the water of the drinking tap water and the packed water at AL Kufa City. Also eight samples of mineral water were taken from the markets there in Kufa. After analyzing all the samples at the labs, the research presented the influence of the chemicals in these samples of water on the health of people and the diseases that people might get because of the polluted water. The statics of the study state a relation between the concentration of chemicals in the water and the diseases among the people in the area of the study (0.6) that is any increase of the concentration of the chemicals in the water leads to the increase of diseases among people there. The study involves the following topics: 
A- The theoretical background of the research and the basic elements of the research such as the problem, hypothesis, aims of the study and its limits.
B- Analyzing and deciding the chemical characteristics of water at the area of the study. 
C- Identifying the health influences of the water in Al Kufa City.

Keywords: water, influences, Kufa, health

Citation: Ali MF, Alnajim AHY, AL-bairmani DB, Salman AH. Geographical analysis for the chemical characteristics of water and their influences on human health Al Kufa City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4421-7.

Alteration of microbial exposure in vitro might aid in child’s relief: docking of isolated oral lactobacillus fermentum with mouthwash as a potential probiotic for children oral health
Asal Aziz Tawfeeq, Ulkir Abdulbaqi Abbas

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Abstract

This research was conducted to investigate the potential of using probiotic- experimental based mouthwash on the oral health of canker sores and thrush patients. In accordance, a total of forty children in the age range of one month to ten years old from both sexes were screened orally for lactobacillus isolation during 2019, where a few novel lactobacilli cultures were obtained grown in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) medium. Then after, single lines of lactobacilli cultures were characterized morphologically and biochemically to reveal the isolation of three novel strains of Lactobacillus fermentum with circular, white, glistering, convex colonies. Besides, the Gram staining had indicated, rod-shaped, short, and positive in Gram reaction staining. Besides, the biochemical tests result of the analytical profile index system (API 50 CHL) and Vitek 2 compact had revealed that all the isolates belonged to Lactobacillus fermentum, according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Moreover, the genotypic identification of the isolated strains unveiled the detection of the 1500 bp gene sequence of 16S rRNA for further confirmation. On the other hand, the probiotic activity of the isolated strains were demarcated according to the attributes of the absence of erythrocyte lysis of human and sheep blood in either environment, tolerance to bile salts, growth in different physiological conditions and their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. Furthermore, the potential probiotic activity of the isolated strains was tested for their possible restorative effect combined in probiotic- experimental based mouthwash on the oral health of patients with a canker sore and thrush. Despite the short period for which the patients used the probiotics mouthwash, substantial improvement in the oral and gingival health of patients was observed in the study.

Keywords: Lactobacillus fermentum, children, oral health, RT-PCR, probiotic

Citation: Tawfeeq AA, Abbas UA. Alteration of microbial exposure in vitro might aid in child’s relief: docking of isolated oral lactobacillus fermentum with mouthwash as a potential probiotic for children oral health. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4429-34.

Physiological dysfunctions in rats resulted from paroxetine
Wissam Sajid Hashim, Ihab Abbas Taher, Sarah Aboodi Muhammad Ali

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of performing this study was to reveal the anticipated effects of paroxetine on rats’ sperm parameters.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult male rats of 200-225 grams weight were adopted. Rats were randomly allocated into three groups; Control, Paroxetine 40mg, and Paroxetine 80mg. The experiment period was one month. The control group rats were dosed with distilled water. Paroxetine 40mg were dosed with 40 mg paroxetine hydrochloride and the Paroxetine 80mg group were dosed with 80 mg paroxetine hydrochloride. All groups were dosed orally and daily for one month.
Results: The results revealed that paroxetine causes significant decrease in sperm count and significant increase in dead and abnormal sperms when it was offered to rats as 40 mg/kg and it causes more significant bad effects when it was offered as 80 mg/ kg comparing among the treatment groups and with the control at (P≤0.05).
Conclusions: Paroxetine does effect rats’ sperm count and sperm availability and morphology.

Keywords: paroxetine, SSRIs, sperm, rat

Citation: Hashim WS, Taher IA, Muhammad Ali SA. Physiological dysfunctions in rats resulted from paroxetine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4435-8.

Efficacy of plant-soil exposure to electric current against Agrotis ipsilon, Bemisia tabaci and Meloidogyne sp
Asmaa Mansour Al-Hakeem, Mohammed Yousuf S.Ghani, Nabil Mustafa AlMallah

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Abstract

A series of experiments were conducted during the years 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the effect of exposing plant soil to electric current for different periods 2 and 5 min on the black cutworm larvae on tomato, 4 and 8 min on whitefly nymphs on cucumbers and for 5, 10 and 15 min against the second stage juvenile J2 of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. on olive trees. Normal electric current 220V was used directly after irrigation with or without nitrogen fertilization in the case of tomato and cucumber. The results showed that the electric current regardless of the exposure period was highly effective and led to a significant (P≤0.05 ) increase in mortality of black cutworm larvae of tomato and white-fly nymphs. The highest numbers of dead larvae were in the fertilization treatment and exposure period of 5 min. No live larvae were recorded in this treatment, which did not differ from the 2 min exposure, but did significantly differ from the control (not exposed to electric current). As for whitefly on cucumber, the highest mean of dead nymphs (48,00 nymphs/leaf) and the lowest number of live ones (13,66) were in the fertilization treatment and 8min exposure to electric current, which differed significantly (P≤0.05 ) from all the other treatments. The same treatment resulted in the highest value of dry shoot weight and total leaf area of ​​the cucumber plant compared to other treatments. The results of the laboratory experiment showed that incubation of RKN eggs and J2s in electrified water led to stopping egg hatching and to the death of most J2s for all periods of exposure (5, 10 or 15 min) compared to the high rate of hatching and vitality of most J2s in untreated water. Similarly, the treatment of olive trees with electric current resulted in a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in some RKN live males and J2s/100 g soil and a significant increase in the number of dead individuals. Whereas, the highest numbers of active RKN J2s and males and lowest numbers of dead individuals were recorded in the control treatment where the soil of the olive tree was not treated with electrical current.

Keywords: Electrical Shock, black cutworm, whitefly, RKN

Citation: Al-Hakeem AM, S.Ghani MY, AlMallah NM. Efficacy of plant-soil exposure to electric current against Agrotis ipsilon, Bemisia tabaci and Meloidogyne sp. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4439-44.

Histopathological effects of dandelion extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected in male western Rats
Bushra H. Fares, Hameed A. Al-tememy, Eman H. Yousif, Mohammed M. Dakheel

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Abstract

Keywords:

Citation: Fares BH, Al-tememy HA, Yousif EH, Dakheel MM. Histopathological effects of dandelion extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected in male western Rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4445-0.

Improve the vegetative growth and mineral content of grapefruit seedlings by adding some bio and organic fertilizers
Ayad H. E. Alalaf, Ayad T. Shayal Alalam, Waleed M.E. Fekry

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Abstract

The expansion of the use of safe alternatives such as bio-fertilizers and organic fertilizer programs in fruit seedlings has become part of a system known as clean cultivation because of its many advantages that contribute to improving growth, productivity, quality and production of a safe crop as well as preserving the environment by reducing or avoiding the use of chemical fertilizers, Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of adding biological fertilizer (Gorabac G) in three concentrations (5, 10 and 15 grams. Seedlings-1), liquid organic fertilizer (Compo) in three concentrations (4, 6 and 8 ml-1) and organic fertilizer (Rice residues (in three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg. Seedlings-1) in addition to the comparison treatment (without adding any type of fertilizer) in improving the vegetative growth and mineral content of grapefruit seedlings grafted on Sour orange, he biological fertilizer (Gorabac G) used in the study and in particular the concentration was 15 grams. Seedlings-1 had a significant effect in obtaining the highest values for most of the studied traits, as this treatment was significantly superior to the comparison treatment with the traits (leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins in addition to the increase in the height and diameter of seedlings), so within similar circumstances the study recommends using This concentration of this vital fertilizer is to get strong, well-growing seedlings.

Keywords: grapefruit, seedlings, bio, organic, fertilizers, NPK

Citation: Alalaf AHE, Alalam ATS, Fekry WM. Improve the vegetative growth and mineral content of grapefruit seedlings by adding some bio and organic fertilizers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4451-6.

Hatching of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) eggs at several of texture and moisture levels in semi-field laboratory
Nikolas Nik, Edhi Martono, Nugroho S. Putra, Suputa

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Abstract

Migration locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) or Kembara (Indonesian) grasshopperis one of the herbivorous insects that lay eggs on the ground. The spawning process requires the right place, humidity, and type of soil. Moist soil and suitable soil texture can accelerate the hatching of grasshoppers into nymphs. This study aims to analyze the effect of texture and soil moisture level on hatching eggs of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.).This research was carried out in a semi-field laboratory in Kefamenanu, North Central Timor Regency. The study was conducted for three months, from October to December 2018. The research method used completely randomized designs and data analysis using the Tukey’s HSD (honestly significant difference) 5% test. The results showed the texture of sandy clay loam with a humidity level of 60% (24.67 days) and 80% (22.33 days) can shorten the time of hatching eggs, and at 40% humidity on the texture of the clay lasts longer for 32.33 days.

Keywords: egg, kembara grasshoppers, hatching, Locusta migratoria, soil moisture

Citation: Nik N, Martono E, Putra NS, Suputa. Hatching of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria, L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) eggs at several of texture and moisture levels in semi-field laboratory. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4457-65.

The impact of NaCl on different genotypes of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mil) on germination, some physiology characteristics and gene expression
Ruba Muhammad Soud AL-Issa, Nidal Odat, Issam Qrunfleh, Maan Hasan, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha

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Abstract

Four common landraces of tomato were investigated for the response in some physiological parameter and variation in gene expression. The results of the present study found that salinity stress is negatively affect germination percentage and ranged from 60% to 80% and the effect of salinity levels was found to be related to the exposure time to salinity treatment and the genotypic of tomato landraces. similar negative effect of salinity was reported the length of radical length. The amount of chlorophyll was highly influenced by salinity and was ranged between about 26 to 40 and was found to be largely dependent on genotypic characteristics of tomato landraces and the time of exposure to salinity. Moreover, it was found that the increase in salinity level significantly impacted the stomatal conductance of varied genotype of tomatos. Additionally, germination rate and germination rate were both affected by salinity with varied degrees. Based on the results (chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and germination ability) presented in this study it was found that the landrace (111) and landrace (975) were both salt tolerant and the landrace of Quaresma (111) is highly sensitive to salinity.

Keywords: salinity, Jordan, tomato, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, germination

Citation: AL-Issa RMS, Odat N, Qrunfleh I, Hasan M, Al-Tawaha AR. The impact of NaCl on different genotypes of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mil) on germination, some physiology characteristics and gene expression. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4467-0.

Extraction of (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) of the fruit of plant Capparis spinosa and study effect on breast cancer cells
Amjed Abbawe Salih, Hussein Abood Idham, Nuhad Khaleel Ismaeel

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Abstract

Caper plant (Cappers Spinoza) separate have been related with diverse biological activities inclusive anti-cancer properties, In this research, researcher used as a treatment for cancer we observe measurements of significant decrease in the level of breast cancer cells at ≥ 0.05,and identify the compound extract (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) by spectrum methods (IR,1H.nmr and 13C.nmr) spectroscopy.

Keywords: Caper (Cappers Spinoza), pyran derivatives, anti-cancer activity

Citation: Salih AA, Idham HA, Ismaeel NK. Extraction of (3-Methyl-2-buten-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside) of the fruit of plant Capparis spinosa and study effect on breast cancer cells. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4471-4.

Forecasting of the risks in the agro-industrial complex system
Alexander Sukhodolov, Alla Rasputina

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Abstract

The agro-industrial complex system refers to complex heterogeneous systems often exposed to external and internal risks of various nature: environmental, economic, technical, technological, social and financial. The forecasting of riskogenic events and risk management in the agro-industrial complex system is characterized by imperfection of methodological and tool support. The methods of expert assessment and cognitive modeling are not used enough in the process of risk forecasting. There is a significant number of studies on risk forecasting in the agro-industrial complex, but in general, the level of coverage of risks in the system is insufficient. The algorithms for research and forecasting of risks and risk management in the agro-industrial complex system are presented in our work. Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of expert assessment methods, cognitive modeling, generation of scenarios for riskogenic situations based on a systemic analysis of potential situations are considered in risk forecasting. The algorithms we propose can be successfully applied in the context of digitalization of the agro-industrial complex for planning, monitoring and development of innovations in the technical, socio-economic and eco-economic subsystems of the agro-industrial complex.

Keywords: risk forecasting, systemic analysis, expert assessment method, cognitive modeling, development of scenarios, examination of risk situations, agro-industrial complex system

Citation: Sukhodolov A, Rasputina A. Forecasting of the risks in the agro-industrial complex system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4475-80.

Spectral characterization, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic properties of methanol and ethanol stem extracts of Cissus araloides hook
Helen Ejiro Kadiri, Ebele Martina Ilondu

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Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the phytocomponents, functional groups, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic properties of methanol and ethanol stem extracts of Cissus araloides.
Method: The phytocomponents’ analyses of the extracts were determined using a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) while functional groups were obtained using Fourier Transform Infra-red spectrometer (FT-IR). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), peroxidase activity, and 2, 2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Anti-genotoxicity activity of the extracts was carried out using Allium cepa injected with 20µ Lethidium bromide solution.
Results: The results indicated the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and carbohydrate in the methanol and ethanol stem extracts of C. araloides 25 compounds were detected from methanol extract. The functional -OH and C=C groups revealed by FTIR was validated by GC-MS analysis to indicate significant amounts of Benzoic acid-2,6-dihydroxy-, Chenodiol, Estriol, Ginkgolide A, Oxazepam, PGF2α and Resorcinol-2-acetate, that is typical of polyphenolic compounds. The methanol extract showed peroxidase activity (IC50 = 490.07μg/ml), ABTS (IC50 = 89.19 μg/ml) and FRAP (IC50 = 441.43μg/ml). Significant decrease (p<0.5 was indicated in fragmented DNA level of Allium cepa roots growth in ethidium bromide treated with C. araloides stem extracts when compared with ethidium bromide control. However, fragmented DNA was lower in A. cepa roots growth in methanol extract when compared with ethanol extract. Hence, extracts of C.araloides stem can be viewed as a new perspective in developing antioxidant agent.
Conclusion: Therefore it is recommended that C. araloides be utilized in natural products to strengthen our health.

Keywords: anti-genotoxicity, antioxidant, Cissus araloides

Citation: Kadiri HE, Ilondu EM. Spectral characterization, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic properties of methanol and ethanol stem extracts of Cissus araloides hook. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4481-91.

Metformin effects on vaspin levels and other parameters in Iraqi polycystic ovarian women
Manal Abdulmunem Ibarhim, Mutaz S. Ahmeid

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Abstract

Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome showed hormonal imbalance and hyperandrogenemia because of higher secretion of androgen from theca cells of ovaries and adrenal gland due to excess LH or hyperinsulinemia. Obesity and increase fat mass aid the pathophysiology of PCOS, therefore, Different studies try to find the relationship of PCOS with Vaspin protein, which expressed in visceral adipose tissue resulting in increased insulin sensitivity by different mechanisms. This study is designed to show the effect of metformin treatment on Vaspin levels in newly diagnosed PCOS patients treated by this drug and the association of PCOS hormonal changes with Vaspin level
Forty three patients of newly diagnosed PCOS patients are included in the study with no abnormal thyroid or adrenal function, they do not use oral contraceptive or other treatment to treat their PCOS before the study, they agree to start metformin 850 mg twice daily for three months and provide fasting blood sample with measuring BMI, at the second day of menstruation before starting treatment and after completing three months of treatment. FSH, LH, SHBG, total testosterone, insulin, glucose, estradiol are determined by cobas technique, while Vaspin and free testosterone are determined by ELISA technique. Homeostatic model assessment is used to measure insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is determined according to the following formula: HOMA-IR=(Fasting Insulin multiplied by Fasting glucose)divided by 22.5 
It was found that there were no significant changes in BMI, FSH,LH, SHBG, total testosterone, estradiol and vaspin after end of treatment for all patients, but free testosterone and HOMA-IR showed significant decrease at p-value 0.02 and 0.03 respectively. 
The study reveals that metformin can induce decrease in free testosterone and insulin resistance but cannot produce sever weight loss or changes in hormones regulating menstrual cycle, SHBG or Vaspin. The study suggested that there are different factors can affect Vaspin level in PCOS patients other than insulin resistance as its level failed to decrease after intake of insulin sensitizing drug, metformin.

Keywords: PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome, FSH, follicle stimulating hormone, LH, luteinizing hormone, SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin, HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Citation: Ibarhim MA, Ahmeid MS. Metformin effects on vaspin levels and other parameters in Iraqi polycystic ovarian women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4493-501.

Association between caries experience and Body Mass Index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan
Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Anis Amira Adon, Amyrah Nur Fariesya Husain Ahmad, Susi Sukmasari, Yunita Dewi Ardini

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Abstract

Introduction: Dental caries and obesity are significant and common oral health and general health problems faced by children. Both caries and obesity are reported to share common risk factors. There are conflicting results in the literatures regarding the relationship between dental caries and childhood body mass index particularly among preschool children. Thus, this research aims to measure the prevalence of dental caries and determine the relationship between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in kindergartens in Kuantan using the convenience sampling method. A total of 180 participants were enrolled in this study with 60 participants each for every group. The participants were classified into underweight, normal and overweight based on their BMI. Their caries index was recorded using WHO guidelines. For BMI, participant’s weight and height were recorded and categorized by using the BMI Calculator for Child and Teen (CDC). Result: Pertaining to dental caries, 73.3% of the participants had dental caries. The overweight group recorded the highest caries index and the highest percentage of visible plaque, but the results were not significant. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there is no association between dental caries and body mass index among preschool children in Kuantan.

Keywords: dental caries, body mass index, obesity, preschool children

Citation: Ismail AF, Adon AA, Ahmad ANFH, Sukmasari S, Ardini YD. Association between caries experience and Body Mass Index (BMI) among preschool children in Kuantan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4503-6.

The relationship of zinc and magnesium in different male infertility cases
Mustafa F. Hasan, Qussay Noori Raddam

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Abstract

The present study is designed to investigate some variables in some types of trace elements such as zinc and magnesium in some different cases of infertility and lack of fertility in men in the northern governorates of Iraq. The study included (75) samples with ages ranging between (25-50) years, of which (60) samples suffered from infertility and lack of fertility, depending on the medical diagnosis made by infertility specialist consultants in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk Governorate. The samples were distributed into five groups, each group included (15) sample agencies: the Azoospermia group), the Teratozospermia group, the Oligozoospermia group, the Asthenozoospermia group and the fifth group, which included (15) able healthy people On procreation, which is considered a control group. The study included measuring some biochemical variables for the study samples represented by measuring the level of zinc and magnesium in the blood serum.
The results indicated a significant decrease in the levels of trace elements zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in the experimental groups: Azoospermia group, Teratozospermia group, Oligozoospermia group, Asthenozoospermia group compared to Control group.

Keywords: zinc, magnesium, male infertility, fertility, biochemical

Citation: Hasan MF, Raddam QN. The relationship of zinc and magnesium in different male infertility cases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4507-12.

Investigation on abortion: legal and ethical argumentations
Rasha Abu-Baker, Majd T. Mrayyan

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Abstract

Abortion is a sensitive and contentious issue with legal and ethical dimensions. It is also a public health concern around the world, raises questions about basic beliefs regarding life and death, the sanctity of life, the beginning of life, and women’s rights. Legally, abortion is illegal in some countries such as Jordan, Oman, Qatar, Senegal, and the Philippines, and legal in other countries such as Great Britain, Greece, Poland, Israel, and Turkey. Ethically, opponents considered abortion as equivalent to murder and that such killing of fetuses deprived them of future value, and no matter how much the women may suffer, women can’t be allowed to kill their fetuses. Whereas proponents considered abortion as morally justified and that pregnant women have the fundamental right to terminate their pregnancies. The current authors are against abortion to preserve the dignity and respect for the fetus, and that killing or terminating human life is morally wrong. The purpose of this paper was to present arguments on abortion from the legal and ethical views of opponents and proponents. Abortion has been debated for many years, bringing up a lot of controversy and opinions for both with and against its practice. The purpose of this paper was to present arguments of both opponents and proponents about abortion, from both the legal and ethical perspectives. In result, abortion is legal only in special cases such as preserving women’s physical and mental health, saving the mother’s life, and in cases of rape and incest. “Women have the right to control their bodies” is a popular ethical argument; therefore, they have the right to undergo abortions for any reason they want.

Keywords: abortion, ethical, opponents, proponents, argumentations

Citation: Abu-Baker R, Mrayyan MT. Investigation on abortion: legal and ethical argumentations. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4513-7.

Use of exoskeleton in rehabilitation of patients with orthopedic traumas
Elena V. Bystritskaya, Gerold L. Drandrov, Irina V. Volkova, Vladimir A. Kuznetsov, Oleg A. Musin, Elena L. Grigoryev, Maria V. Lebedkina

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Abstract

Purpose: This article discusses the opportunities of using exoskeleton by patients with orthopedic traumas who are engaged in various types of activity. The article’s aim is to study the effectiveness of exoskeleton in process of rehabilitation the motor functions of patients with orthopedic traumas. Methodology: Research methods - analysis and synthesis of scientific and methodological literature on the possibilities of using exoskeleton in rehabilitation practice, pedagogical testing to determine biomechanical criteria for evaluating walking disorders, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methodology using Statistic V. 6.0 (“Statsoft”). Results: The article presents the study results with regards to effectiveness of exoskeleton in the process of rehabilitation of patients with orthopedic traumas. The existing classification of exoskeletons in medical practice was also studied and the features of patients with orthopedic traumas were analyzed. The results proving the effectiveness of exoskeleton application in rehabilitation practice, as well as in the process of recovery of patients with orthopedic traumas are presented and discussed. Applications: The article will be useful to doctors and rehabilitators who work with patients having orthopedic traumas, assistants who help to carry out this activity and instructors of adaptive physical education, where there is a similar specificity of activity. Novelty/Originality: the novelty of the author’s study is that not much has been investigated so far in the field of patient rehabilitation with an exoskeleton, and the results of such study can serve as a basic foundation of knowledge for conducting such activities.

Keywords: exoskeleton, rehabilitation, orthopedic trauma, motor functions, biomechanical component of movement

Citation: Bystritskaya EV, Drandrov GL, Volkova IV, Kuznetsov VA, Musin OA, Grigoryev EL, et al. Use of exoskeleton in rehabilitation of patients with orthopedic traumas. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4519-25.

Snakehead fish extract (Channa striata): A review of pharmacological activity
Andi Suhendi, Hesti Pawarti, Abdul Rohman, Djoko Wahyono, Arief Nurrochmad

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Abstract

Snakehead fish extract contains nutrients and minerals with pharmacological activities that support the therapeutic handling of several diseases. Albumin is the major nutrient content in snakehead fish extract. In addition, snakehead fish extract also contains amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. From 21 references, it was found that the active compounds of snakehead fish extract have various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, complementary therapy of anti-tuberculosis (supportive therapy), anti-inflammation, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive. Besides, various processing techniques and types of solvents have also become one of the determinants for the quality of snakehead fish extract produced. Most of the literature reported that the active compound responsible for the pharmacological activities of snakehead fish extract is albumin. This review aims to provide a summary of the latest research regarding the pharmacological activities of snakehead fish extract. In this review, the data presented were obtained from the latest online literature between 2015 to 2020 including journals and scientific articles, both national and international publications consisted of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments.

Keywords: snakehead fish extract, activity, pharmacology

Citation: Suhendi A, Pawarti H, Rohman A, Wahyono D, Nurrochmad A. Snakehead fish extract (Channa striata): A review of pharmacological activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4527-33.

Usage of health-saving technologies in the context of distance learning in physical education lessons
Yuri S. Zhemchug, Maria V. Lebedkina, Oleg A. Musin, Nikolay A. Borisov, Evgeniy G. Anikin, Vasiliy V. Sokolov, Igor Y. Gryaznov

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Abstract

Purpose: This article discusses the problem of using health-saving technologies in the context of distance learning, with limited instrumental capabilities. The aim is to develop health-saving technologies for middle-grade students, to maintain their level of health, prevent physical inactivity, as well as maintain and improve physical development. Methodology: The leading research approaches to the usage of health-saving technologies are: structural-analytical, personality-oriented and cultural approaches. Research methods are scientific and methodical literature analysis and summarizing, questionnaires, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The article presents the results of applying the developed system of health-saving technologies aimed at secondary school students. The features of the usage of the health preservation system in the conditions of distance learning were also revealed. The results are presented and discussed, proving the effectiveness of the use of health-saving technologies for schoolchildren in the context of distance learning. Applications: The article will be useful for PE teachers during the period when a class or school is closed for quarantine, or when switching to a distance learning format. The students whose goal is to prevent hypodynamia, improve their general physical condition and strengthen immunity. The developed system of health preservation will also be useful in the system of additional professional education for fitness instructors and coaches. Novelty/Originality: The novelty of the author’s research lies in the usage of the health preservation system in the conditions of distance learning, where students do not have a sufficient amount of equipment and space to conduct a full-fledged lesson in physical culture. In the development of a health care system, covering three components of health: physical, mental and social.

Keywords: distance learning format, middle-grade students, health preservation system, health components, prevention of physical inactivity

Citation: Zhemchug YS, Lebedkina MV, Musin OA, Borisov NA, Anikin EG, Sokolov VV, et al. Usage of health-saving technologies in the context of distance learning in physical education lessons. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4535-41.

Ecological indices on Lichen biodiversity in three main different areas (the cities, countrysides and the forests) of Jogjakarta and Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia
Efri Roziaty, Sutarno, Suntoro Suntoro, Sugiyarto

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Abstract

Lichen or commonly termed as is a symbiotic association organism between algae and fungus in nature. It is a non vascular plants. Algae comes from the Cyanobacteria while the fungus derived from Ascomycetes. Fungus needs carbon as food sources and the algae provides from photosynthetic process. Lichen is distributed in terrestrial from tropical to polar habitats. Lichen varies in terms of body size and length. Many investigation had been done to test the lichen as bio indicators. This research aimed to determine the diversity and abundance of lichen Surakarta and Jogjakarta, two middle cities in central Java, Indonesia. The research conducted in September 2018 to May 2019. It was using exploration method, by purposive sampling technique to determine the research sites and sampling locations. A total of 303 lichen individuals were taken from as many as 180 different types of host trees was carried out in three different regions. The research location as parameters was using three different location of lichen habitat, they were in the city, countryside and forest in Surakarta and Jogjakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. The city was assumed had high air pollution than countryside, while the forest was the lowest air pollution. As many as 28 species of lichen were obtained from the three locations. Parmeliaceae dominated the lichen population. The highest Shannon Winner diversity index of lichen that used was 0.09 in Surakarta than Jogjakarta was 2.7. The highest abundance value of lichen species was 0.73 in Jogjakarta, while Surakarta was 0.68. The abundance values of lichen was representation of lichen Parmeliaceae in Jogjakarta was more abundance than Surakarta.

Keywords: lichen, Parmeliace, biodiversity, bioindicator, abundance

Citation: Roziaty E, Sutarno, Suntoro S, Sugiyarto. Ecological indices on Lichen biodiversity in three main different areas (the cities, countrysides and the forests) of Jogjakarta and Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4543-50.

The productivity of different exterior - constitutional types of sheep of the saryarka breed (intra-breed zhanaarka type)
Toleukhan Sadykulov, Sholpan Adylkanova, Azamat Koyshibayev, Bibigul Sansyzbayeva

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Abstract

The study of the biological and economic characteristics of various sheep breeds shows that within each of them there are animals that are heterogeneous in productivity, morphological and physiological characteristics, and constitute intra-breed types. The presence within the breed of several different constitutional-productive types, each of which has a number of valuable features, enriches the breed as a whole, while maintaining valuable biological properties for the entire breed.
The aim of this work is to identify intra-breed exterior–constitutional productive types of Saryarka sheep and study their productivity.
The article presents the results of studying the productivity of the Saryarka breed of sheep of various exterior-constitutional types.
It was found that broad-bodied rams exceeded narrow-bodied animals in live weight and wool shearing by 8.1 and 14.2%, and ewes by 8.8 and 19.0%, respectively.
Visual determination of the exterior-constitutional types of lambs makes it possible to predict the level of productivity of Zhanaarka sheep at an early age - directly when they are beaten off from their mothers, which in turn increases the accuracy of the assessment of animals by genotype. This is one of the simplest and most affordable phenotypic methods for selecting animals in a production environment. It allows to reduce the interval between the next selection in generations and to provide for the costs of raising different groups of young animals, considering their breeding and economic value.

Keywords: genotype, exterior, constitution, intra-breed type, phenotype, live weight, productivity, eurisomal, leptosomal type

Citation: Sadykulov T, Adylkanova S, Koyshibayev A, Sansyzbayeva B. The productivity of different exterior - constitutional types of sheep of the saryarka breed (intra-breed zhanaarka type). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4551-4.

Cost-benefit analysis of cocoa agroindustry micro, small and medium enterprises
Effendy, Max Nur Alam, Zainuddin, Made Antara, Muhardi, Ambo Abdul Kadir Pakanyamong

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Abstract

In operation, the cocoa agroindustry required capital, so it was necessary to calculate the optimal rate of return on cash money. This research aimed to measure the costs and benefits of cocoa agroindustry over a certain period of time. The net present value was used to measure the net benefit over time resulting from an investment. The results of the net present value analysis show that the cocoa agroindustry micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), were profitable. The cocoa agroindustry MSMEs were quite effective in facing the economic recession during the Covid-19 pandemic. If there was an increase in variable costs and credit interest, and there was no increase in yield, the increase in cash flow would be similarly smaller so that the NPV would also decrease. Cocoa agroindustry MSMEs produced NPV = 0 when the discount was 25.45%. The difference between the MSMEs credit interest of 6% and the break-even point discount of 25.45% was quite large. This suggested that the cocoa agroindustry MSMEs looked strong in terms of profitability.

Keywords: net present value, agroindustry, break-even point, profitability

Citation: Effendy, Alam MN, Zainuddin, Antara M, Muhardi, Pakanyamong AAK. Cost-benefit analysis of cocoa agroindustry micro, small and medium enterprises. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4555-8.

Yield and water use efficiency of potato cultivars in autumn and spring cultivations of moderate and cold regions
H. A. M. Shahr, B. Mirshekari, D. Hassanpanah, F. Farahvash, M. Yarnia

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Abstract

A two years study was carried out during 2017-18 to investigate the effect of planting date and sowing depth on some qualitative traits, yield and water consumption efficiency of potato cultivars in autumn and spring cultivations in Ardebil, IRAN, as split factorial based on RCBD with three replicates. The main plots were sowing dates (1st of November and December and 30th of April) and factorial combination of potato cultivars (Esprit, Marfona, Savalan and Agria) and tuber sowing depths (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) were considered as subplots. The results showed that iron content, tuber yield and water use efficiency affected by cropping date and nitrogen content, fat and fiber percentages and soluble sugars affected by sowing depths. Water consumption efficiency was higher by sowing Esprit cultivar in 1st of November and December at depths of 10, 15 and 25 cm.

Keywords: autumn cropping, potato, qualitative traits, water consumption efficiency

Citation: Shahr HAM, Mirshekari B, Hassanpanah D, Farahvash F, Yarnia M. Yield and water use efficiency of potato cultivars in autumn and spring cultivations of moderate and cold regions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4559-69.

Antioxidant properties flavonoids and phenolic content of grape seed extracts in Jordan
Sati Yassin Ahmed Al-Dalain

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Abstract

Background: Grape seeds extract (GSE) is one of recommended natural antioxidants that could be used in various food products. it is used in jordan as healthy food material recording about 10000 kg consumption per year. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to quantify the antioxidant compounds that found in grape seeds which extracted using organic solvents (acetone 60%, ethanol 60% and methanol 75%) comparing with their 100% extracts. Grape pomace was collected from Jordan market, washed and dried then seeds were removed and powdered into fine particles. Ten g were extracted either by 100% of suggested solvents or by their corresponded dilute concentrations. Results: Grape seeds contain 6.79% (moisture), 7.00% (protein), 9.80% (fat), 2.10 (ash), 42.33% (fibers) and 31.98% (calculated carbohydrates). Yield of grape seeds extract was significantly affected by type of solvent either diluted with water or not. Such yield ranged between 5.5 to 10.4% when 100% organic solvents was used, meanwhile the corresponding extraction yield ranged between 10.7 to 14.0 % when such organic solvents were diluted. It could be descending ordered the efficiency of solvents for yielding extract as: Acetone: water (60: 40), Ethanol: water (60: 40) and Methanol: water (75: 25).
A significant difference in total flavonoids content of grape seed extracts was detected owing to solvent type. Grape seeds treated by diluted methanol (75: 25) gave an extract possessed the highest total flavonoids content contrary to that of extracted by 100% acetone. It could be reported that diluting of organic solvents Acetone: water (60: 40), Ethanol: water (60: 40) and Methanol: water (75: 25) enhanced corresponding extraction yield of total flavonoids by 1.8, 1.5 and 1.1 times higher. Similar pattern that found earlier was also detected when the content of total phenolics was considered showing higher efficiency for extracting more phenolics by diluting methanol with 25% of water to be in the first order. In conclusion, higher efficiency of extracting flavonoids and phenolics from grape seeds was seen when using 75% methanol for extraction.

Keywords: grape seed extracts, antioxidant properties, flavonoids, phenolic content, ethanolic and methanolic extract

Citation: Al-Dalain SYA. Antioxidant properties flavonoids and phenolic content of grape seed extracts in Jordan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4571-4.

Estimation of some hematological parameters among cement factory workers in Kirkuk City
Najlaa Kadhim Ali, Iqbal Sameen Ali, Abbas Hayas Abdullah, Kasim Sakran Abass

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Abstract

Background: Cement contains different types of chemicals in addition to lime and silica, and these chemicals lead to various health complications, especially for the respiratory system and blood. The primary occupational hazards for cement workers are allergies and complications related to respiratory illnesses. The study was aimed to explore the effect of cement dust on hematological parameters in construction workers.
Method: The study was done among workers in cement factory in Kirkuk city from the period of10/3 till 30/4/2019and 100 volunteers was taken by special questionnaire sheet and full hematological examination was done to them through taken Erythrocytes: Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), White blood cell (WBC), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), Packed cell volume (PCV) Red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin, Lymphocytes, Granulocytes and Platelets.
Results: Most of the studied sample were exposed to cement dust with a p. value (0.777).
The most of studied sample show a normal percentage of PCV value (90.0%) with a p. value (0.001). On the other hand, Hb value show a normal limit (86.0%) among the exposed group in comparison to (63.0%) of hemoglobin level in non-exposed group with a p. value (0.008).
Conclusion: Reduced pack cell volume, red cell count, hemoglobin content and platelet count could indicate that cement dust has a harmful effect on the hematological system. An elevated total white blood cell count indicates a reaction to the irritating cement dust present in the lungs.

Keywords: hematological parameters, cement factory, estimation, Kirkuk city

Citation: Ali NK, Ali IS, Abdullah AH, Abass KS. Estimation of some hematological parameters among cement factory workers in Kirkuk City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4575-9.

Use of topical administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on equine cutaneous wound healing
Amir I. Towfik, Abbas Ali Hussein, Shaymaa K. N. Alzamili

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Abstract

The present study was conducted on 16 local Arabian mares divided randomly into 4 groups, four for each. The aim was to evaluate the use of topical administration of IL-1Ra on equine cutaneous wound healing. Autologous interlukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-Ra) were prepared. Under routine surgery complete square cutaneous wound 5x5mm2 were done in the back region of G1 and G3, and the neck region of G2 and G4. G2and G4 had no any treatment. The wounds of G1 and G2 treated topically with the extracted serum 1ml. daily for one week. By caliper the ribs of the square wounds were measured weekly for one month and recorded. Biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation at 1,2,3, and 4 weeks. The results proved the superiority potential effect of IL-1Ra on wound healing of G1 than G2.

Keywords: topical, administration, interleukin, receptor, antagonist, wound, healing

Citation: Towfik AI, Hussein AA, Alzamili SKN. Use of topical administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on equine cutaneous wound healing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4581-6.

Detection of parathyroid abnormalities by analysis of optical microscopic images
Salim J. Attia, Zainab Hamzah Baqi

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Abstract

The study considers the detection of benign and malignant cases of parathyroid tumors by some image analysis techniques. The using of image analysis is a promising approach for distinguishing abnormalities of tumors, but it is rare with parathyroid ones; so it is chosen here with some Euclidian geometric features as a contribution in this field. The Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of parathyroid tumors is reliably used to reflect the importance of cytology for the preoperative detection of parathyroid abnormalities and their lesions. Two hundred cells images were taken from normal and abnormal specimens, extracting geometric features like Perimeter, Area, Infill Coefficient, Circularity, Elongation and using Minimum Distance as decision making to distinguish of these images. The combination of geometrical features and the proposed detection algorithm –Minimum Distance - gave good results with an accuracy of 95%.

Keywords: image analysis, minimum distance, geometrical features, benign, malignant

Citation: Attia SJ, Baqi ZH. Detection of parathyroid abnormalities by analysis of optical microscopic images. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4587-9.

Assessment of marketable tuber yield stability of genotypes from breeding populations using AMMI and GGE bi-plot stability models in three region of Ardebil, Hamadan and Karaj in Iran
Mojtaba Ghasemi Fahim, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Davoud Hassanpanah, Ghafar Kiani

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Abstract

In order to evaluate the stability of potato tuber marketable using AMMI and GGE bi-plot models a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications in two years (2017-18) and three regions: Ardabil, Karaj and Hamadan. The results of combined analysis of variance showed that for the simple effects of region, year × genotype, the effect of location × year was significant at 1% probability level. Considering the significant effect of year-to-year interactions on genotype of consumer tuberculosis sustainability criteria using type 1 and 4 of stability determined. Based on parameters with the concept of stability dynamics, hybrids 6 and 12-Kaiser were selected as stable genotypes and hybrids 4 and 10 as unstable genotypes. Since the interaction between year and clones was significant, AMMI method was used to select stable genotypes. The results of AMMI analysis showed that E1 environment (Ardabil) genotypes 1, 4 and 8 as high yielding and stable, genotypes 3, 6, 12 and 13 as stable and low-yield, genotypes No. 2 and 5 as unstable and high-yielding, and genotypes, 7, 10 and 11 were identified as unstable and low product. The results of GGE Bi-plot method showed that the decomposition into first and second principal components was 52.44 and 21.86% explained the percentage change that indicates the relative validity of the GGE change Bi-plot. Based on the Biplot results of cultivars 1, 2, 4, 5 and 8 with mean values of 34.65, 32.42, 32.37 34.4 and 36.91 ton / ha had the highest marketable tuber yield, respectively. Genotypes 4 were the closest cultivar to the ideal genotype that had the highest marketable tuber yield and stability due to being close to the mean environment. Cultures No. 1, 2, 5 and 8 as desirable genotypes. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot and AMMI models were identified as a suitable method for simultaneous selection of marketable and stable tuber yield and were able to select genotype 4 as a stable cultivar with high marketable tuber yield.

Keywords: potato, consumer tuber yield, AMMI analysis, GGE bi-plot

Citation: Fahim MG, Kazemitabar SK, Hassanpanah D, Kiani G. Assessment of marketable tuber yield stability of genotypes from breeding populations using AMMI and GGE bi-plot stability models in three region of Ardebil, Hamadan and Karaj in Iran. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4591-8.

Social risk factors of incidence and disease course in women having breast cancer: review of studies
Diana A. Tsiring, Irina V. Ponomareva, Yana N. Pakhomova, Yuri O. Gladkov

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Abstract

Breast cancer is an oncological disease ranking the world's first according to prevalence. This oncological pathology leads to a lower quality of life in women, their work incapacity, disability, and death. Searching for risk factors has to be conducted in relation to both the incidence and the disease course of breast cancer, and risk models have to be verified for including them into breast cancer control programs. The methods of this study were theoretical review, analysis of literature, and methods for systemizing and summarizing the material. The presented review of studies of social risk factors of breast cancer occurrence demonstrates the prognostic incidence risk models currently available in medical sociology. As for the incidence of malignant neoplasms, individual social risk factors have been identified: place of residence, economic characteristics of the region of residence, education level, family status, etc. The significance of these factors for estimating the incidence risk of malignant neoplasms has been described, too. The obtained data on social risk factors of the disease incidence and course in female breast cancer patients serve as a basis for developing new predictive models of the risk of oncological diseases aimed at identifying the risk groups, early diagnosing of breast cancer, as well as including them into breast cancer control programs.

Keywords: oncological psychology, breast cancer, incidence risk factors, risk model, screening, social factors

Citation: Tsiring DA, Ponomareva IV, Pakhomova YN, Gladkov YO. Social risk factors of incidence and disease course in women having breast cancer: review of studies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4599-603.

Healthy lifestyle in students view: experience and maintaining problems
Alexey D. Chudnovskiy, Anna M. Yudina, Marina A. Gorshkova, Svetlana G. Kashina, Valery N. Buyanov, Mariya V. Minova, Olga V. Popova

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Abstract

In modern Russia, due to the ongoing social changes and varying living standards, the issues of preserving the society health, its various socio-demographic groups and, in particular, the new generation, are becoming increasingly relevant. The aim of the study is to study the young people perception of the features in the following a healthy lifestyle. Research methods: as a research method, we used the questionnaire method, which allows us most effectively to identify the specifics of perception and experience of maintaining a healthy lifestyle among young people. Research results: the article defines the idea of young people about health and ways to maintain it. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that for the first time the urban youth idea regarding their health and ways to maintain it was studied. It is shown that the formation of a lifestyle that promotes human health occurs at the following levels: social, infrastructural, and personal. It is determined what influences the formation of a healthy lifestyle, and what motivates young people to lead a healthy lifestyle. It is shown that the younger generation eventually comes to lead a healthy lifestyle; this is influenced by public opinion and different life situations. The ideas about the formation of the necessary conditions for maintaining an active healthy lifestyle or transition to such a lifestyle are considered. It is shown that in the view of young people to lead a healthy lifestyle, it is enough to eat a balanced and correct diet, not to have bad habits and actively engage in physical activity. Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in age psychology, educational psychology, valeology, medical psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords:

Citation: Chudnovskiy AD, Yudina AM, Gorshkova MA, Kashina SG, Buyanov VN, Minova MV, et al. Healthy lifestyle in students view: experience and maintaining problems. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4605-9.

The pattern and causes of permanent teeth extraction AL–Karkh Baghdad
Imad Salman Hammoodi AL-Rubaye, Mohammed Sedeeq Obaid AL-Banaa, Ghassan M. Tariq Ahmed

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Abstract

Abstract: To investigate the reason for tooth extraction and their correlation with age, gender and to determine the pattern of the teeth loss among pts undergo this study.
Materials and method: The study populations considered of 1610 permanent teeth were extracted in 779 males and 831 females. For each patient the age, the number of the tooth loss anatomically in the oral cavity, the cause, and gender, was recorded in his file. The files of patients in AL Mamoon dental center were recorded from the beginning of 2019 to the end of the year, and retrospectively were analyzed. The p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant and p= 0.000 considered highly significant.
Results: The major group of patients age was the group between 30-39 Ye of age N= 360 which comprises 22%. Caries related extraction N= 1141 which comprise 71.31. %, which includ the failure root canal treatment, retained root, and badly carious teeth. So it is the most common cause of tooth loss followed by periodontal diseases in 188,11. 75.% of all cases and impacted tooth in N=, 153,9.56 %., the rest include the fractures of teeth due to accident, badly positioned teeth which make 2.7%.
The upper 3rd molar in the upper and lower jaws were the most teeth extracted (N=391,24%) the second tooth is the first molar,(N=324,20%).The least tooth extracted is the canine (N=70,4%), followed by the central incisor (N=104,6%).
Conclusion: The most common causes for permanent tooth loss is still dental caries and periodontal disease in this part of population.

Keywords: AL-Mamoon, Baghdad, causes, extraction

Citation: AL-Rubaye ISH, AL-Banaa MSO, Ahmed GMT. The pattern and causes of permanent teeth extraction AL–Karkh Baghdad. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4611-6.

Isolation and diagnosis of Fusarium Solani that causes root rot soybean and evaluating the efficiency of bacteria Bacillus Subtilus and Azotobacter Spp in controlling the disease
Nadhum Trat Abood, Rajaa Ghazi Abdul-Moohsin, Azher Hameed Altaie

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Abstract

This research was conducted with the aim of studying root rot disease and seedlings death in soybeans that causes by fungus Fusarium solani in some areas of wasit governorate, isolating the pathogen and obtaining six isolates of Fusarium solani isolates from the areas covered by this study and testing its pathogenic ability, evaluating the efficiency of the plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Azotobacter spp and Bacillus subtilus isolates, in percentage germination of soybean seeds, reducing percentage of infection and severity of disease and its effect in the length of vegetative and root groups of soy bean plant and comparing the results with beltanol fungicides. The percentage of seed germination treated with Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter spp and beltanol was 95, 95 and 90%, respectively, compared to the comparison treatment 1 (without any addition) that reached 82%. and compared to the comparison treatment 2 (pathogen only) 65%. The treatment of soybean plant with bacteria under study showed a reduction in the infection rate after the trial period, it reached 15 and 10%, respectively, compared to the comparison treatment that included the pathogenic fungus, the infection rate reached 85%.While the severity of the disease incidence in these two treatments was 6.6 and 5%, respectively, compared to the comparison treatment was 42.5%.The biological control and chemical pesticide treatment that used in this study was able to improvement the growth of the plant according to the results of some growth criteria of plant length, vegetative and root groups, and their soft weight.

Keywords: root rot, Fusarium solani, PGPR, Beltanol, soybean

Citation: Abood NT, Abdul-Moohsin RG, Altaie AH. Isolation and diagnosis of Fusarium Solani that causes root rot soybean and evaluating the efficiency of bacteria Bacillus Subtilus and Azotobacter Spp in controlling the disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4617-23.

Role of interleukin 25 and interleukin 33 as immunological markers in pediatric asthma
Abeer Thaher Naji AL-Hasnawi, Sawsan M. Jabbar AL-Hasnawi

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Abstract

Background: Asthma is a chronic airways disease recognized by variable obstruction of the airflow, airway inflammation and hypperesponsiveness of the airway. The epithelial cytokines IL-33 and IL-25 have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis because they promote Th2-type cytokine synthesis.
Objectives: This study amid to show the role of both interleukins 25 and 33 in the airway inflammation.
Methods: The case- control study included 74 asthmatic children as patients group, 75 non asthmatic children as control group. Serum levels of IL-25 and IL-33 was measured by sandwich ELISA using ELISA kit (CUSABIO-china).
Results: Asthma was reported in a high frequency among males 56 (75.7%) than females 18 (24.3%). There was a high frequency of family history of asthma 50 (67.6%) and rhinitis 58(78.4%) in asthmatic patients. Also, there were a high frequency of aggravating by flu 50 (67.6 %) and dust 40 (54.1%) in asthmatic patients. According to the treatment, there was a high frequency of montelukaste 30 (40.5%) in asthmatic patients. In addition, there was a high frequency of mild severity in asthmatic patients. The serum level of IL-25 have a highly significant (P= 0.000) association with susceptibility to asthma, while IL-33 showing a non-significant (P= 0.473) association with the disease. Also, there were a non- significant correlation (P= 0.688) between IL-25 and IL-33 with the disease. Regarding correlation of IL-25 and IL-33 with Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil's count showing a non-significant association in asthmatic patients.
Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between the IL-25 serum level and susceptibility to asthma. Also, this study was reported a non-significant relationship between IL-33 and asthmatic disease.

Keywords: pediatric asthma, serum levels of IL-25 and IL-33, IgE level, eosinophils count

Citation: AL-Hasnawi ATN, AL-Hasnawi SMJ. Role of interleukin 25 and interleukin 33 as immunological markers in pediatric asthma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4625-30.

Study of Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) in Iraqi’s children in Wasit Province
Haider Nadhim Abdaljabbar, Safa A. Faraj, Alaa Mohaisen AL-Rubae

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Abstract

Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired hematological autoimmune disorder characterized by accelerates destruction of platelets with premature removal from circulation and inhibition platelets production. ITP is the most common cause of thrombocytopenia in childhood age group. Typically patients are otherwise well and present with petechiae, purpura and nonpalpable ecchymoses 1-3 weeks after a viral infection. The diagnosis of ITP remains almost one of exclusion and evaluation of history and examination of the patient. The goal of therapy in ITP is to increase the platelet count enough to prevent serious hemorrhage.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the possibility of diagnosis, follow up, effects of various treatment modalities on the clinical course and long term outcome in children with chronic ITP.
Materials and methods: The study was involved 78 patients (40 female and 38 male) were in age range 2-10 years referred to the Hemato-Oncology unit / Al-karama teaching hospital / Wasit / Iraq. Treatment options given to children with ITP during the study period including IVIG, Prednisolon induction, PRD maintenance, DAPSONE, Anti D, Decadron high dose, N platelet and Splenectomy.
Results: Male to female ratio was 1:1.05. Most of the patients (61.5%) were in age range 2-10 years, the mean of age was 72 months, range (2 months- 19 years). more than half of the patients were from center of Wasit province and seven patients were from another province. More than 80% of the patients (63) had no family history of Immune thrombocytopenia, while six patients were missed to record family history status. Fifty-five patients were sibling of consanguine father and mother. the highest number of patients was recorded in 2017 followed by 2012 and 2018. Majority of the patients presented with ecchymosis (seventy-one patients, 91%) while other types of presentation as conjunctival hemorrhage or epistaxis were recorded in less than 2.6% of the patients. Laboratory data of the patients with ITP shows that the mean Hb was 11.6 g/dl (8-15 g/dl) and mean WBC 4734 cmm (1400-25200 cmm), the platelet mean was 23000 cmm (1000-130 000 cmm). Forty-four patients did not have blood group. Bone marrow aspiration examination were done to forty five patients, the results of all them were normal. Specific investigations were done to patients with chronic ITP and according to what available in the hospital. Thirty-six patients (46.2%) were acute type and persist was reported in eight patients (10.3%) and chronic type was reported in thirty four (43.6%) patients. Most of the patients with acute ITP were with platelet count less than 20 000 cmm. While the highest percent of the patients with platelet more than 50 000 cmm were reported in chronic ITP. six patients didn't need treatment, and majority of the patients (92.3%) were treated with different types of treatment. From seventy two patients who received first line treatment, 67 patients (93.1%) were treated with prednisone induction plan. And five patients were treated with IVIG therapy when this drug was available in hospital, second line treatment was reported in 22 patients, prednisone daily low dose and dapsone was treatment plan in seven patients while five patients were received anti D as second line treatment. N plate medicine was reported in two patients and splenectomy was done for one patient.
Conclusion: at this study we found female patient with ITP more than male. The consanguinity was positive and most of patients used PRD induction as first line treatment, PRD maintenance and DAPSON mostly used as second line treatment and just three patients referred to third line treatment.

Keywords: biochemical changes, hormones, immune systems

Citation: Abdaljabbar HN, Faraj SA, AL-Rubae AM. Study of Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) in Iraqi’s children in Wasit Province. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4631-6.

Effect of the rutin on azathioprine-induced toxicity in reproductive function male rats
Nassam Emad Daim, Hussein Khudair Al-Mayali

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Abstract

The current examination directed to research the defensive capability of flavonoid Rutin (Rt) against Azathioprine (AZA)- incited testicular and epididymal injury in experimental male rats. Sixty grown-up male rodents were partitioned into six gatherings. Control gathering (C): was given distiller water orally, The first animals gathering (T1): was treated as a dose of (2.5) mg/kg bw of Azathioprine, Second treatment gathering (T2): received oral gavage (50) mg/kg of Rutin only, Third treatment gathering (T3): was given with (2.5) mg/kg Azathioprine with Rutin at portion 50 mg/kg bw in combination, Fourth treatment gathering (T4): was given Azathioprine orally at 2.5 mg/kg body weight for month and afterward Rutin oral given at a dose of 50 mg/kg toward the finish of the analysis, Fifth treatment gathering (T5):was given Rutin orally at 50 mg/kg of body weight for month and afterward Azathioprine oral given at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg toward the finish of the test. Results indicated that AZA caused a significantly decline (P<0.05) in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels which significantly increased as a result of co-treatment with rutin. Likewise, the co-treatment of these animals with rutin, produced a potential increase of the spermatogenesis in testes, epididymal sperm count, ability of motility, viability and percentage of morphology, are lowered in AZA administered, as compared to normal control. Rutin inhibited oxidative damage in each of testis and epididymis of AZA-treated experimental rats. The rutin treatment may decrease AZA-stimulated male reproductive injury as a powerful antioxidant component. The results proved treating with rutin lessen damaging effects of AZA therapy by reduction of the generating ROS and ameliorate reproductive toxicity in male rats, by restoring normal spermatogenesis, and hormones levels. Consuming of foods that contain rutin might be deem as an alternative and advantageous way to safeguard male fertility from chemotherapy-induced reproductive injury.

Keywords: biological tests, chemotherapy, damage, reduction agents

Citation: Daim NE, Al-Mayali HK. Effect of the rutin on azathioprine-induced toxicity in reproductive function male rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4637-44.

Investigation of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in graves’ disease of Iraqi patients by using ELIZA
Hind Suhail Ali, Hayfaa Mahmood Fahad, Mervit Bassim Jasim

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Abstract

Cytokines are likely to play a vital role in autoimmune thyroid disease. These molecules, produced by both infiltrating inflammatory cells and thyroid follicular cells (TFC) Interleukin-12 was found to be an immunoregulatory cytokine, which may provide an important link between nonspecific immune mechanisms and the development of a specific T-cell-mediated immune response. The pathogenesis of Graves’ disease is thought to be related to TRAb (Thyroid receptor antibody and Thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]), which is commonly used as an immunological parameter. It is also conceivable that serum-soluble IL-12R (sIL-12R) is a marker of T-cell activation in various autoimmune diseases, and although many studies have found increased levels of serum sIL-12R in Graves’ disease, the role of IL-12 has not been investigated sufficiently.
Object: To investigate a role of IL-12 in Iraqi patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.
Subject and methods: This study comprised 45 patients there were 14 men and 31 women aged from 23 to 75 years old (average age, 47.11 years old).All patients had been clinically thyrotoxic, with diffusely enlarged thyroid glands,14 age and sex matched healthy subject with no case history of graves’ disease served as an impact group. The serum stored at -4°C for the quantitative assessment of IL-12 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique (Elabscience Human IL-12 ELISA kit).
Results: The levels of serum IL-12 were higher in the patients with Graves’ disease than those in the controls. The levels of serum IL-12 were significantly correlated with the levels of free T4 and TSH. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between the levels of serum IL-12 and the level free T3 in the patients with Graves’ disease.
Conclusion: Measurement of the levels of serum IL-12 may be consider a useful immunological marker during the time course of treatment for Graves’ disease as an autoimmune disorder.

Keywords: IL12, graves’ disease, health, toxicity

Citation: Ali HS, Fahad HM, Jasim MB. Investigation of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in graves’ disease of Iraqi patients by using ELIZA. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4645-8.

A study to detect the most important virulence factors of cryptosporidium parasite samples by PCR
Rana Saleh Al-Difaie, Nuha Qasim Mohammed, Khawla Hussien Sabbar

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Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite causing diarrhea. The aim of our study is the detection of the infective species with virulence factors in Cryptosporidium in children who have diarrhea in Diwaniyah city. The total fecal samples were one hundred; take from diarrheic children who are aged below 10 years old in Maternity and Childhood Teaching Hospital. Oocytes of Cryptosporidium oocytes were 29 (29%) in children with diarrhea using a light microscope with an acid-fast stain for the samples. Findings of polymerase chain reaction showed that C. parvum is an accusative agent of the cryptosporidiosis in children and all these samples contain the Glycoprotein 900 pathogenic factor under study.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium parvum, virulence factors, children, Diwaniyah city, Iraq

Citation: Al-Difaie RS, Mohammed NQ, Sabbar KH. A study to detect the most important virulence factors of cryptosporidium parasite samples by PCR. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4649-52.

Effect of topical curcumin on the healing of major oral mucosal ulceration
Muaid S. Abbas Shamash, Taghreed Fadhil Zaidan

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Abstract

Background: A mucosal oral ulceration is epithelium damage that occurs anywhere inside the oral cavity. It is deep breakdown in the continuity of oral epithelium occur due to molecular necrosis associated with pain, redness and tenderness of affected site Curcumin was a turmeric extract, its multifaceted biological effects such as, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-infectious effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of topical application of curcumin on mucosal oral ulcer healing.
Materials and methods: Thirty-six male white New Zealand rabbits age between (2-8) months with body weight between (1000-1400 gm), were subjected to traumatic ulcer by ‘punch biopsy’ on the right side of the buccal mucosa, with diameter of (8 mm) and (2mm) depth. The animals divided into two groups; control group: the ulcer treated with sterilized distal water, the experimental group: the ulcer treated with 1% curcumin oral gel. The rabbits were sacrificed at 3rd,7th and 14th days. Clinical assessment of ulcer size and histological and histomorphometric analysis of H&E slide in both control and study groups.
Results: The present study showed that the curcumin treatment reduce mucosal ulcer area from the 3rd day till 7th day and improved ulcer healing at 14th day by activation of epithelial cell, inhibit inflammatory cells, enhance endothelial cells and promote fibroblast cells. While control group showed limited healing process of mucosal ulceration from early period of 3rd day with minimal contraction at the 7th day and incomplete healing at 14th day.

Keywords: curcumin, oral mucosa, ulcer

Citation: Shamash MSA, Zaidan TF. Effect of topical curcumin on the healing of major oral mucosal ulceration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4653-60.

Molecular detection of anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on cattle
Aida H.H. Al-Obaidi, Gassan J.K. Al-Abedi, Estabraq A.N. Al-Zaidi

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to morphological investigation of ticks naturally feeding on cattle, and molecular detection of A. marginale in these ticks using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Totally 25 infested cattle with ticks were selected from rural areas in Wasit province / Iraq, during March-2020 to June-2020. The findings of clinical observation reported that ticks were distributed onto different bodily parts; udder and testis (50.3%), neck (15.98%), perineal region (28.4%), and ear (5.33%). Although hard (Ixodid) tick was the only type detected, two species of different genera were identified among infested cattle; Hyalomma anatolicum (75.15%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (24.85%). Regarding tick species, H. anatolicum was more prevalent (P<0.05) than R. sanguineus in neck (18.11%) region; whereas, R. sanguineus was prevalent significantly (P<0.05) in udder and testis (61.9%) compared to H. anatolicum. Regarding bodily regions, H. anatolicum and R. sanguineus were prevalent significantly (P<0.05) in udder and testis (75.15% and 61.9% respectively). Also, the range and mean number of ticks on each animal was 2-34 and 12.59 respectively. Based on the life stage of collected study ticks, 47.93%, 33.73%, and 18.34% were male, female, and nymph, respectively. Ticks of each study cattle were considered as a one sample and subjected collectively to DNA extraction. Hence, the overall findings for testing 25 samples of ticks by PCR revealed that 4 (16%) of samples were positives for msp1β gene specific to A. marginale. Additionally, male Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were the only positives for A. marginale isolates.

Keywords: hard ticks, polymerase chain reaction, Hemoparasites, Tick-borne disease, Iraq

Citation: Al-Obaidi AH, Al-Abedi GJ, Al-Zaidi EA. Molecular detection of anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on cattle. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4661-6.

Expression of Bcl-2 protein and incidence of apoptosis of parietal layer epithelium cell glomerulus of kidneys in male rats (Rattus norvegicus wistar) on application of glutamin nephroprotective that are exposed to nephrotoxyc modality of cisplatin chemotherapy
Nur Wachid Yusuf, Imam Susilo, Tri Hartini Yuliawati, Miyayu Soneta Sofyan

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Abstract

Cisplatin or (SP-4-2)-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) is one of the most potential platinum derivatives and is widely used for the treatment of various solid cancers such as testes, ovarian, head and neck, bladder, lung, and cervical cancers; melanoma; and lymphoma. The proapoptotic mechanism produced by cisplatin is quite effective in treating neoplastic cells. Cisplatin therapy is a non-target therapy. The cancer cell to which cisplatin is targeted inhibits several antiapoptotic regulators, so that cancer cells immediately start apoptosis. Increased apoptosis causes decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. This research is aimed at analyzing the effect of intravenous glutamine on the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the incidence of apoptosis in parietal layer epithelial cells of the glomerulus of male rats exposed to cisplatin. Glomerular epithelial cells are investigated as a marker of damage to the glomerulus. This study adopted an experimental design with “The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design” with a total sample size of 30 male rats that were randomly divided into three groups (randomized). Each group consisted of 10 male rats. Group P0 was a control without any injection, only standard diet; P1 group was injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20 mg/kg of cisplatin on seventh day; and group P2 was injected intravenously with a dose of 100 mg/kgBW of glutamine for seven days then injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg of cisplatin on seventh day. There was no significant effect but moderate correlation change with p > 0.05 administration of intravenous glutamine on the expression of Bcl-2 proteins in the parietal layer epithelial cell glomerulus the incidence of apoptosis male rats exposed to cisplatin.

Keywords: glutamine, Bcl-2, apoptosis, cisplatin

Citation: Yusuf NW, Susilo I, Yuliawati TH, Sofyan MS. Expression of Bcl-2 protein and incidence of apoptosis of parietal layer epithelium cell glomerulus of kidneys in male rats (Rattus norvegicus wistar) on application of glutamin nephroprotective that are exposed to nephrotoxyc modality of cisplatin chemotherapy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4667-1.

Pelvic support osteotomy using ilizarov external fixator
Ali Adel Mohammed Alsalihi, Mazin Ibrahim Khalel Thalaj

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Abstract

Injury and deformity remained part of human life and suffering for long. A deep injury requires a detailed diagnosis, strategic planning, and stepwise approach to recover the patient. The present review provides an updated view of the epidemiology, diagnosis, surgical technique, and complications, related to pelvic surgery or hip reconstruction. Hip surgery is an intricate and complicated process that requires keen attention to detail in many aspects of the process. Extensive care should be taken on the clinical, physiological, surgical aspects along with the patient’s condition and specific surgical requirements.

Keywords: pelvic support osteotomy, ilizarov external fixator

Citation: Alsalihi AAM, Khalel Thalaj MI. Pelvic support osteotomy using ilizarov external fixator. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4673-6.

Studying the nutrition value and validity period of the processed product milk –like from chickpeas
Ibtihal I. AL–Ani, Zaid A Thabit

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to use powder chickpeas seed in similar processed milk and study its microbial, physical, chemical and sensory properties. The results showed that the product (similar to processed milk) made from chickpeas and without adding soda (bicarbonate sodium) to the soaked water (sample 1) was better than the second sample of chickpea with the addition of soda.the result of bacterial count were 0.33 and 4.00 (cfu / ml), respectively, during the storage in the refrigerator for 9 days. The result showed bacterial count were 20.00 and 27.33 (cfu / ml), respectively. and mold count 0.00 and 1.33 (cfu / ml), respectively, after 4 days storage. As well as the product volume its amount 600.00 and 565 ml, respectively. and density of the product before pasteurization, amount 0.934 and 0.921 g / cm (Naeem, 2010)., respectively and after pasteurization directly, amount, 0.932 and 0.925 g / cm (Naeem, 2010)., respectively. also in terms of PH value were 6.62 and 6. 54, respectively and acidity amount 0.40 and 0.32%, respectively. As for the chemical components, the moisture, fat, protein, calcium and iron ratios were lower than in the sample 2. Also, it is free of phosphates compared to sample 2. Sample 1 exceeds sample 2 by fiber, ash, dry matter, carbohydrate and calorie. Sample 1received a higher acceptance general than Sample 2. Sample 1 gave weight to the cake after roasting less than the weight of the cake made using Almudhish milk. But Standing Highet and accepted more than the cake made using Almudhish milk. When adding the nutella to sample 1 gave the product density and accepted in general more. We recommend that the product be manufactured without soda and introduced into the pastry industry, and used as alternative food for bovine milk for lactose-sensitive people. It has a good nutrition value, with 100 g of dry weight (fat 1.26, moisture 18.12, ash 3.91, fiber 4.22, protein 12.09, salt concentration 1.73, dry matter 81.88, carbohydrate 60.35, calorie 286.48, calcium 0.092, iron 0.0068 percentage and PH 6.23). The shelf life of product was 9 days at 4°C and 3 days after use it

Keywords: chickpea, milk, bicarbonate sodium, lactose-sensitive

Citation: AL–Ani II, Thabit ZA. Studying the nutrition value and validity period of the processed product milk –like from chickpeas. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4677-81.

Cotton shredder bug Creontiades pallidus (Rambur, 1839) damage to cotton crop in Surkhandara region of South Uzbekistan
Dilshod Muhammadjanovich Musayev, Bakhtiyor Rustamovich Kholmatov, Navruz Ruziyevich Sattarov, Ilyos Bobokul ugli Amirov, Mahliyo Kodirberdiyevna Musayeva, Abdurakhmonov Shukhrat Mamatmurotovich

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Abstract

Our research works have been in north and south districts of Surkhandaya region, South Uzbekistan in between 2017-2019. Damage to the cotton crop of cotton shredder bug was carried out in special entomologic cages at different times. The experiments were conducted in the Bukhara-102 cotton variety which was planted in 90 cm rows. Special entomologic cages are 120 cm X 120 cm X 120 cm and it puts to 10 cotton plants Adult cotton shredder bugs were placed at 0 (cultivation time of cotton), 10, 30, 50 (early), and 0 (control), 3, 5, and 10 in cultivation late time of the plant. In experiments, the reduction of cotton yield relative to the control was calculated at each decade of the month. According to the results of the study, Creontiades pallidus increased in the number of cotton during early shading caused the reduction of cotton yield by 62.5, 89.6, 94.8% compared to the control, and by 12.5, 26.9, 34.9%. Creontiades pallidus is widely multiplied on cotton fields near of the Amu Darya, and in July-August the number ranges from 500 to 1000 insects per 100 plants.

Keywords: Miridae, Creontiades pallidus, Cotton, dynamics, Agrobiocenosis, economic loss, entomological cage

Citation: Musayev DM, Kholmatov BR, Sattarov NR, Amirov IBU, Musayeva MK, Mamatmurotovich AS. Cotton shredder bug Creontiades pallidus (Rambur, 1839) damage to cotton crop in Surkhandara region of South Uzbekistan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4683-7.

Impact of potassium sulphate and naphthalene acetic acid spray on yield and fruit quality of date palm cv. Barhee
Thamer H. R. Al-Falahy, Ahmed Mohammed Hasan

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Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of spraying potassium sulphate (as a source of potassium) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) on yield and some fruit quality characteristics of date palm cv. Barhee. Bunches were sprayed with potassium sulphate at 0(spray with distilled water), 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, spraying was applied twice, after fruit set and after 4 weeks from the first spray. NAA were sprayed at 0(spray with distilled water), 50 mg.l-1 and 100 mg.l-1. Bunches were sprayed at the beginning of kimri stage and the second spray was done after 4 weeks from the first spray at the beginning of khalal stage. The present results indicated that spraying bunches with potassium sulphate at 1.5% significantly increased the fruit weight, bunch weight, yield, and fruit ripening while 1% increased total soluble solids, total sugars, and reducing sugars. NAA spray at 100 mg.l-1 significantly increased fruit weight, bunch weight and yield, while reducing fruit drop, fruit ripening, total soluble solids, total sugars, and reducing sugars.

Keywords: potassium sulphate, growth regulators, foliar spray, date palm

Citation: Al-Falahy THR, Hasan AM. Impact of potassium sulphate and naphthalene acetic acid spray on yield and fruit quality of date palm cv. Barhee. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4689-5.

Evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in root canal disinfection with different irrigants protocols: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Hossein Mofidi, Seyyed Reza Khosravani, Shabnam Garjani, Tina Mirghotbi

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Abstract

Background and aim: laser treatment protocols are challenging and the most effective method with desirable and excellent results is controversial, so the present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in root canal disinfection with different irrigants protocols.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2010 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms.
Result: A total of 26 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of five publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Mean difference of photodynamic therapy and control group was (MD, -3.29 95% CI -3.80, -2.79. P= 0.00) among five studies
Conclusion: The results show that the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can be considered as an alternative to conventional treatment.

Keywords: antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, root canal disinfection

Citation: Mofidi H, Khosravani SR, Garjani S, Mirghotbi T. Evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in root canal disinfection with different irrigants protocols: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4697-01.

Nerve growth factor and infertility status among infertile males in Kerbala city, Iraq
Shaymaa Jawad Abdulrahman, Ibtisam A. Al-Ali, Ammar Mohammed Qassim, Thikra Abd Aun Hassan

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Abstract

Introduction: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to share a mutual effect regulating neuronal and reproduction functions.
Aim: To estimate the correlation of NGF with semen parameters, age, Body Mass Index, smoking and infertility duration.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples from 121 infertile males (40 asthenozoospermia, 41 oligoasthenozoospermia) and 40 normospermia (controls) were analyzed for NGF by ELIZA assay. Sperm parameters were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines.
Results: The serum content of NGF positively correlated with age (r= 0.0367; p<0.018) in oligoasthenozoospermic subjects; yet the correlation did not reach a significant level in total infertile males (asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic). No correlation was found between NGF in serum and seminal plasma and BMI, smoking status and infertility duration.
Conclusion: The study showed that Serum NGF positively correlated with age. Additional study using a large sample size is required to confirm these results.

Keywords: age, BMI, infertility duration, smoking

Citation: Abdulrahman SJ, Al-Ali IA, Qassim AM, Hassan TAA. Nerve growth factor and infertility status among infertile males in Kerbala city, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4703-7.

Estimate the total flavonoids content, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage protection for the methanolic extract of Stachys sp. gathering from the Basra market in Iraq
Sabaa Ali Mohammed Al.Fadal, Rafeef Amer Abdul-Jabar

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Abstract

The expansion of cancer disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and recently COVID-19 have guided scientists toward the utilization of natural products from plants because of cheap and availability. Flavonoids one of the most important compounds extracted from the plant such as genus Stachys in this research, which illustrate that the MtOH extract of Stachys sp. has 103.36 mg of flavonoids content and also the result of scavenging ability of extract on hydrogen peroxide show the highest inhibition percentage (38%) belongs to (2 mg/ml) of extract. The result of reducing power activity illustrates high reducing activity for concentrations (10-50 µg/ml). DNA damage protection experiment showed the ability of Stachys sp. MtOH extract to protect human genomic DNA at two concentrations (2 and 1 mg/ml). Molecular docking using AutoDock 4.2 software was used to explain the binding mode between two selected flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin) in Stachy extract to help us understand the ability of flavonoids for DNA protection, results illustrate the best conformation with free binding energy (-6.86 & -7.11) for apigenin and luteolin, respectively. The results also show the formation of hydrogen bonds with the DNA (1N37) double helix.

Keywords: flavonoids, Stachys sp., apigenin, luteolin, antioxidant, DNA protection

Citation: Al.Fadal SAM, Abdul-Jabar RA. Estimate the total flavonoids content, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage protection for the methanolic extract of Stachys sp. gathering from the Basra market in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4709-15.

Ethnic identity and personal helplessness in young migrants from the Central Asia
Irina V. Ponomareva, Yana N. Pakhomova, Marina V. Podolskaya

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Abstract

Growth of the external migration within the Russian Federation draws the attention of scientists to this problem. During the latest decade, the majority of foreign migrants (coming for work, study, or residence) are representatives of the Central Asian countries. The objective of this research is studying ethnic identity and personal helplessness in migrants coming from the Central Asian countries. The data obtained as a result of the conducted research allow making conclusions about orientation to interaction with other ethnic groups being stronger in migrants from the Central Asia who feature personal helplessness than in the ones characterized by independence and tending to shut themselves off communication with other ethnoses. According to the obtained data, the respondents with independence feature significantly higher indicators of ethnic nihilism, ethnic fanaticism, and ethnic isolationism than the tested ones with personal helplessness do. The found particularities of ethnic identity in migrants having different personal features allow integrating results of the research conducted into the ethnopsychological domain of knowledge. Similarly, they allow creating the theoretical basis for solving applied problems in social and psychological adaptation support rendered to migrants.

Keywords: ethnic identity, personal helplessness, adaptation, migration, migrants

Citation: Ponomareva IV, Pakhomova YN, Podolskaya MV. Ethnic identity and personal helplessness in young migrants from the Central Asia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4717-22.

Editorial policy problems on Internet in transforming society
Isita V. Muskhanova, Elena S. Matveeva, Lyudmila V. Kolomiychenko, Oleg A. Skutelnik, Zarina I. Gadaborsheva, Amina Kh. Yakhyaeva, Khadizhat V. Gabarova

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is to study such a social phenomenon as Internet journalism. The Internet is a full-fledged means of mass communication, in which there are various types of mass media: from social networks to Internet TV channels. The purpose of the study is to determine the specifics of coverage of protest actions on the Internet. Research methods: as a research method, the authors used content analysis as a method of collecting primary information that allows quick and effective investigating the practice of covering various protest actions on the Internet. Research results: the article reveals the specifics of the Internet as a mass communication medium, including as a space for protest activity. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time mass communication media on the Internet are considered. The study shows that when covering street protests by mass media on the Internet, there is greater efficiency and no restrictions on the placement of material; it becomes possible to cover these events more fully and quickly. It is revealed that protest actions presented by the media on the Internet can be ignored in their printed versions. It is revealed that the media on the Internet conduct a quite intensive discussion in the comments to the material or on the forum, which is not possible in the printed version of the publication. The discussion also continues in social networks, where users also post hyperlinks to the material. It is determined that the power of the owners over the publication, as well as in the printed version, exists, and the political positioning of the owners or persons holding a controlling stake coincides with the editorial policy. It is shown that this power is manifested less harshly by the mass media on the Internet than in printed versions. We can assume that this is because too tendentious publication, if it suppresses the topic, will not get the required number of visits, which will affect the rating of this resource. Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, advertising psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: Internet, transforming society, editorial policy

Citation: Muskhanova IV, Matveeva ES, Kolomiychenko LV, Skutelnik OA, Gadaborsheva ZI, Yakhyaeva AK, et al. Editorial policy problems on Internet in transforming society. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4723-7.

Control of caterpillars (chrysodeixis calcites) in the green mustard using red ginger exstract (zingiber officinale var. rubrum)
Akhmad Rizali

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Abstract

One of the most important global problems is protecting crops from insect. For the control insects, synthetic chemical are continuously used. The implementation of integrated pest management aims to suppress adverse effects of the use of synthetic pesticides, plant pest immunity, prevent resurgence, and utilize as much as possible the ability of nature with using environmentally friendly plant pesticides Green mustard is a plant widely cultivated farmers in Indonesia, but green mustard plants also contain vitamins and nutrient that are important for health, because of the many cases of low productivity, one pests of caterpillars inch of causing farmers to suffer losses and the impact on the use of chemical insecticides by semi subsistence for control of caterpillar pests. To cope with the excessive use of chemical insecticides, the use of botanical pesticides are more environmentally friendly can be applied. This study aimed to determine the mortality of insects, the effect of the red ginger extract to control caterpillar pests at green mustard plants and to determine the concentration of red ginger extract the most effective way to control caterpillar pests on green mustard. In this result of study that it was found that the application of the most influence very real to the intensity of death caterpillar green mustard plants is JM2 with a concentration of 10%. The the best concentration and able to kill the caterpillars (Chrysodeixis calcites) amounted to 58.00% within seven days of observation after being treated.

Keywords: red ginger extract, caterpillar, green mustard, vegetable pesticides

Citation: Rizali A. Control of caterpillars (chrysodeixis calcites) in the green mustard using red ginger exstract (zingiber officinale var. rubrum). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4729-33.

Assessment of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants in arid regions: Testing factors affecting riparian plant distribution in the Draa Basin, Morocco
Lahcen Mostakim, Nidal Fetnassi, Hanane Rassam, Hassan Benaissa, Elizabeth Berger, Mohamed Ghamizi

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Abstract

The main objective of this work was to study the richness and the effect of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of riparian plant in Draa basin, which is part of the Oasis Biosphere Reserve located in South-East of Morocco. For this purpose, water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, electrical conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, nitrate and phosphorus concentration, and riparian plants diversity were estimated at 12 stations along the Draa River and its tributaries using phytoecological surveys. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was performed to assess the relationship between environmental parameters, the distribution and abundance of riparian plants inventoried.
The results of the assessment of 12 phytoecological surveys revealed the existence of 86 species of aquatic and semi aquatic plants, divided into 76 genera and 30 botanical families, with 15.11% of the species are endemic and 9.30% as rare and threatened species. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results revealed that the salinity, the conductivity, degree of submersion and the nitrate concentration are the main factors affecting the composition and the distribution of the riparian plants in Draa basin.
Given the increasing human pressure on native riparian plant in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot region, including the climate change effects and habitat loss, urgent conservation measures are discussed for this and other riparian plant species.

Keywords: ecological factors, Draa basin, Morocco, floristic composition, phytoecological survey, riparian plant

Citation: Mostakim L, Fetnassi N, Rassam H, Benaissa H, Berger E, Ghamizi M. Assessment of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants in arid regions: Testing factors affecting riparian plant distribution in the Draa Basin, Morocco. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4735-41.

Participation level of agricultural employees in the preparation and implementation of agricultural extension programs in the agricultural divisions which associated with the Agriculture Directorate of Nineveh Governorate, Iraq
Ahmed Awad Talb Altalb, Hafsa Fatah Hadi

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Abstract

This research aims at determining agricultural employers in preparing and executing agricultural guidance programs in agricultural units (divisions) of Nineveh agricultural administration in general, as well as the correlation between the participation of agricultural employee in preparing and implementing agricultural programs and their independent variables. The results showed a moderate participation of agricultural workers in preparing and carrying out agricultural guidance programs and as will as the results showed significant correlation between the employees participation and following independent variables, (age, academic achievement, desire to agricultural extension, years of work in agricultural sector), also the results showed that the following items came first for agricultural guidance programs (participate in preparing the necessary activities to realize set goals, participate in putting plans of agricultural guidance programs, and participate in carrying out agricultural guidance programs). The researchers recommend enhancing agricultural workers in agriculture division in preparing and executing agricultural guidance programs through training.

Keywords: agricultural, employers, extension programs, divisions

Citation: Talb Altalb AA, Hadi HF. Participation level of agricultural employees in the preparation and implementation of agricultural extension programs in the agricultural divisions which associated with the Agriculture Directorate of Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4743-8.

Product innovation, nutritional content of squid (Loligo duvauceli) powder and level of acceptability of the innovated products, Mindanao, Philippines
Mary Jane A. Moralia, Sofia C. Naelga

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Abstract

This study determined the product Innovation, Nutritional Content of Squid (Loligo duvauceli) Powder, and Level of Acceptability of the Innovated Products. This study sought to answer the following questions: Problem 1. The product innovations of Squid Powder. Problem 2. the nutritional content of Squid Powder. Problem 3. the level of acceptability of the Squid Powder in terms of food attributes (Appearance, Color, Aroma, Flavor, and Taste) in terms of product innovations in different formulation 30% Squid Powder with 70% All-Purpose Flour, 45% Squid Powder with 55% All-Purpose Flour, 60% Squid Powder with 40% All Purpose Flour and 100% squid powder with 0 % All-Purpose Flour. Problem 4. the formulation gained the highest acceptability per recipe.The study used an experimental method design. This research will also utilize qualitative analysis, through product development and nutritional content, presented in graphic format. It also utilized quantitative procedure as commonly used in descriptive research studies in terms of acceptability. 
The respondents of the study are composed of 30 Semi-Trained individuals directly coming from the University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines-CDO Campus comprising of Teachers and students. Ten (10) were students, twenty (20) were teachers handling Food Technology, Food Processing, Culinary Arts, and any related Food courses.
The result shows that the nutritional content of Squid powder is rich in crude protein; it has 75.4 %(%Nx6.25); it was tested using the Kjeldahl Testing Method. Another parameter like Copper and iron was tested using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and Copper has 5.84 mg/kg. Phosphorous is 0.599 % using the Colorimetry testing method. In contrast, iron has 46.2 mg/kg, the potassium is 0.258 %, and it was tested using the Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry Test method. Parameter selenium is less than 0.10**, and the test method used was Inductively-Coupled Plasma-OES.
The data also shows that the highest acceptability in empanaditas recipe was with the formulation of 30% squid powder. However, in the Squid Ball and Pasta recipe, the highest acceptability was with the 100% squid powder formulation.
Based on the results, it shows that the squid innovated products with the different formulation is acceptable to the evaluators and consumers. Squid Powder can be used as an alternative for flour. The squid innovated products can be sold in the form of a snack. But fundamentally, the Squid innovated product is acceptable most, especially the 100% of Squid Powder for Pasta and Squid Ball.
Based on the results of the study, it is therefore recommended that Food innovators use Squid Products as an innovative idea to sell or manufacture.

Keywords: squid powder, empanaditas, squid ball, pasta

Citation: Moralia MJA, Naelga SC. Product innovation, nutritional content of squid (Loligo duvauceli) powder and level of acceptability of the innovated products, Mindanao, Philippines. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4749-59.

Determine the association between a broader array of pregnancy complications and the future risk of cardiovascular: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neda Mohammadi Danesh, Shahrzad Hendi, Bahar Zahra Nobahar, Neda Rahimian

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Abstract

Background and aim: the aim of present systematic review and meta-analysis was determine the association between a broader array of pregnancy complications and the future risk of cardiovascular.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2015 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. Odds ratio between two groups with 95% confidence interval (CI), random effect model and restricted maximum-likelihood method were calculated. Random effects were used to deal with potential heterogeneity and I2 showed heterogeneity. The Meta analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program Stata V16.
Result: A total of 486 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of 21 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Pooled results of nine studies examining gestational hypertension suggest a 40% (95% ICI, -0.09, and 0.90) higher risk of subsequent CVD in women with gestational hypertension compared to women without. The odds ratio was (OR, 0.40 95% CI -0.09, 0.90. P= 0.11), and heterogeneity found (I2 = 82.35%)
Conclusion: Women with a history of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and stillbirth are at higher risk for CVD than other women.

Keywords: pregnancy complications, cardiovascular, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Citation: Danesh NM, Hendi S, Nobahar BZ, Rahimian N. Determine the association between a broader array of pregnancy complications and the future risk of cardiovascular: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4761-7.

Dietary competition between the local shrimp Metapenaeus affinis and the invasive Macrobrachium nipponense shrimp Southern Iraq
Abdul-Hussein H. Ghazi

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Abstract

There is no information about the natural diets and competition of Iraqi native shrimp Metapenaeus affinis and the invasive shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, However, the aim of this study is to identify the diet items of M. affinis and M. nipponense based on the analysis of stomach contents in order to identify the existence of a dietary overlap the two species. A total of 630 Stomachs of M. affinis and 780 stomachs of M. nipponense were investigated. The result that the diets composition of M. affinis consisted mainly of eleven items belonging to twenty one types of food. While in the stomach contents of M. nipponense were categorized into thirteen types belonging to thirty items. These main groups were Phytoplankton, aquatic plant, Zooplankton, Crustacean, Fish larvae, Mollusca, sediments, Insects, unidentified matter, unidentified Invertebrate, unidentified Algae, Amphipods and Annelid. The diets of M. affinis, were consisting of aquatic plant (25 %), followed by Phytoplankton (16%) and fish larvae consisting the lowest percentage (1.5 %). The Phytoplankton was dominating the stomachs of M. nipponense (21 %) then comes the insects 12%, and fish the larvae consist of the lowest percentage (2 %). High feeding intensity of M. affinis was observed during March, April and May, whereas low feeding intensity was observed during July, August, September, October, November and December (maximum during April 41% and minimum in December (3%). While the high feeding intensity of M. nipponense was achieved during May, June and July whereas, the low intensity was observed during September, October, November and December (maximum in June 40 % and minimum during October 10%).

Keywords: dietary competition, Metapenaeus affinis, Macrobrachium nipponense, Southern Iraq

Citation: Ghazi AH. Dietary competition between the local shrimp Metapenaeus affinis and the invasive Macrobrachium nipponense shrimp Southern Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4769-76.

Spatial monitoring for degradation Al-Razzaza Lake by analysis temporal of remote sensing data using geographic information system techniques
Fouad K. Mashee, Abdul-Rahman B. Ali, Mazin Shakir Jasim

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Abstract

Al-Razzaza lake is the second largest lakes in Iraq, part of a vast valley that includes the lakes of Tharthar, Habbaniyah and the Sea of Najaf. Its total area is 1810 km2, with a storage capacity of 26 billion cubic meters, with a maximum storage level of 40 meters above sea level. Like other water bodies in Iraq, there has between a significant deterioration in its area, especially after 2003 Due to climatic changes, high temperature of the atmosphere and the evaporation process in addition to insufficient water to the lake to compensate for the shortfall as a result of the construction of dams in Turkey and Syria as well as the low level of the Euphrates River, which is the most important source of lake water. The aim of this research is to identify and monitor changes that have occurred in the area of the lake as well as the land cover around it by analyzing satellite images to produce maps of land cover varieties prevailing in the region for different time periods using Geographic Information System techniques. Six seasons within the study area were identified, representing three types of land covers (vegetation, soil, water) for years (1985-2003-2018) by applying Supervised Classification technique depending on the visual interpretation and geographical maps, the percentage of variance in Normalized Differences Water Index was also measured between different years to determine the variance between each year The results showed a clear discrepancy between the three years, in terms of spatial distribution and quantitative estimation of each class. Between 2003 and 2018, the area of the lake decreased by 792 km2 and significantly increased in the area saline land and desert land in 2018. This study shows that there is a significant shortage of water cover in terms of depth and area of the lake because of the significant decrease in the value of NDWI.

Keywords: Al-Razzaza Lake, Landsat Satellite Imagery Dataset, NDWI Techniques, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) Techniques

Citation: Mashee FK, Ali AB, Jasim MS. Spatial monitoring for degradation Al-Razzaza Lake by analysis temporal of remote sensing data using geographic information system techniques. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4777-81.

Evaluation of the efficiency of Plearotus Ostreatus in the percentage of inhibition of fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp.
Hussein Sami Naji Kermasha

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Abstract

The study evaluated the efficacy of Plearotus Ostreatus in the percentage of inhibition of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp. The fungal was growth in The laboratory and in enbated at atemperature (25±2) in the microbiology laboratory in the Department of Life Sciences / College of Education for Girls, The experiments were carried out on 2-9-2019 and ended on 2-2- 2020. The results showed a significant difference in the exudates of the P.ostreatus for ages (7,21,28) days, Streatus (28) days superior to the fungal inhibition rate A.niger at all ages was 97% compared to control of 0%, while the lowest percentage of inhibition of fungus A. niger by treatment of exudates mushroom P. ostreatus at the age of (7) days was 88%.The results of the treatment of exudates P. ostreatus mushroom at the age of (21, 28) days was significantly higher in the fungus A. flavus, where it was 94% compared to the control treatment of 0%, while the lowest inhibition of the fungus A. flavus with the treatment of exudate. P. ostreatus at 7 days 93%. The treatment of exudate fungus P. ostreatus at 28 days significantly differentiated in A. terreus fungus on all ages, reaching 96% compared to control treatment where it was 0%, while the lowest percentage of inhibition of diameter A. terreus treatment of exudate fungus P.ostreatus at 7 days, where it was 89%.The results of treatment of fungus P. ostreatus 7 days was significantly higher in the fungal suppression rate, penicillium sp. at all ages was 90% compared to control of 0%, while the lowest percentage of inhibition of fungi penicillium sp. in the treatment of exudate fungus P. ostreatus at a 21-day age where it was 88%.

Keywords: exudates Plearotus Ostreatus, ages (7, 21, 28) days, different fungus

Citation: Kermasha HSN. Evaluation of the efficiency of Plearotus Ostreatus in the percentage of inhibition of fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp.. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4783-7.

Evaluate the levels changes of periodontal pathogens in children with malocclusion during orthodontic treatments: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Seyed Mohammad Monajem Zadeh, Mohammad Javad Rahimi, Behnoush Hormozi, Niusha Zare, Zahra Yousofi

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Abstract

Aim: the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was evaluate the levels changes of periodontal pathogens in children during orthodontic treatments.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature until September 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. Odds ratio between before and one or three months after treatment with 95% confidence interval (CI), Mantel-Haenszel method were calculated. Random effects were used to deal with potential heterogeneity and I2 showed heterogeneity. The Meta analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program available in the market (i.e., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Stata V16).
Result: A total of 46 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of three publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Odds ratio of P.gingivalis was (OR, -0.58 95% CI -1.34, 0.18. P= 0.14) and
Odds ratio of T. forsythensis was (OR, -1.44 95% CI -2.16, 0.73. P= 0.00), also odds ratio of P. intermedia was (OR, -1.09 95% CI -2.09, -0.10. P= 0.03).
Conclusion: The present systematic review and met analysis showed the levels of periodontal pathogens in children during orthodontic treatments was increased after orthodontic treatments vs before orthodontic treatments. Only no change in P.gingivalis was observed.

Keywords: periodontal pathogens, children, orthodontic treatments

Citation: Zadeh SMM, Rahimi MJ, Hormozi B, Zare N, Yousofi Z. Evaluate the levels changes of periodontal pathogens in children with malocclusion during orthodontic treatments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4789-5.

The relationship between lipid profile levels in women with heart risk factor diseases
Ahmed H. Radhi, Riyadh Hussein Wally

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Abstract

The research aims to study the level of fat in the blood of women and clarify the relationship between the different forms of fats in women with heart risk factors diseases. The study included collecting blood samples for 100 females with severe heart disease and 50 healthy females as a control group in Kut city of Iraq. The study presented a elevated concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density-lipoprotein (LDL). and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) with decreased level of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) in the group of women with severe cardiac disease compared to the control group. In addition, study found the highest mean concentration of lipid profile was in the group of patients with arteriosclerosis.

Keywords: lipid profile, angina pectoris, hardening of the arterioles, myocardial infarction, high blood pressure

Citation: Radhi AH, Wally RH. The relationship between lipid profile levels in women with heart risk factor diseases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4797-800.

Internet space for educational and fostering practices: modern consumer culture or fashion trend?
Gulfairuz G. Erkibaeva, Yaroslav Yu. Reent, Nina K. Prikhodko, Alexey A. Shchetinin, Maxim S. Fabrikov, Irina S. Boitsova, Mehriban E. Gulieva

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Abstract

Modern society is becoming not just post-industrial, but also informational. Progressive trends that change the very nature of consumption are manifested in changes in goods and services consumed on the Internet, including educational services. The purpose of the research is to study the features of consumption of fostering and educational services in modern Russian society. Research methods: as a research method, we used the questionnaire method, which allows us to identify most effectively the specifics of using the Internet space for the consumption of fostering and educational services for the development of creative abilities of the individual. Research results: the article discusses the practice of consumption of fostering and educational services on the Internet by modern families. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the Internet was studied as a space for educational and fostering practices. It is shown that modern parents consider the Internet space as the most creative space of modern civilization. The relationship between family wellbeing and consumption of fostering and educational creative practices on the Internet is traced. It is revealed that low and average material security of a family has a certain direct relationship with a high degree of involvement of these family members in joint project fostering practices. It is revealed that modern parents, thanks to their desires and opportunities, receive the necessary information on the upbringing and education of their children on the Internet. For the first time, it was revealed that the main consumed practices taken from the Internet related to upbringing and education are: everyday labor practices involving all family members; making joint parental decisions; joint family games; joint creative decision-making in the process of project productive activities. Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in family psychology, educational psychology, valeology, management, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: upbringing practices, educational practices, fostering and educational practices, Internet space

Citation: Erkibaeva GG, Reent YY, Prikhodko NK, Shchetinin AA, Fabrikov MS, Boitsova IS, et al. Internet space for educational and fostering practices: modern consumer culture or fashion trend?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4801-6.

Coping behavior strategies and quality of life in women having breast cancer under the favorable and unfavorable course of the disease
Elena A. Sergienko, Diana A. Tsiring, Irina V. Ponomareva, Yana N. Pakhomova

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Abstract

Studies of psychological particularities and quality of life in breast cancer patients remain relevant as of today. Particularities of their coping with the difficult life situation have to be taken into account to improve quality of life in cancer patients and the probability of their convalescence and survival. The objective of this research is to find out the relationship between coping behavior strategies and quality of life as a predictive indicator of the favorable disease course in female breast cancer patients. As a result of the research conducted, the quality of life in women having the unfavorable course of the disease has been found to be significantly lower than that in female breast cancer patients in remission. Alongside this, associations between quality of life indicators with the following coping behavior strategies have been found: escape-avoidance, exercising self-control, accepting responsibility, seeking social support, distancing. The obtained results require attention on the part of social and psychological services and on the part of oncologists, because the overall quality of life indicator is related to the survival forecast and associated with coping behavior strategies.

Keywords: oncopsychology, coping behavior, quality of life, breast cancer, course of the disease

Citation: Sergienko EA, Tsiring DA, Ponomareva IV, Pakhomova YN. Coping behavior strategies and quality of life in women having breast cancer under the favorable and unfavorable course of the disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4807-13.

Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for bacterial leaf blight resistance in rice
Shahril Ab Razak, Rahiniza Kamaruzaman, Kogeethavani Ramachandran, Nor Helwa Ezzah Nor Azman, Siti Norhayati Ismail, Muhammad Fairuz Mohd Yusof, Asfaliza Ramli

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Abstract

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, is one of the devastating biotic stress in rice that results in yield losses. Cultivation of the resistant rice varieties has been proven as an environment-friendly and effective approach to address this problem. As such, this study developed a high quality and tightly linked marker of Xa7 gene, a resistant gene that controls BLB disease in rice. In this study, the mapping population of MR263 X IRBB7 was generated. The F2 population was used for genotyping purpose, while the F2:3 lines were employed for phenotyping purpose. Both genotyping and phenotyping data were used in bulk segregant analysis to narrow down the Xa7 region. A total 87 SNP markers were developed to genotype the mapping population. Out of 87 SNPs, only 65 SNPs exhibited acceptable call rates, and this was followed the Mendelian ration of F2 population (1:2:1). This study had successfully narrowed down the region of Xa7 from 118.5 kb to 58.5 kb, flanked by SNP_Xa7_14 and SNP_Xa7_31 that composed of 13 SNP markers. The developed SNP markers, which were tightly linked to Xa7 gene, emerge to be greatly significant in marker-assisted breeding activity to introgress BLB resistant gene into susceptible rice varieties. The application of the developed SNP marker is bound to enhance both efficiency and accuracy in the selection. The linkage drag phenomenon may be minimised as well as the marker is highly close to the target gene.

Keywords: bacterial leaf blight, SNP marker, Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, Xa7

Citation: Razak SA, Kamaruzaman R, Ramachandran K, Nor Azman NHE, Ismail SN, Mohd Yusof MF, et al. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for bacterial leaf blight resistance in rice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4815-20.

Non-thermal carbon dioxide-mediated inactivation process of Escherichia coli using bespoke system
Ali R. Mulakhudair

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Abstract

The reduction of the number of contaminated microbial cells in the biological and food solutions has desirably led to the development of many inactivation technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the microbial cells without harming the biological solution or generating toxic chemical agents. E.coli is known as food borne pathogen and cause serious problems in food industry and is used as a model organism in this study. The current CO2 mediated approach was used as a cheap and emerging approach to inactivate bacterial cells, E. coli. CO2 mediated approach is a non-thermal method, which has advantages over traditional methods such as autoclaving and γ -radiation. The results show that injecting CO2 into the system reduced the bacterial population by ~ 2.5-Log after 90 min and to 3.6 Log reduction after lactic acid addition. Bacterial cells were suffered from morphological changes and shape changes were obvious. Efficient energy consumption, avoidance of hazardous substances usage and can be applied in situ, are among its advantages, making it a promising and emerging inactivation technology.

Keywords: bacterial inactivation, food spoilage, Escherichia coli, lactic acid additive

Citation: Mulakhudair AR. Non-thermal carbon dioxide-mediated inactivation process of Escherichia coli using bespoke system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4821-7.

Phytochemicals screening and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles, phenols and alkaloids extracts of conocarpus lancifolius
Rana Hussein Raheema, Roaa M. H. Shoker

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Abstract

The emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance and lack of developing new antibacterial bacteria are a growing problem in multi-drug - resistant bacteria, Phytochemical compounds and silver Nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis has been of great interest because of their potential biomedical applications. Hence this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Conocarpus lancifolius extracts s to control multidrug-resistant bacteria. Chemical detection of aqueous extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius leaves revealed the presence of tannin, Saponins, Comarins, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside and terpenes compounds. Results showed yield of phenols extracts of C. lancifolius were 46.1% while yield of extracts 22.2% alkaloids. AgNPs was proved by Atomic Force Microscopy. The average diameter of 75.50 nm. HPLC analysis indicated the presence of four phenolic compounds were Rutin, Epigenen and Kamferol and Catechine while contains two alkaloids Scopolamine and Hyoscine. Results showed that Conocarpus lancifolius extracts and AgNPs, possess higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria

Keywords: Conocarpus lancifolius, phytochemical Screening, AgNPs, AFM, HPLC, antibacterial activity

Citation: Raheema RH, Shoker RMH. Phytochemicals screening and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles, phenols and alkaloids extracts of conocarpus lancifolius. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4829-35.

The clean and healthy lifestyle behaviors and healthy housing influenced the incident of acute respiratory infection in childhood
Muhammad El Kautsar, Nilam Anggraeni, Vivi Permata Sari, Ribka B. A Mboe, Anindya Widyasari, Zahwa Afdhilani Azwan, Athiyah Amatillah, Priscillia Ivana Jie, Sulistiawati, R Bambang

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Abstract

Introduction: Based on preliminary surveys in this study, it was found 86.7% of respondents suffered from accute respiratory infection experienced 4 times reinfection within 3 months and 50% of respondents rarely consumed balanced nutritious food. Aims: to find the correlation between clean and healthy lifestyle behaviours, healthy housing and the frequency of accute respiratory infection in children under the age of 1-4 years. Method: a cross-sectional study was used by involving mothers or caregivers with infants aged 1-4 years in Malang Regency. A questionnaire was applied as research instrument. Data obtained were conducted by a nonparametric contingency coefficient test with IBM SPSS v17. Result: Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant correlation between family members who smoke (p-value=0.021) and the level of home density (p-value=0.03) with the frequency of acute respiratory tract infections in toddlers. While the relationship of other variables such as the sex of children under five (p-value=0.799), clean and healthy lifestyle behaviour: delivery at primary health care (p-value=0.084), exclusive breastfeeding(p-value=0.940), routinely visiting Integrated Healthcare Center (p-value=0.396), hand washing behaviour (p-value=0.523), consuming healthy food (p-value=0.247), and infant’s activity(p-value=0.096), healthy housing: ventilation (p-value=0.396) and lighting (p-value=0.767) have no a significant correlation with incident of accute respiratory infection in infants. Conclusion: There is a correlation between family members who smoke and the level of home density with the frequency of accute respiratory infection in children under the age of 1-4 years.

Keywords: clean and healthy lifestyle behaviours, healthy housing, frequently of accute respiratory infection, children, health behavior

Citation: Kautsar ME, Anggraeni N, Sari VP, Mboe RBA, Widyasari A, Azwan ZA, et al. The clean and healthy lifestyle behaviors and healthy housing influenced the incident of acute respiratory infection in childhood. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4837-42.

Isolation of different trematodes cercariae spp. of medical and veterinary importance from Shatt-Al-Arab water south of Iraq
Shaimaa A. Alsamir

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Abstract

The current study was designed to determine larval trematodes (cercaria stage) that infect “Melanopsis and Lymnae” snails in Shatt- Al-Arab water south of Iraq. Some of those trematode species are of medical and veterinary importance.
 Snail samples were brought from different observation sites of the river, two species were recognised corresponding to the morphological features of the shell, then crushed directly to obtain cercariae. The most abundant species was Melanopsis with a percentage of 60.9% followed by 39.1% for the Lymnea. The Melanopsis species were the most highly infected with 327 infections record (77.4%), followed by 179 (66.2%) of Lymnea snails (66.2%). Nine morphologically different Cercariae species were recorded in both Melanopsis and lymnea species except Furcosircus cercaria were absent In the Melanopsis snails.

Keywords: trematodes, cercaria, Shatt-Al-Arab water

Citation: Alsamir SA. Isolation of different trematodes cercariae spp. of medical and veterinary importance from Shatt-Al-Arab water south of Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4843-6.

Evaluate the effect of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics on gingivae and alveolar bone: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
Meysam Haghighat, Mohammad Ghasemirad, Maryam Sarbaz, Kimiya Sezavar

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Abstract

Background and aim: the aim of present systematic review and meta-analysis was evaluate the effect of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics on gingival and alveolar bone.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2010 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. Mean differences between two groups (PAOO group vs control group) with 95% confidence interval (CI), fixed effect model and Inverse-variance method were calculated. The Meta analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program Stata V16.
Result: A total of 360 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of four publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Mean difference in Alveolar bone thickness between the PAOO and control group was 0.07mm (MD, 0.07mm 95% CI -0.39mm, 0.53mm. P= 0.76) and mean difference in GR between the PAOO and control group was 0.03mm (MD, 0.03mm 95% CI -0.05mm, 0.11mm. P= 0.49).
Conclusion: Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics had no negative effect on alveolar bone and gingival recession.

Keywords: alveolar process, orthodontics, periodontal

Citation: Haghighat M, Ghasemirad M, Sarbaz M, Sezavar K. Evaluate the effect of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics on gingivae and alveolar bone: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4847-52.

Prevalence of rotavirus infection in pediatric patients after introduction of the Rotateq@ vaccine in Jordan
M Alrwashdeh, M Almaayteh, A Kaabneh, W Haddadin, M Ababneh, N AL-Hmoud

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Abstract

Rotavirus is the leading causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children. Rotateq@ vaccine is one of the recommended rotavirus vaccines by WHO, which been approved in 2007. Jordan has introduced the Rotateq@ into the national vaccination program in 2015. This study aims to assess the impact of introducing the Rotateq@ on the prevalence of rotavirus infection in Jordan. A total of 191 stool samples were collected from patients under 5 years of age whom were admitted to the military Jordanian hospitals with symptoms of gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea. RT-PCR assays were carried out to detect the VP7 and VP4 genes of Rotavirus. An assay targeting the distinctive vaccine gene “NSP3” was also conducted to discriminate between wild and vaccine infection. Sequence analysis was applied to the VP7 and VP4 genes of positive rotavirus samples to confirm the results and identify the genotypes. The results showed that 11 samples out of 191 (<6%) were confirmed as rotavirus infection. No vaccine strains were detected in any of the samples. Sequence analysis for VP7 and VP4 genes identified the genotypes as G1P8 (36%), G2P4 (36%), G1NA (18%), and G2NA (9%). This study revealed the significant impact of the Rotateq@ vaccine in reducing the prevalence of rotavirus infection within the target population in Jordan.

Keywords: gastroenteritis, pediatrics, Rotateq@, rotavirus, vaccine

Citation: Alrwashdeh M, Almaayteh M, Kaabneh A, Haddadin W, Ababneh M, AL-Hmoud N. Prevalence of rotavirus infection in pediatric patients after introduction of the Rotateq@ vaccine in Jordan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4853-60.

Early IL-5 transgenesis of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CA-CRC) mouse model exacerbate the disease severity
Mariam M. Al-Omari, Maryam N. Naffa’a, Nesreen M. Bataineh, Khaled M. Al-Qaoud

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Abstract

Aims: To explore the role of IL-5 in eosinophils induction and cytokine modulation on the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer mouse model (CA-CRC).
Methods and Material: A plasmid carrying the mouse IL-5 gene (IL-5 transgenesis) was injected to the mice with concurrently induction of CA-CRC mouse model, Then (CA-CRC) development, cytokine gene expression, cell dynamics in tumor vicinity and peritoneal cavity were analysed.
Results: A protumorigenic role of IL-5 was shown on early stages of CRC development as mice experienced severe physical symptoms including: rectal bleeding, diarrhea and significant reduction in body weight gain. Late findings of IL-5 transgenesis revealed higher tumor rates (89.0% vs 50%), significantly higher tumor count (15.1±7.2 vs 7.3±10.6 per colon), higher average tumor size (9.1±5.2 vs 4.4±6.5 mm), higher invasiveness index and shorter colon length. Microscopic examination of tumors revealed the presence of higher plasma cell count but lower eosinophils in AOM-DSS-pIL-5 treated group when compared to AOM-DSS group. Cytokine gene expression pointed out to the downregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β and the overexpression of IFN-γ in both tumor bearing groups compared to pIL-5 group. IL-5 treatment of AOM-DSS mice resulted in insignificant reduction in IL-5 gene expression in colon tissue that was associated with lower eosinophil count in the peritoneal cavity wash.
Conclusions: Immunomodulatory effect of early IL-5 expression in the CA-CRC and its role in the early migration of eosinophils to colon epithelia during colitis development raised the colitis severity and induced higher polyp rate formation and consequently higher tumor load.

Keywords: colitis-associated colorectal cancer, Eosinophils, IL-5, transgenesis

Citation: Al-Omari MM, Naffa’a MN, Bataineh NM, Al-Qaoud KM. Early IL-5 transgenesis of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CA-CRC) mouse model exacerbate the disease severity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4861-9.

Study the effect of some plant’s powders on adults of rustic flour beetle Tribolium castaneum
Zainab J. Mohammed, Alaa H. Olewi, Dhefaf R. Mahdhi

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Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the efficacy of three plant powders (Moringa oleifera, Mentha arvensis, and Syzygium aromaticum) on red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum after 1, 2, 24, and 72 hr. The results showed that the concentration of 6 g of M. arvensis leaf powder recorded the highest percentage of insect expulsion reached 90% and the lowest expulsion rate of Moringa oleifera plant at a concentration of 2 g was 23.3 after half an hour. While the Syzygium aromaticum with the same concentration reached 50% after 24 hours. The results of the percentage of killings calculated after 24 hours showed the highest percentage of Syzygium aromaticum powder by 6.00% and the concentration of 6 g and the lowest percentage of Mentha arvensis reached 2.33% at the same concentration. The percentage of killings after 72 hours for Moringa oleifera, Mentha arvensis, and Syzygium aromaticum powders showed the highest killing rate of 6g was 8.66% 3.33%, and 9.33% respectively

Keywords: plant powder, Tribolium castaneum, repellent, mortality

Citation: Mohammed ZJ, Olewi AH, Mahdhi DR. Study the effect of some plant’s powders on adults of rustic flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4871-5.

Features of formation and functioning in the psyche of the subject of the mechanism of substitution (psycho-correction function of pets)
T. Perepeliuk, T. Traverse, I. Dziubenko, M. Tkachuk

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Abstract

Depth psychology explains many points in a person’s life. Man shares his place in society with animals. But we have never thought about how they affect us, and whether they affect us at all, why we choose this animal only, not another one, and whether we should have a pet at all. Because this problem is very little covered in depth psychology, we found it interesting. This problem is relevant nowadays - a time when people suffer from loneliness, misunderstandings, conflicts and difficulties in the family.

Keywords: child, pet, substitution mechanism, psychoanalysis, analytical psychology, in-depth psychology, family system, society, mental health, psycho-correction function

Citation: Perepeliuk T, Traverse T, Dziubenko I, Tkachuk M. Features of formation and functioning in the psyche of the subject of the mechanism of substitution (psycho-correction function of pets). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4877-91.

Molecular and morphological study of the UV radiation on mice sperm formulation
Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed, Hiba Moneer Abdul Hassan, Maysaa Adil Ali

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Abstract

After exposure of mice to ultra violet (UV) radiation for 30, 60 and 90 minutes for 8 days and after sacrificing the mice, sperm isolation and examine. The percentage of live and normal sperm decrease and the percentage of dead and abnormal sperm increase with the increase of exposure time as compared with the control, this is before fertilization. Also examine the sperm after fertilization to induce the new sperm formation. The results revealed that higher percentage of normal and live sperm was decreased and higher percentage of dead and abnormal sperm increased as compared with the percentage of them before fertilization and in compare with control. Also after each exposure, serum was examined to determine the concentration of reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and Testosterone). Before fertilization, the level of reproductive hormones increases with the increase of exposure time as compared with the control while after fertilization the level of reproductive hormones increases more than before fertilization.
 There is a protein in humans called Zinc Finger Y-chromosomal protein which is encoded by the ZFY gene on the Y chromosome, there are two paralogous copies expressed in mice, Zfy1 and Zfy2, wrongful expression of one of them during spermatogenesis, results in apoptosis at the mid-pachytene checkpoint. Zfy genes in mice are useful for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and may work as a transcription factor. In Zfy knockout spermatocytes, sex chromosomes are wrongly coding. Therefore, the Zfy has some functions at the mid-pachytene checkpoint: (1) promote MSCI, (2) monitor MSCI progress, and (3) execute cells, by program cell death, that fail to undergo MSCI. 
Our results show that zfy1 increases its expression in group (1) 4.06 fold after exposed to UV ray in 30 min and increases its expression in group (2,3) 11.80 and 20.00 folds after exposed to UV ray in 60 and 90 min respectively, that means increases in meiosis and higher incidence of meiotic errors lead to lower sperm counts and abnormalities sperms.

Keywords: sperm, gene expression, reproductive hormones, Zfy

Citation: Mohammed WH, Abdul Hassan HM, Ali MA. Molecular and morphological study of the UV radiation on mice sperm formulation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4893-00.

Noise levels of pollution during processing of maple wood (Albania)
Holta Çota, Merita Stafasani, Entela Lato, Doklea Quku, Laura Shumka

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Abstract

The acoustic pollution is an environmental contaminant, which is known as a real threat to people’s health and quality of life. The noise is one the main professional noxious in woodworking industries. The wood processing employees are exposed to work hazards starting from various accidents at work, to the risks of contaminations by wood dusts, noise pollution, chemical agents etc. This study consists in analyzing the noise levels during the processing of maple timber samples in planner and spindle moulder which are available in woodworking facility of the Faculty of Forest Sciences of Tirana. From all the measurements, it resulted that during the maple samples processing in planner machine, the noise levels don’t exceed the permissive noise level of 85 dB(A), while during the maple samples processing in Spindle moulder the levels of noise are higher, exceeding the permissive noise level of 85 dB(A) in both feeding rates. By increasing of feeding speed from V1 to V2, the Equivalent Noise Level (dB) is increased too.

Keywords: noise pollution, maple, noise level, planner machine, spindle moulder

Citation: Çota H, Stafasani M, Lato E, Quku D, Shumka L. Noise levels of pollution during processing of maple wood (Albania). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4901-5.

Toxicity and feeding inhibition of neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) against Plutella xylostella larvae on cabbage
Flora Pasaru, Moh. Hibban Toana, Mujiarti, Effendy

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Abstract

Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.), one of the Brassicaceae family, was widely planted in Central Sulawesi and was favored by the community. One of the main pests that attacks the Brassicaceae family is Plutella xylostella and it can cause damage to cabbage plants ranging from 85% - 100%. Neem leaf extract contains azadirachtin compound which is toxic and can affect the development of live larvae of P. xylostella larvae in test insects. The objective of this research was to determine the toxicity, feeding inhibition and morphological changes in larvae after the application of neem leaf extract. This research was done at the laboratory of pest and plant disease, faculty of agriculture, Tadulako University from September 2018 to February 2019. This research used the Sandwich method, consisted of 5 treatments, namely 0% concentration (control), 15%, 25%, 35%, and 45% which were repeated 3 times each, and the number of larvae for each treatment used 20 tails (3 instar larvae were used). Variables observed were larvae mortality, feeding inhibition, and morphological changes of larvae. The results showed that neem leaf extract could cause mortality of P. xylostella larvae by 50% with LC50 value of 20.73%, and, at 45% concentration, larvae mortality reached 95%. Moreover, it could inhibit the activity of feeding larvae with a value of R2 0.96 or 96% and affect the morphological changes of larvae, which turned from bright green to pale green with a body shape that was short and looked swollen at the abdomen.

Keywords: cabbage plant, extract, azadirachta indica, plutella xylostella

Citation: Pasaru F, Toana MH, Mujiarti, Effendy. Toxicity and feeding inhibition of neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) against Plutella xylostella larvae on cabbage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4907-12.

The innovative educational programs engineering using intelligent technologies
Mikhail Samuilovich Gasparian, Dmitry Gennadievich Korneev, Irina Sergeevna Lebedeva, Andrey Aleksandrovich Mikryukov, Mariya Alekseevna Filyuk

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Abstract

The purpose of the present research is to develop innovative educational programs at the stage of the digital transformation of higher education and the transition to practice-oriented project training of university graduates in IT majors.
This goal can be achieved only by integrating all components of the educational process into single information and educational space. The solution to this problem is seen in the development of methods and tools for generating academic methodological and organizational-administrative content based on the digital repository of the electronic learning system through knowledge management technologies that ensure the adaptability of the educational process using an ontological approach.
As a result of the conducted analysis of factors for improving the quality of the educational process, the ways to improve the training of bachelors are outlined in terms of the development of an educational program in the major of Applied Informatics in the context of combining ontologies of professional and educational standards. The article also presents approaches to the engineering of such educational programs based on the interaction and composition of integrated information and educational space elements, as well as the semantic modeling, and automatic generation of educational and organizational-managerial content based on engineering.
Thus, the proposed method will contribute to improving the efficiency of the educational process and meeting the global trends in the development of science in the concerned field of knowledge, which will bring the training of highly qualified specialists in the IT industry to a qualitatively new level.

Keywords: information and educational space, ontology, professional standard, educational standard, educational content, competency, learning result, job function, semantic modeling

Citation: Gasparian MS, Korneev DG, Lebedeva IS, Mikryukov AA, Filyuk MA. The innovative educational programs engineering using intelligent technologies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4913-21.

Risk factors of hypertension in rural Indonesia: a cross-sectional study from a rural village in Indonesia
Jovian Philip Swatan, Febriyani Aulia Dini, Dimas Cahyo Wibowo, Felicia Jiwantono, Priscillia Ivana Jie, Dewi Rosita Hendriana, Afina Thara Pitaloka, Nur Indah Prasetyowati, Ananda Febina Kimresti Armaneeyuda, Sulistiawati Sulistiawati, Linda Dewanti

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Abstract

Aim: To determine the risk factors of hypertension in rural Indonesia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in East Java, Indonesia. Using the modified WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) questionnaire, variables related to the risk factors of hypertension were collected. Acquired data was analysed for significance using SPSS ver. 23.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, USA).
Results: A total of 103 respondents participated in this study. The prevalence of hypertension in this study was 35.92%. Old age (OR = 8.25, CI 95% 1.69 – 40.31) and obesity (OR = 6.18, CI 95% 2.09 – 18.32) was found to be a significant risk factor of hypertension. While gender, education level, occupation, physical activity, and smoking habits were considered not significant.
Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension in rural Indonesia is still high. This study highlighted age and body mass index as the significant risk factors of hypertension.

Keywords: hypertension, Indonesia, risk factor, rural health

Citation: Swatan JP, Dini FA, Wibowo DC, Jiwantono F, Jie PI, Hendriana DR, et al. Risk factors of hypertension in rural Indonesia: a cross-sectional study from a rural village in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4923-7.

Molecular detection of Quorum sensing genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from CSOM patients and their relationship to biofilm ability
Amer Alwan Khuris Al-Kilabi, Thanaa Shamsulddin Al-Turaihi, Habeeb Shuhaib Al Mohammed

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Abstract

CSOM is considered as a complex infectious and inflammatory diseases that affect middle ear. The complications are due to CSOM including, intracranial like meningitis and brain abscess which are the most common causes of death in patient with CSOM.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa are difficult to treat because the majority of isolates present high level of resistance to many types of antibiotics this is associated to its ability for biofilm production.
Biofilm-associated infections cause considerable problems, thus the major objective of the present study is to evaluate the frequency of phenotypic biofilm production and the role of the selected Quorum Sensing Genes in pseudomonas aeruginosa that is the most common and serious bacterial type isolated from CSOM patients.
Material and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of (31) isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from (82) patients suffering from CSOM were collected between January to the end of April 2019 admitted at the main hospitals in Al-Najaf province.
Results: Among 31 isolates of Ps. aeruginosa collected from CSOM patients Detection of In-vitro biofilm formation in these isolates were carried out by tissue-culture plate TCP method (the most sensitive method for detection biofilm production) the method detected (45%)as strong, (42%)as moderate, (13%) weak adherent and (0%) non biofilm production. Screening for some selected genes responsible for biofilm formation was done by PCR (LasI, LasR, rhlI, Rh IR) were present in most of the Ps. aeruginosa isolates, 27(87%) of isolates give positive results for LasI; 25(80.64%) of isolates give positive results for LasR gene; 25(80.6%) of isolates show positive result for rhlI and 28(90.3%) %) of isolates show positive result for RhlR gene.
Conclusion: The results revealed that the presence of Quorum sensing genes (lasI, lasR, rhII, RhlR) which are responsible in biofilm formation were present in most of the Ps. aeruginosa isolates.

Keywords: chronic supportive otitis media, polymerase chain reaction, pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing, tissue culture plate

Citation: Al-Kilabi AAK, Al-Turaihi TS, Al Mohammed HS. Molecular detection of Quorum sensing genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from CSOM patients and their relationship to biofilm ability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4929-34.

Investigations of primary grain and sorghum materials in the South Kazakhstan region and development of methods for selecting their new varieties and hybrids
Mambetov Kalmakhan, Abildayeva Rosa, Alpamysova Gulzhayna, Alpamysova Aigul, Kozykeeva Raikhan, Isabaev Nurpeys, Kenzhebay Rabiga, Alibayeva Elmira, Dauylbay Amina, Makhatov Zhaksylyk

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Abstract

In this article. Sorghum is a widely used crop in the world land cultivation since ancient times. It is cultivated in over 50 million hectares in 85 countries in the dry, semi-dry and insufficiently irrigated world. In our country is used as a food and feed crop, which is produced as a vegetable and nutrient and green mass of straw, sugar syrup, nutritional wheat.
The purpose and objectives of the study are to study the primary materials of succulent and sucrose and to obtain high quality, drought-resistant, high-quality, varieties and hybrids that are resistant to diseases and pests. 
Scientific novelty. For the first time, a new sugar material was obtained from 400 different types of specimens as the starting material. 480 hybrids were extracted between grains and sugar species.
Selected hybrids and sampling varieties with valuable features and properties have been selected for the sampling work. One of the varieties of sugar sampling and one of the suction samples was extracted and sent to the state sample with the participation of the author.
Result of the research. The fertilization of the seeds is largely due to the fact that their ripening, harvesting and storage are the case. Maturity period depends largely on sowing time. The danger of early sowing is that the seeds may bleed and die at low soil temperatures, if the weather conditions are favorable for vegetable growing, the late maturing collection varieties are well matured. The late sowing provides quick growth of sprouts and facilitates the fight against weed grass, but the late moisture seeds that come late in early September are at risk of damaging ice crystals and endosperms, which significantly reduces fertilization.

Keywords: sorghum, sugar, corn, variety, hybrid, seeds, beet, agro-industrial complex, agronomist

Citation: Kalmakhan M, Rosa A, Gulzhayna A, Aigul A, Raikhan K, Nurpeys I, et al. Investigations of primary grain and sorghum materials in the South Kazakhstan region and development of methods for selecting their new varieties and hybrids. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4935-43.

Long-term investment planning methodology for oilfield development efficiency
Bulat G. Ganiev, Arslan V. Nasybullin, Ildar I. Mannanov, Dinara R Khayarova, Farit M. Latifullin, Ramil Z. Sattarov, Maria A. Sharifullina, Rafael R. Khafizov

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Abstract

The relevance of the researched problem based on the need of digitalization of elements in the production chain, implemented in oil companies. The purpose of this process is to obtain benefits in the formation of digital models of physical and economic processes underlies on the application of modern approaches to data processing, that includes the usage of both high-performance computing systems and machine learning. The article presents the method of forming the long - term investment program for the effective development of oilfields. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the use of modern mathematical methods to maximize the automation of this process. The article presents the main guidelines for the automated formation of the investment program methodology, to determine the most efficient geological and engineering activities for the oilfield reserves. It also performs automatic generation of many scenarios with different distribution of the proposed geological and engineering activity numbers by years; calculates the technical and economic indicators of oilfield development for each possible scenario formed and uses high - performance calculations to cover the most complete set of different investment planning options. The developed methodology allows planning investments for the development of all oil fields of an oil producing company using optimization methods and machine learning in the long term.

Keywords: recoverable reserves, investment planning, geological and technical activities, machine learning, neural network

Citation: Ganiev BG, Nasybullin AV, Mannanov II, Khayarova DR, Latifullin FM, Sattarov RZ, et al. Long-term investment planning methodology for oilfield development efficiency. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4945-2.

The effectiveness of the predominant execution of a long three-point throw in a game situation in basketball
Oleg A. Musin, Vladimir A. Kuznetsov, Maria V. Lebedkina, Alexander B. Smirnov, Sergei A. Smirnov

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Abstract

Purpose: This article examines the results of attacking actions in basketball where long-range three-point throws are mainly used. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of the predominant long-range three-point throw in a game situation in basketball. Methodology: The leading research approaches to the use of long-range three-point throw are: structural-analytical and personality-oriented approaches. Research methods - scientific and methodological literature analysis and summarizing, questionnaires, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and methods of mathematical statistics. Results: As a result of our research, we compared North American and European basketball patterns and statistics for the 2018/19 season and the proposed 2018/19 season in the NBA and Euroleague. The results are given and discussed, proving the effectiveness of the use of long-range three-point throw in basketball in competitive conditions. Applications: The article will be useful for both novice and professional basketball coaches, as an aid in building the training process during the preparation for the competition. Novelty/Originality: The problem under study is relevant, since in the NBA teams spend 8-18 seconds to attack the ring. Defensive formations are not a decisive factor in achieving a winning result. The principle applies: “score more than the opponent”. The use of long-range three-point throws will add variability in the attack, reduce the time to attack, and also add the number of attacks, which contributes to an increase in effectiveness.

Keywords: long-distance three-point shots, competitive season, basketball attacking actions, physical training of basketball players

Citation: Musin OA, Kuznetsov VA, Lebedkina MV, Smirnov AB, Smirnov SA. The effectiveness of the predominant execution of a long three-point throw in a game situation in basketball. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4953-9.

Human sperm DNA fragmentation and its correlation with antioxidant markers and sperm characteristics in Iraqi males
Hussein A. Fadhil, Ibtisam A. AL-Ali, Hameedah Hadi Abdul Wahid

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Abstract

Background: The determination of sperm DNA fragmentation, as a significant addition to semen routine examination, has been applied in some medical andrology laboratories. This study aimed to determine the association between sperm DNA fragmentation (DFI) and semen quality and antioxidant and fertility status.
Methods: Semen samples from 88 infertile males (36 asthenozoospermia, 22 oligoasthenozoospermia) and 30 normospermia were analyzed for sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm parameters were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines.
Results: After their sperm DFI was examined, it was found that the sperm DFI of asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic patients were higher than the normozoospermic males. The activity of SOD in seminal plasma was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in oligoasthenozoospermic subjects as compared to normospermic groups. Significant differences were noted in spermatozoa SOD activity between normospermic and asthenozoospermic compared to oligoasthenozoospermic subjects. The results showed that sperm DFI was positively related to infertility duration.while negatively related to progressive motility and seminal plasma catalase. Correlations between seminal antioxidant status and semen parameters were also evaluated in this study. Spermatozoal SOD activity showed a significant correlation with sperm concentration.
Conclusion: Sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the main source of male infertility, which associated with poor fertility outcomes in couples. Our results have shown that sperm DNA fragmentation index was almost significantly linked to all values reflecting semen quality, indicating that sperm DFI might be an important cause leading to the decline of semen parameters.

Keywords: sperm DNA fragmentation, sperm parameters, antioxidants, SD1, SOD

Citation: Fadhil HA, AL-Ali IA, Abdul Wahid HH. Human sperm DNA fragmentation and its correlation with antioxidant markers and sperm characteristics in Iraqi males. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):4961-8.