EurAsian Journal of BioSciences (Eurasia J Biosci, e-ISSN 1307-9867) is an international, refereed electronic journal. It publishes the results of original research in the field of biological sciences especially related to morphology, physiology, genetics, ethnobiology, ethnobotany, taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Advantages of publishing in Eurasia J Biosci

  • Independent, rigorous peer review
  • Rapid publication
  • Open access – gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. 
  • Quality: Eurasia J Biosci applies the professional copyediting and typesetting processes.
  • Indexed in major databasesEurasia J Biosci is indexed by AGRICOLA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, SCOPUS, SCImago, Zoological Record (Thomson Reuters) etc. All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI)- CrossRef. 

Current Issue (Volume 14, Issue 2, August-December 2020)

(In Progress)

The distribution of lethal Holstein haplotypes affecting female fertility among the Russian Black-and-White cattle
Abdulrahman Khatib, Alexander M. Mazur, Egor Prokhortchouk

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Abstract

Background: Many genetic defects have been discovered and proved to be associated with the decrease of female fertility of dairy cattle. These defects are now selected against in many countries. The occurrence of these defects among the Russian dairy cattle has never been extensively screened before. In this study, we will investigate the occurrence of 10 lethal recessive Holstein haplotypes HH0 (BY), HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5, HCD, HHC (CVM), HHB (BLAD) and HHD (DUMPS) among the Russian Black-White cattle, and we will determine the carrier frequency and the frequency of the mutant alleles for these haplotypes. 
Materials and Methods: 1991 animals (1500 bulls and 491 cows) of the Russian Black-and-White cattle were included in the study. Two methods were used for identification of carriers of mutations. The first one is genotyping the animals using the bovine DNA chips that contain the mutations and the second one is the polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Results: The results clearly showed the presence of these defects among the Russian Black-and-White animals. The occurrence was relatively high for some defects such as BY, HCD, HH1 and HH3 with a carrier frequency of 4.11, 5.66, 2.96 and 2.88%, respectively. No carriers were detected for DUMPS.
Conclusions: This work represented an important attempt for extensively screening the occurrence of various genetic defects among the Russian dairy cattle. This has a significant importance in breeding programs. It helps breeders to make an appropriate mating decision by mating only carriers to non-carriers. Such management leads to avoid the economic losses and to decrease the frequency of the mutant alleles in the cattle population.

Keywords: cattle, fertility, genetic defects, Holstein haplotypes

Citation: Khatib A, Mazur AM, Prokhortchouk E. The distribution of lethal Holstein haplotypes affecting female fertility among the Russian Black-and-White cattle. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2545-2.

Microbial study of Trichophyton rubrum isolated from various Tinea infections
Raed Ali Hussain Shabaa

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Abstract

Dermatophytes infections, especially those affecting the keratinized tissues, are a major concern worldwide and are increasing on a global scale. Dermatophytosis is an infection of the skin, hair, and nails as a result of colonization of the Keratin layers in the body. The factors causing dermatomycosis are classified in three distorted genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This study was aimed to isolate and identify Trichiphyton rubrum from different Tinea infection using morphological features including scanning electron microscope examination and to evaluate its sensitivity towards several antifungal drugs. Seventy-three Tinea infections specimens were included in this study. All the clinical specimens were cultured onto sabouraud dextrose agar plates and potato dextrose agar plates and identified using cultural and microscopic features. The positive specimens for Trichiphyton rubrum were tested for susceptibility towards different antifungal drugs. The results showed that from all the clinical specimens (73), included in this study 25 (34.2%) were positive for Trichiphyton rubrum. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical type of Trichiphyton rubrum infection with incidence of 9 (36%). All of the Trichiphyton rubrum isolates were sensitive to Nystatin (NS 100 IU), Amphotericin-B (AP 100 IU) and Itraconazole (IT 10µg), and resistant to Clotrimazole (CC 10µg), Ketoconazole (KT 10µg), and Fluconazole (FLC 10µg). In Conclusion Tinea corporis is the most dermatophytosis caused by Trichiphyton rubrum and Nystatin is the most effective antifungal drug towered it.

Keywords: Trichiphyton rubrum, Tinea Infections, dermatophytes

Citation: Shabaa RAH. Microbial study of Trichophyton rubrum isolated from various Tinea infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2553-8.

The association between genetic polymorphisms of Il-6 gene and susceptibility of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iraqi population
Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussein Al-Husseini

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Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that affects many organs and is characterized by cytokine imbalance and hereditary factors that give a predisposition to the diseases development. The present study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of IL-6 gene (-174G/ C) plays an important role in the SLE in Iraqi population. Blood samples of 103 SLE patients and 100 healthy individuals were collected. Serological test of serum anti-dsDNA was assayed, and it was very efficient in diagnosis of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-dsDNA was 96.2% and 100%, respectively, with high predictive value. The Genotyping of IL-6 gene SNP was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The genotype distribution showed significant difference (P<0.05) between controls (GG: n= 69, 69%; GC: n=22, 22%; CC: n=9,9 %) and SLE patients (GG : n= 38, 36.89 %; GC : n=41, 39.80 %; CC : n=24, 23.3%). C allele frequency was significantly increased in SLE patients than in controls (X2=25.204; P<0.05; OR=3.043, 95% CI=1.954-4.738). In conclusion, the frequency of C allele (heterozygous and /or homozygous) in Iraqi SLE patients may indicated that it may be play a big role in pathogenesis of SLE and it can be considered as a major cause of local tissue inflammation that involved in all certain complication of SLE disease.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, Promoter of IL-6 gene, SNP, Iraq

Citation: Al-Husseini RMA. The association between genetic polymorphisms of Il-6 gene and susceptibility of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iraqi population. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2559-67.

Some questions about Teae folia (Thea sinensis L. seu Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) as а medicinal raw material
Оlena V. Grechana, Anatoly G. Serbin, Sergiy D. Trshecinskiy, Olexandr I. Panasenko, Lina Yu. Klimenko, Tetyana V. Oproshanska, Olena O. Saliy

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Abstract

Background: One of the most popular plant and beverage is a Thea sinensis or Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) also known as Theae Folia or Green Tea. There are some reasons for it, such that the sensory properties, prices are relatively cheap, stimulant effects, and their potential health benefits. Motherland of this plant is considered the China. This is where people have paid attention to the ability of a decoction of the leaves have a tonic effect on the human body and the first to grow this plant. Tea folia as a medicine are made from unfermented tea leaves and young shoots. This process is fast in special drying machines. Objective: European Pharmacopoeia have monograph Green Tea and the herb that we know as a food drink have as medicine herb now. The objective of research of herbal medicine is the quality and safety of natural products. Materials and Methods: Macroscopical and microscopical features of the leaf and shoots have been analysis using an optical microscope. Phytochemical and physico-chemical analysis were evaluated. The observation of the spectrum profiles is done by interpreting the typical peak that appears. Results: Theae Folia have actinocytic stomata, unicellular trichomes, heterogenous mesophyll which is characterized by the presence of calcium oxalate crystals and sclereid cells. Phytochemical analysis indicated resources the presence of purine alkaloids caffeine and theabromine and many other drugs. The content of caffeine from Teae Folia ethanolic and water extract is differ to time. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic and phytochemicals features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard, which can play an important role in its standardization.

Keywords: medicinal plant, microscopic, caffeine

Citation: Grechana ОV, Serbin AG, Trshecinskiy SD, Panasenko OI, Klimenko LY, Oproshanska TV, et al. Some questions about Teae folia (Thea sinensis L. seu Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) as а medicinal raw material. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2569-75.

Study the relationship between Interleukin-35 and clusterin with Mda, Gsh, Cat and Sod among male Iraqi chronic Hepatitis C patients
Shakir F. T. Alaaraji, Shakir M. S. Alfahdawi, Majid A. Mohaisen

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Abstract

Background: Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) disease is known as a main public health problem through the world. CHC disease might lead to fibrosis of hepatocytes. In present paper, we attempted to measure whether there is any association among IL-35 and CLU with MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD, and several biochemical variables such as AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, T. BIL, and albumin. Methods: This study has included 44 patients from the Al-Fallujah Teaching Hospital, who was having CHC disease, and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were registered. Serum AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, T. BIL, albumin concentrations were estimated by colorimetric methods, IL-35 and CLU, MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD levels were estimated by ELISA technique. Results: Compared with healthy controls, the serum IL-35 and CLU, GSH, CAT and SOD concentrations were lower of patients with CHC and the serum MDA values were higher (P<0.0001, all), the serum IL-35 and CLU concentrations related positively with serum GSH, CAT, SOD and albumin, and negatively correlated with MDA, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and T. BIL concentrations (all P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of serum for MDA, CLU, SOD, CAT, IL-35 and GSH levels were 0.9904, 0.9403, 0.9274, 0.9246, 0.8515 and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Correlation among IL-35 and CLU with MAD, GSH, CAT and SOD may be attractive markers to predict disease development in CHC patients.

Keywords: Interleukin-35, clusterin, oxidative stress, chronic Hepatitis C

Citation: Alaaraji SFT, Alfahdawi SMS, Mohaisen MA. Study the relationship between Interleukin-35 and clusterin with Mda, Gsh, Cat and Sod among male Iraqi chronic Hepatitis C patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2577-86.

A survey study for aborted women toward cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma in Babylon City
Ashwaq M. S. Al-Jbouri, Nagham Adil Ghani Chabuck, Rasha Fadhel Obaid, Samah Ahmed Kadhum Al-Jebory

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Abstract

The study was directed to detect correlation between demographic data and the abortion then Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) roles in cases of abortion as well as study the possible association between the two infections. The blood samples were collected from 100 aborted women who have consulted Imam Sadiq Hospital in AL-Hilla city, and tested for being there of IgM and IgG regarding CMV and Toxoplasma gondii during the period from October 2018 to May 2019. The information were taken for each aborted women included: the age, habitant, history of abortion, occupation, education state, single or recurrent, history of contact to domesticated particularly cats animals, eating history of undercooked meat, fruits, vegetable and drinking unpasteurized milk. 100 blood samples from aborted women were collected and tested for antibodies detection (IgM and IgG) specially for CMV and T. gondii by means of Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The sera of all blood samples were taken. A total of 100 sera obtained from aborted pregnant women, 75 of aborted women were cytomegalovirus, while 18 of aborted women were toxoplasma and 7 was negative result. The highest infections prevalence of T.gondii and CMV has been indicated in the age groups (21-25) years old. For aborted women, showed that rural-urban ratio was higher in rural than in urban. From aborted pregnant women, 82% of housewives carry specific anti-T.gondii antibody, while only (18%) of employed women were with specific anti-T.gondii antibody. As well as, depending on repeated abortion of 100 aborted women found 82 were with 1-2 repeated abortion, 11 with 3-4 repeated abortions, 7 with more than four abortions. The infection of CMV and Toxoplasmosis were more prevalent in aborted women. The highest cases of abortion has been showed in the age groups (21-25) years old as well as decrease cases of abortion with increase age. Depending on habitant, prevalence rate of CMV and T.gondii infections were higher in rural than urban for aborted women. As well as, depending on occupation was found that the housewives women had infection higher than employees women.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma gondii, abortion

Citation: Al-Jbouri AMS, Chabuck NAG, Obaid RF, Al-Jebory SAK. A survey study for aborted women toward cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma in Babylon City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2587-90.

Environmental monitoring plan for marine ports, case study Shuwaikh Port, Kuwait
Ahmed Al Rashed, Hossam Mostgab, Ahmed Gad

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Abstract

Shuwaikh port is considered the main commercial port in Kuwait. It is located in west Kuwait. The total area of the port is about 4.4 million squares meters. It was established in 1961 after the independence from England. The port is considered the major one in the country. Rapid growth in population urbanization and life style has led to enlargement of infra structures of the port. This paper provides comprehensive environmental monitoring assessment issues associated with the port operations, terminal consideration and construction and aeration and its effect on the port and the surrounding area.

Keywords: Shuwaikh, port, assessment, environment

Citation: Al Rashed A, Mostgab H, Gad A. Environmental monitoring plan for marine ports, case study Shuwaikh Port, Kuwait. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2591-600.

The association between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles
Wasan Adnan Abdulhameed, Nahlah Abdulmajeed Hasan, Ali Ibrahim Rahim, A. H. Mohammed

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Abstract

Background: Among the environmental factors, diet has received much attention because of growing bulk of data that discloses significant and substantial role for dietary elements, particularly, micronutrient in fertility pathophysiology. One of the major dietary elements that have been recently under focus is dietary folate. A number of vital cellular events, such as transfer RNA, synthesis of DNA, methionine and cysteine, require folate as an essential molecular participant. A number of previous studies have documented that folate supplementation can improve fertility outcome; whereas, other studies have denied such an association between folate supplementation and fertility outcomes.
Aim of the study: to study a possible correlation between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles.
Patients and methods: The present study was done on 65 infertile couples who were chosen from those attended the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies who were subjected to an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Their ages ranged from 18 to 42 years. Both primary and secondary types of infertility were involved, with heterogeneous causes. From each woman, venous blood sample and follicular fluid sample was obtained for folate concentration determination using ELISA technique. 
Results: The biochemical pregnancy rate was 32.3 %. There was significant association between plasma folate level and positive pregnancy outcome (P < 0.05), when comparing the pregnancy rate of deficient group, lower normal group and high group with that of normal group. The highest pregnancy rate was observed in women with normal plasma folate and it equals 56.7 %, therefore it was considered a reference group for purpose of comparison. Pregnancy rate of deficient folate group was significantly lower than that of normal folate group, 11.1 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.043). In addition, pregnancy rate of lower normal folate group was significantly lower than that of normal folate group, 10.0 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.028). Moreover, pregnancy rate of high folate group was significantly lower than that of normal group, 12.2 % versus 56.7 % (P = 0.004). 
Conclusion: Both high and low plasma folate are associated with low pregnancy rate; therefore, it should be recommended that serum folate should be monitored when prescribing folate to infertile women and that it should be discontinued once its level reaches the maximum normal plasma range.

Keywords: pregnancy outcome, plasma and follicular fluid folate, ICSI cycles

Citation: Abdulhameed WA, Hasan NA, Rahim AI, Mohammed AH. The association between plasma and follicular fluid folate levels and the pregnancy rate in women enrolled in ICSI cycles. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2601-8.

Evaluation of oxidative stress and growth status in molecular diagnostic patients with entamoeba histolytica
Rasha Amer Nouri Al-Tufaili, Rasha Shakir Nima

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In the developing world, amoebiasis is a widespread parasitic disease in which Entameoba histolytica is the causative agent for a human. The aim of this study is to evaluate the end products of oxidative stress include; serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum levels of total protein carbonyl (POC) in Entameoba histolytica patients. In addition to estimate the growth retardation of children infected with this parasite. In the current study the sera and stool of 37 patients with Entameoba histolytica infection and 37 healthy children in the control group were diagnosed by Molecular detection techniques. Growth status were calculated and oxidative stress were analyzed. The mean age of the patient was 5.16 ± 4.811 years. There were significant lower differences between the mean of z-score for high and mean z-score for weight in patient than that of controls. T-test demonstrated markedly higher MDA levels, and POC levels were spotted in serum of patients as matched to the patients with control group. It is concluded that the Entameoba histolytica infection was associated with significant oxidative stress and growth retardation.

Keywords: Entameoba histolytica, malondialdehyde, total protein carbonyl, growth status

Citation: Al-Tufaili RAN, Nima RS. Evaluation of oxidative stress and growth status in molecular diagnostic patients with entamoeba histolytica. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2609-12.

Investigation of cytokines and herpes simplex virus in recurrent abortion in pregnant women
Hashem Mohammed Hashem AL-Aaraje, Huda Jameel Baker AL-Khilkhali

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the existence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 and type 2 in abortion women as well as to detect the role of cytokines in the induction of abortion. Over the period from November (2019) to February (2020), a total of 68 cases of abortion women Collected from Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in AL-Najaf city, and the women’s generating of children teaching hospital Kerbala. Furthermore, the control group relied on 20 healthy pregnant women without any evidence of chronic inflammatory disease, two types of cases with ages ranging from 16-40 years. Blood samples were obtained from abortion women and healthy controls were tested for HSV-1 and HSV-2 tested first on Rapid ICT Kits. Of the 68 samples, 9(13%) were positive, and 59(87%) were negative in Rapid Immunochromatographic Test (ICT), While the results of pregnant women’s investigation showed Nil(0%) negative result for every 20 samples these findings were then verified by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique to investigate HSV type1 and type 2 where attained 38(56%) positive samples in the aborted women and 8(40%) positive samples in the pregnant women respectively. Collected samples from abortion women and control estimate immunological level (IL-2, IL-10 & TFN-α, C3) Used the ELISA and radial immunodiffusion method. The results revealed the sensitivity of rapid (ICT) compare to the ELISA technique was 11 %. This ratio indicates the true positive HSV infection and the specificity was 92% indicate to the true negative infection with HSV. And the positive cases of HSV-1and HSV-2 in aborted women were recorded 27(40%) at the first trimester. In another side, the other cases of abortion occurred in the second and third trimester were reached (16/68) and (1/68) respectively. The Cytokine tests. High significance (p<0.05) of IL-2 in aborted + HSV women (3.994±0.9354) and aborted -HSV women (4.655±1.423) compared to control pregnant women (2.903±0.7484) whereas there was a non-significant difference between aborted + HSV women and aborted -HSV women. The results of this study revealed a high level of IL-2 in the serum of aborted women as positive and negative for HSV compared with pregnant women. While the result of IL-10 level showed great significance (p<0.05) in aborted +HSV women(2.709 ± 0.3877),aborted -HSV women(2.905 ± 0.3368) compared with control (pregnant) women (2.267 ± 0.2332) But there is no -significant difference (p<0.05) among aborted +HSV women and aborted –HSV . On the other hand Results showed great significance (p<0.05) of TNF-α level in aborted +HSV women(4.859 ± 0.6083),aborted -HSV women(4.770 ± 0.4548) compared with control (pregnant) women (4.841 ± 0.4153) while there was non-significant difference (p<0.05) among aborted +HSV women and aborted –HSV women. In the present study, the results detected high significance (p<0.05) in the levels of C3 for aged group ≥ 42 (85.80±24.63 mg/dl)in comparison to the control(79.10 ±4.890 mg/dl).

Keywords: Abortion women, Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and type2, cytokines, ELISA, Rapid (ICT)

Citation: AL-Aaraje HMH, AL-Khilkhali HJB. Investigation of cytokines and herpes simplex virus in recurrent abortion in pregnant women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2613-24.

Antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation of Lactobacilli spp. isolated from healthy and infected women with bacterial vaginosis
Zeena Adnan Shalash, Farah Tariq Abdul-Ridha

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Abstract

Background: The vaginal microbiome harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, known as vaginal flora which has an important impact on women s health as well as that of their newborns Bacteria that colonize the vaginal microbiota of women play an important role in health and homostasis that exist in a dynamic balance and establishing with each other and with the host. In healthy reproductive- aged women, the vaginal microbiome ,generally shows a predominance of Lactobacillus genus,and most women display the prevalence of one species among L., crispatus, L., iners, L., jensenii and L., gasseri. Lactobacilli promote the maintenance of the vaginal homoestasis and prevent the colonization and growth of adverse microorganisms,especialy pathogens. Methodology: 150 high vaginal swabs were collected from 100 specimen from women suffering from vaginitis and 50 specimen from healthy women. Each specimen were cultured on UTI chromogenic agar under aerobic conditions and on MRS agar under anaerobic conidion Antibiotics susceptibility performed according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standereds).Biofiilms formation were assayed by TCP. Results: Results revealed that a total 150 specimens, 90 were gave positive cultured with single bacterial growth on UTI chromogenic agar as following: Escherichia. coli (42/90), Staphylococcus aureus (27/90), Enterobacter (13/90), Klebsiella pneumonia (8/90), 30 specimens were gave mixed culture and 30 others specimens were no growth. Out of 150 specimens also cultured on MRS agar ,30 specimens were gave positive culture with pure bacterial isolates of Lactobacillus spp. 20 isolates of Lactobacillus (10 isolates from healthy women and 10 isolates from infected women with vaginitis) were selected to study the effect of antibiotics. It has been found that all Lactobacillus isolated from healthy women specimens resistant for chloromphincol and amikiacin. 50% resistant for ceftriaxone , 40% resistant for ciproflaxcin, gentamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 30% resistant for nitrofurantoin, 20% resistant for levofloxacin, and all Lactobacillus isolates sensitive to imipenem while all Lactobacillus isolates of women with vaginitis were sensitive to all antibiotics used in this study. Also 20 Lactobacillus isolates were selected to study the ability of them to produce biofilm formation. The Lactobacillus isolates from healthy women produce strong and moderate biofilm former 50%, while Lactobacillus isolates from vaginitis women produce (0%, 40%, 40%, 20%) strong, moderate, weak and non-biofilm former respectively. Conclusion: Most vaginal infections are treated by antibiotics but frequent recurrences and chronic infections are common due to the adverse effect on the indigenous lactobacilli . Probiotics have the potential to optimize , maintain and restore the microflora of the vaginal ecosystem hence the alternative approach to reducing vaginal infections and promoting consumer health by using biotherapoeutic with pre- and probiotic.The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must not to kill the beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of probiotic bacteria.

Keywords: Lactobacilli, healthy, women, vaginitis

Citation: Shalash ZA, Abdul-Ridha FT. Antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation of Lactobacilli spp. isolated from healthy and infected women with bacterial vaginosis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2625-9.

Heat resistance of introduced apple-tree varieties due to water status and seasonal development under arid conditions Of Mangistau
O.N. Kossareva, D.N. Zharassova, N.A. Tolep

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Abstract

Excess heat has a negative effect on the growth and development of fruit plants, their productivity, so the success of introduction under conditions with a hot climate is determined by the plants resistance to overheating. The article presents for the first time the results of the heat resistance study of 10 introduced apple-tree varieties in seasonal dynamics due to their water content, transpiration rate and seasonal development. It was found that the heat resistance varied in different varieties and changed during the growth, decreasing in August-September in all varieties. Maximum values of water content in the leaves was observed in May and minimum in August-September. The maximum transpiration rate was from June to August, depending on variety. High heat resistance, water content and low transpiration rate were observed in all varieties at the end of May, against the background of a drop in the growth rate of shoots. At the completion time of shoot growth and the beginning of fruit ripening, the water content decreased in all varieties, transpiration rate varied in different directions, and heat resistance decreased in all varieties except the most stable ones (Stolovka, Renet Burkhardta). After fruit ripening and shoots lignification, water content, transpiration rate and heat resistance decreased in all varieties. The most productive varieties were characterized by high heat resistance.
The work was carried out on the topic of the Grant Project “Introduction of prospective apple-tree varieties for introduction into culture in the arid regions of West Kazakhstan”.

Keywords: apple-tree, varieties, introduction, arid conditions, heat resistance, water content, transpiration rate, phenological phases, productivity

Citation: Kossareva O, Zharassova D, Tolep N. Heat resistance of introduced apple-tree varieties due to water status and seasonal development under arid conditions Of Mangistau. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2631-41.

IL-23/IL-17 axis and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients
Tri Yanti, Yuliasih, Lita Diah Rahmawati

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Abstract

Introduction: The latest paradigm proposes that imbalance of Treg and Th17 cells play a significant role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. The influence of IL-23 and IL-17 on the pathogenesis of SLE remains controversial. This study aimed to observe the role of IL-23/IL17 axis in the pathogenesis of SLE as disease activity using Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) index.
Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed thirty blood serum specimens taken from female patients with SLE diagnosed by the 1997 ACR criteria. All samples were analyzed for IL-23 and IL-17 serum level using ELISA method. Pearson’s/Spearman’s correlation test and Path analysis were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Thirty female subjects aged 31.3±10.46 years all manifested with hematology abnormalities and arthritis posed as the most common clinical manifestation. Both IL-23 and IL-17 levels increased at 625.33 pg/mL and 34.53 pg/mL, respectively. Disease activity resulted in a high mean SLAM score of 29.3±3.9. No correlation was found between serum IL-23 and serum IL-17 (r=0.089; p>0.05). Furthermore, IL-17 and IL-23 did not significantly correlate to disease activity (r=0.026; p>0.05); (r=0.116; p>0.05).
Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between IL-23 and IL-17 with SLE disease activity.

Keywords: SLE, disease activity, IL-23, IL-17

Citation: Yanti T, Yuliasih, Rahmawati LD. IL-23/IL-17 axis and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2643-9.

Factors affecting potential overpayment claim of government health insurance in naval hospital
Ahmad Samsulhadi, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: There are the potential overpayment claims performed by hospital. The aims of the study were to find out what the factors causing potential overpayment. 
Methods: This study was descriptive analytic to all document after audited by internal oversight unit for national health insurance (BPJS). The population was all claim documents after audited by internal audit BPJS in 2018.
Results: The results showed that there were 3881 (1.33%) potentially overpaid documents found during 2018. The value of overpayment was approximately IDR 4,066,938,800 (1.18%) of total claim BPJS in 2018. Factors affecting overpayment claim of BPJS insurance were: readmission, double billing for inpatients and outpatients on the same day, differences in perception of diagnoses and procedures in coding, different classes of care with patient rights, billing of died patient, and chemotherapy patients.
Conclusion: The potential for overpayment can be resulted from both hospital and BPJS sides associated with difference of perception.

Keywords: health insurance, claim document, claim audit, potential overpayment

Citation: Samsulhadi A, Chalidyanto D. Factors affecting potential overpayment claim of government health insurance in naval hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2651-6.

Factors affecting the occurrence of low birth weight
Sesotianingsih Madiyaning Utami, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Introduction: Low Birth Weight (LBW) occurs in babies born with a weight of fewer than 2.500 grams. The prevalence of low birth weight in Sidoarjo Regency tends to increase. This study aimed to provide an overview and analysis of risk factors affecting Low Birth Weight. 
Methods: This study used literature review by collecting literature from various sources obtained from Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencdirect.com, e-books, and SAGE Journal, Scientific Caries 
Results: The results of this study were supported the previous study stating that beside gestational age, specific factors associated with geo-demography were maternal age, kinship/incest, and citizenship. Anemia and abortion had a significant relationship to the incidence of LBW according to data taken from four hospitals in Peshawar.
Conclusion: Other risk factors causing LBW issues are premature birth, inbreeding, maternal age during pregnancy, and a reduction in the burden of activity during pregnancy in mothers who are at risk medically.

Keywords: low birth weight, Infant mortality, low birth weight prevention, low birth weight incidences

Citation: Utami SM, Wulandari RD. Factors affecting the occurrence of low birth weight. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2657-61.

The relationship of nurse characteristics with prevention behavior and control of pulmonary tuberculosis infection
Tintin Sukartini, Ahmad Eko Wibowo, Abu Bakar

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Abstract

Nurses who work in the Tuberculosis (TB) room are at great risk of contracting the disease. This study aimed to analyze the relationship of nurse characteristics with the prevention behavior and control of Tuberculosis infection. This research used a cross-sectional design. The population was all the nurses who work in the TB room. The number of the population taken was 40 respondents who have met the inclusion criteria. The dependent variable was the prevention behavior and control of Tuberculosis infection, while the independent variable was the nurse characteristics. The data were taken using questionnaires and observations towards nurses. Then, the data were analyzed using Chi-Square. The result showed no relation between education level with prevention behavior and tuberculosis infection (p=0.525). Training has no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.316). Working time has no relation to the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.190). Knowledge has no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=0.798). Attitude and motivation have no relation with the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection (p=1.000). It can be concluded that there is no relation between nurse characteristics and prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection. The nurse behavior has implemented four pillars of prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection. Further research is suggested to research things related to the prevention behavior and control of tuberculosis infection such as compliance, workload, and self-efficacy of nurses.

Keywords: control of tuberculosis infection, nurses’ characteristics, prevention behavior

Citation: Sukartini T, Wibowo AE, Bakar A. The relationship of nurse characteristics with prevention behavior and control of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2663-8.

Factors associated with student snacking consumption
Oktavina Batubara, Yuni Sufyanti Arief, Ilya Krisnana

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Abstract


Snacks and food are sold in school, mostly consumed by students. The unhealthy random snacking may cause them at risk of health problems. This study was aimed at analyzed factors that are related to students in snack consumption. Correlation design was applied in this study. The population in this research was children who are in grades second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth in elementary school. The total sampling was 258 respondents that qualified inclusion with stratified random sampling. The independent variables were student’s knowledge, student’s attitude, mother’s role, teacher’s role, and peer’s role. The dependent variable was student snacking consumption. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Then, it was analyzed using the Spearman rho correlation test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Result showed that student knowledge (ρ = 0.000), student attitude (ρ = 0.000), mother’s role (ρ = 0.009), teacher’s role (ρ = 0.000), and peer’s (ρ = 0.01) do have correlation with student snack consumption. In conclusion, student’s knowledge, student’s attitude, mother’s role, teacher’s role, and peer’s role correlate with student snack consumption. Students’ snack consumption is supported by predisposing factors; good knowledge and attitude of the student. Then, the good roles of mother, teacher, and peer are reinforcing factors. Further studies enabling the factors of snack consumption can be used to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: attitude, knowledge, mothers, peers, snacking consumption, teachers

Citation: Batubara O, Arief YS, Krisnana I. Factors associated with student snacking consumption. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2669-73.

Relationship between attitude, motivation, and workload with officers’ performance of finding leprosy patients early
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Ernawaty, Yeni Rahmah Husniyawati

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is not only a complex issue. This study aimed to identify the impacts of attitude, motivation, and workload on officer performance in finding leprosy patients early. 
Methods: This research was a correlative study with cross-sectional approach. Total sampling was used as the sampling technique. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution and multiple linear regression test. 
Results: The performance of primary healthcare leprosy officers in making early leprosy findings was not good (<20%) due to the weak of attitude about the implementation of leprosy findings (B: 0.206). In addition, because of the weak motivation of the officers responsible for the implementation of leprosy findings, the performance of early leprosy findings was not good ≥20% (B: 0.488). The officers’s performance was not good <20% due to the low workload (B: 0.490).
Conclusion: Workload has the biggest impact compared to motivation and attitude.

Keywords: attitude, motivation, workload, performance, leprosy

Citation: Setyantari RD, Ernawaty, Husniyawati YR. Relationship between attitude, motivation, and workload with officers’ performance of finding leprosy patients early. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2675-9.

Constraints in provision time of hospital medical record documents
Ajeng Fauziah Kurniawati, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Djazuly Chalidiyanto, Eka Nurul Hidayah Puspa Seruni

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Abstract

Waiting time in the provision time of hospital medical record documents remains to be an issue to be solved. This study aimed to analyze the long-time provision for outpatient medical records based on the theory of constraints (TOC). An observational study with cross-sectional design used the TOC method. The constraint was found in the process of medical record document provision, the longest average time on the process of provision of outpatient medical records document was the medical record document examination process with an average of 48.91 minutes, and a total time of provision of medical record document was 54.86 minutes. The TOC considers a problem as an opening way for the rest of the system to be managed. An overall management system in accordance with the constraints on the system would reach a steady groove.

Keywords: medical record, waiting time, theory of constraint

Citation: Kurniawati AF, Rochmah TN, Chalidiyanto D, Seruni ENHP. Constraints in provision time of hospital medical record documents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2681-5.

Learning organization to maintain full accreditation of public health center
Anna Wijayanti, Reinaldis Sara, Amalia Putri Handayani, Widy Tri Windy, Miftahul Sulaiman, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Background: In the Primary Health Center (PHC), accreditation process must support to all members regarding the learning process. This study aimed to determine the application of learning organization in effort to maintain the accreditation performance. 
Methods: This study used descriptive research method with cross-sectional approach. The population in this study was all employees of Sememi PHC in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Results: Based on the survey results using a questionnaire on the Sememi PHC accreditation team, it was found that 74% of respondents stated that the learning organization process was good. The implementation of learning organization in Sememi PHC where the employees were directed to continually learn through every activity carried out created new innovations in problems solving and forming good teamwork in proven too able to maintain accreditation performance.
Conclusion: PHC with full accreditation status should maintain their status and improve learning organization for the success of organizational change and performance.

Keywords: accreditation, learning organizational, primary health center

Citation: Wijayanti A, Sara R, Handayani AP, Windy WT, Sulaiman M, Wulandari RD. Learning organization to maintain full accreditation of public health center. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2687-92.

Implementation of lean management to reduce waiting time for drugs in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya
Halimah Salim Ahmad, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Budhi Setianto

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Abstract

Introduction: Outpatient pharmacy services in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya, still have problems regarding the length of waiting time. This study aimed to reduce the length of waiting time for outpatient pharmacy services by implementing lean management. 
Methods: A quantitative study was carried out in the outpatient pharmacy service unit at Islamic Hospital of Surabaya from January to March 2018.
Results: This study showed that the average time at each stage of the process for non-concoction drugs, for the process of the insurance debtor was 56.86 minutes, followed by the (National Health Insurance Board) BPJS debtor with the time was 54.50 minutes and the cash debtor with time a total of 50.67 minutes. It showed non-concoction drugs with working time before the intervention with an average of 60.546 minutes to 33.474 minutes. 
Conclusion: The implementation of lean management can reduce the length of waiting times for pharmacy services in outpatient units from non-concoction and concoction drugs.

Keywords: waiting time, lean management, waste

Citation: Ahmad HS, Rochmah TN, Setianto B. Implementation of lean management to reduce waiting time for drugs in Islamic Hospital, Surabaya. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2693-6.

The effect of health education through brainstorming and booklet method on behavior in prevention of pulmonary Tb transmission
Tintin Sukartini, Sri Kurniawati, Makhfudli Makhfudli

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The transmission of pulmonary Tuberculosis can be caused by poor patient behavior. This behavior is influenced by the TB client’s low level of knowledge about Tuberculosis and how to prevent transmission. This study aims to analyze the effect of health education through brainstorming and booklets on client behavior in preventing TB transmission. The population in this study were tuberculosis patents recorded from January to March 2017 with a sample of 30 respondents. The sampling technique of this study was purposive sampling. The independent variable of this research was health education through brainstorming and booklets method. The dependent variable of this study was the client’s behavior in preventing tuberculosis transmission. The data collection used questionnaires and analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney with significance α=0.05. Wilcoxon’s statistical test results in the treatment group showed the influence of health education on knowledge (p=0.001), attitudes (p=0.001), and actions (0.001). The results of the Mann Whitney statistical test after the intervention showed a significant effect on the application of brainstorming and booklets on client knowledge (p=0.000), attitudes (0.000), and actions (0.000). This study concluded that health education through brainstorming and booklets could improve the client’s knowledge, attitudes, and actions in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis transmission. Health education through brainstorming and booklets become an alternative method of health education in preventing TB transmission.

Keywords: attitudes, booklet, brainstorming, transmission prevention, tuberculosis

Citation: Sukartini T, Kurniawati S, Makhfudli M. The effect of health education through brainstorming and booklet method on behavior in prevention of pulmonary Tb transmission. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2697-02.

Analysis of perceived health care quality on patient satisfaction
Ester Mariana, Wilda Apriyani, Stefanus Supriyanto

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Abstract

Background: Perceived health care is influenced by patient satisfaction favorable to the hospital and positive impact on patient satisfaction. This study aimed to make recommendations for increasing admissions for Inpatient room based on the result of the analysis of perceived health care quality, customer voice and satisfaction. 
Methods: This research used cross-sectional method. The sampling technique used proportionate stratified random sampling. The data obtained were then analyzed using descriptive and regression methods.
Results: The results obtained indicated that perceived health care quality had a significant positive effect on patient satisfaction. The Quality Interaction (b = 0.273) had a stronger influence on patient satisfaction. The results showed physical environment quality (p = 0.008, b = 0.199), interaction quality (p = 0.000, b = 0.471), and outcome quality (p = 0.005, b = 0.238). 
Conclusion: Perceived health care quality has a strong effect on patient satisfaction.

Keywords: patient satisfaction, perceived health care quality, hospital

Citation: Mariana E, Apriyani W, Supriyanto S. Analysis of perceived health care quality on patient satisfaction. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2703-8.

Relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes melitus type II
Nurul Evriany, Galuh Nurul Fatimah, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: Non-infectious disease (NID) has become a problem of public health in global, regional, national and local aspects. This research aimed to determine the relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with DM Type II post-disaster. 
Methods: This type of research was quantitative by using cross sectional design. The population was all patients with DM Type II, comprising 1624 outpatients. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis at a degree of confidence of 95% (α = 0.05).
Result: The results of the chi-square test show depression (ρ=0.007), and stress (ρ=0.000), associated with blood sugar levels. It is hoped to provide services and monitoring of post-disaster psychological conditions, especially in patients with DM Type II in order to suppress psychological disorders until they do not harm the disease. 
Conclusion: There is a relationship of depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with type II DM.

Keywords: depression, stress, blood sugar levels

Citation: Evriany N, Fatimah GN, Chalidyanto D. Relationship between depression and stress with blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes melitus type II. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2709-13.

The analysis of stunting event factors in children aged 24-59 months based on transcultural nursing
Esti Yunitasari, Nur Puji Winasis, Ira Suarilah

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Abstract

Stunting in infants is an indication of chronic malnutrition as a result of a bad condition that lasts long from birth. Stunting that occurs in the First 1000 Days of Life can increase mortality and impaired body functions. Malnutrition in toddlers can also arise due to the culture, habits, and social community related to food intake. Madura is known as a patriarchal society and considers culture as an identity in behavior, including health behavior. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of stunting in children aged 24-59 months based on Transcultural Nursing. This research used a descriptive-analytic design with a cross-sectional approach. The number of respondents was 97 mothers with children under five (24-59 months with a simple random sampling technique. The dependent variable of this study was the stunting event. The independent variable consisted of technological factors, family and social support, cultural values and lifestyle, economy, and mother’s education. Data collection using microtome and questionnaires and analyzed using chi-square statistical tests with significance level α <0.05. There was a relationship between technological factors (p=0.045), family and social support factors (p=0.048), cultural values & lifestyle (p=0.013), and economic factors (p=0.034) with the incidence of stunting in infants. Future studies are recommended to conduct further research on transcultural nursing-based interventions as an early effort to prevent and manage stunting in mother’s economy and education.

Keywords: malnutrition, nutritional status, stunting, transcultural nursing

Citation: Yunitasari E, Winasis NP, Suarilah I. The analysis of stunting event factors in children aged 24-59 months based on transcultural nursing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2715-20.

The most important component of organizational commitment contributes to increase integrated performance at integral service post in Indonesia
Yeni Rahmah Husniyawati, Fitri Widyacahya, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Introduction: The functioning of the cadre as the front liner of the empowerment of the society is to increase mothers’ participation in order to bring their babies to an Integrated Service Post (ISP) near their homes for routine scaling. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between commitment components and performance regarding increasing toddlers’ mothers’ participation to integrated service post. 
Methods: This was an analytic observational research with quantitative approach. Sampling was performed using simple random sampling method. 
Results: The results showed that most cadres were highly effective in the commitment and had moderate level of sustainable and normative involvement. Sustainability and performance were related, while affective and normative commitment had no performance connection. Sustainable commitment will lead to more mothers able to scale their children in the integrated service post.
Conclusion: Sustainable commitment is associated with a cadre’s performance, while affective and normative commitment is no.

Keywords: commitment, integrated service post, performance of cadre

Citation: Husniyawati YR, Widyacahya F, Wulandari RD. The most important component of organizational commitment contributes to increase integrated performance at integral service post in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2721-5.

Efforts to increase early detection of leprosy patients
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Widani Dharma Isasih, Ernawaty

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is an infectious disease which remains a health problem in the community. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the patients’ knowledge, patients’ stigma, and patients’ access to performance of officers in leprosy early detection
Materials and Methods: This study using a cross-sectional approach. The population of this study was 160 people affected by leprosy, with a sample of 113 people. 
Results: The patients did not have good knowledge and had a positive influence on the performance of officers (B:0.228). Most of the patients stigmatized their illness and had a positive effect on staff performance (B: 0.36). A small portion of leprosy patients’ access to health center services was still difficult and had a negative influence on staff performance (B:-0,215). 
Conclusion: The knowledge and stigma of patients have a positive influence on the performance of officers in leprosy early detection.

Keywords: patients’ knowledge, patients’ stigma, patients’ access, performance, leprosy

Citation: Setyantari RD, Isasih WD, Ernawaty. Efforts to increase early detection of leprosy patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2727-31.

Gadgets addiction behavior towards social development in adolescents
Niswatus Sa’ngadah, Yuni Sufyanti Arief, Ilya Krisnana

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Abstract

Social development in adolescence is one of the most challenging for adolescents because, in this phase, adolescents must be able to make social adjustments. This study aimed to determine the relationship of smartphone addiction with the social development of adolescents. This study used a quantitative design with a cross-sectional approach. The population of this study was 160 students using quota sampling. The independent variable was smartphone addiction, and the dependent variable was social development. Data collection was done by distributing questionnaires directly to respondents, then analyzed by the Spearman Rank Correlation test. The result of this research showed there was a correlation between smartphone addiction with social development (p = 0.000), the direction of the correlation (-0.333). This meant that the higher the value of smartphone addiction, the lower social development. Teens who use gadgets in excess will aggravate the development of social. Subsequent research is to pay attention to other factors that affect social development.

Keywords: smartphone addiction, social development

Citation: Sa’ngadah N, Arief YS, Krisnana I. Gadgets addiction behavior towards social development in adolescents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2733-7.

The analysis of workload of outpatient officers based on health workload analysis method
Wahdatul Chizbiyah, Noviantika Purnama, Eri Witcahyo, Sri Utami, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Background: Workload can affect the work productivity of the outpatient claim officers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the workload and the number of outpatient claim officers’ needs at Insurance Installation of Regional General Hospital based on the Health Workload Analysis method. 
Method: This study was descriptive study carried out through observational survey with 9 respondents in carrying out their activities in the Insurance Installation of Sidoarjo Regional Hospital. 
Result: The results showed that the most frequently used of activity time between productive activities and unproductive activities by file receiver staffs was the use of unproductive activities. Meanwhile, the most frequent use of activity time by coding, costing, outpatient monitoring and evaluation coordinators staffs was the use of time for productive activities. 
Conclusion: The calculation of the need for outpatient claim officers by using Health Workload Analysis was 10 people.

Keywords: workload, outpatient claims staff, health workload analysis method

Citation: Chizbiyah W, Purnama N, Witcahyo E, Utami S, Chalidyanto D. The analysis of workload of outpatient officers based on health workload analysis method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2739-43.

A systematic review of strategies to overcome undernutrition in children in developing countries
Ariska Herlyawati, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

Introduction: Undernutrition is a problem in child health around the world, especially in developing or low and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to identify various programs to overcome undernutrition in children under five years old in developing or low and middle countries. 
Methods: This study used PRISMA guidelines and searched the literature in several electronic databases. The criteria were limited to descriptive studies, cross-sectional and experimental studies published in 2015-2019. 
Results: National programs called JUNTOS and CRECER in Peru and unconditional child cash grant (CCG) in Nepal have shown successful result in reducing undernutrition in children and reducing stunting by >12% as well as studies in India and Pakistan at communities level through programs of participatory and learning action (PLA), creches, home visits, CARING trial, and the REFANI-P. 
Conclusion: The program should be performed at all levels and be focused on socioeconomic factors, health accessibilities, and education.

Keywords: undernutrition, under-five children, program, developing countries

Citation: Herlyawati A, Damayanti NA. A systematic review of strategies to overcome undernutrition in children in developing countries. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2745-9.

Knowledge and actions about safety in the use of backpacks not related to back pain complaints in primary school students
Tintin Sukartini, Meviana Dwi Ariyani, Deni Yasmara

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Abstract

Most of the students take the backpack out of the safety standardization. They complain about back pain on wearing backpack. The student’s lack of knowledge and adherence in the proper backpack application is causing subsequent and continuous wrong application. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of knowledge and actions about the safety of backpack application towards complaints of pain in school children. The design used was descriptive correlative with a cross-sectional approach. The population was students of 5th and 6th grade in primary school. The total sample was 36 respondents, recruited by purposive sampling. The independent variables were the knowledge and action of safety backpack application. The dependent variable was back pain. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and observation form and analyzed by using the Spearman Rho test with a level of significance of α ≤ 0.05. The result showed that there was no significance correlation between the knowledge with the action of safety backpack application (p = 0.726), and no significance correlation between the action of safety backpack application with back pain (p = 0.657). This research can be concluded that the knowledge about backpack safety usage has no correlation with actions about safety backpack application. Actions about safety backpack application had no correlation with back pain. Nursing service institution is expected to provide health promotion about safety backpack application to reduce the incidence of back pain among the students.

Keywords: action, backpack safety, back pain, knowledge

Citation: Sukartini T, Ariyani MD, Yasmara D. Knowledge and actions about safety in the use of backpacks not related to back pain complaints in primary school students. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2751-5.

Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing
Esti Yunitasari, Yoga Hadi Narendra, Retnayu Pradanie

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Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the major health programs in the world. The prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding is very high in Indonesian women, especially Madurese women. This study was aimed to investigate factors associated with giving exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing. This study was used analytical descriptive with a cross-sectional approach. The population was all mothers who have babies 6 to 12 months of age. A total of 289 sample were chosen by cluster sampling. The independent variables in this research are technological factors, religious & philosophical factors, social factors, cultural values & lifeways, political & legal factors, economic factors, and educational factors. The type of exclusive breastfeeding depends on the baby’s mother. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and analyzed by using a chi-square test with a degree of significance α <0.05. The result showed a correlation between technological factor (p=0.000), religious & philosophical factor (p=0.000), social factor (p=0.000), cultural values & lifeways (p=0.000), political & legal factors was correlation, economic factors (p=0.000), and educational factors (p=0.000) with exclusive breastfeeding. All factors in transcultural nursing have a correlation with exclusive breastfeeding, and technological factors are most associated with exclusive breastfeeding than other transcultural nursing factors. Further research was suggested for using qualitative methods or observations and increase exclusive breastfeeding rates with effective health education.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition, SDG’s, transcultural nursing

Citation: Yunitasari E, Narendra YH, Pradanie R. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding based on transcultural nursing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2757-66.

The influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospital
Dian Fajar Hapsari, Djazuly Chalidyanto, Joni Wahyuhadi

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Abstract

Background: The implementation of the national health insurance program to fulfill the payment system related to a claim needs the documentation of services in the discharge summary. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospitals. 
Methods: This was an analytical study with cross-sectional design. The data were collected from observation toward inpatient’s discharge summary. Ninety-nine samples were taken by simple random sampling technique. 
Results: The results of the statistical significance test showed that the congeniality between the supporting examination results and procedure (p<0.0001) and the completeness of secondary diagnosis in discharge summary (p<0.0001) had an influence on the suitability of severity levels. 
Conclusion: Completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure can influence severity level.

Keywords: completeness, procedure, severity level, discharge summary, supporting examination

Citation: Hapsari DF, Chalidyanto D, Wahyuhadi J. The influence of completeness supporting examination and discharge summary procedure to suitability of severity level determination in tertiary referral hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2767-1.

The effect of screening to the perception of needs and desires following visual inspection with acetic acid as detection of cervical cancer
Desy Puspitasari, Cicik Swi Antika, Ratna Dwi Wulandari

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Abstract

Background: Target of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) test is 10% per year. This study aimed to analyze the effect of screening on the needs and desires of mothers to carry out VIA tests. 
Methods: This research is analytic observational. The study was conducted from February to March 2017. Analysis of the data used in this study was a linear regression analysis with p <0.05.
Results: Mothers who said there had never been a screening of 71.9% had a low need and desire for VIA examinations. The result of data analysis showed that screening had significant to the perception of need and desire to follow VIA test = 17.2% (P = 0.000; β = 0.172). It indicates that the lower the screening and desire for VIA examination.
Conclusion: Screening has a significant and positive influence on the needs and desires of mothers to carry out VIA test.

Keywords: cervical cancer, perception of needs and desire, screening

Citation: Puspitasari D, Antika CS, Wulandari RD. The effect of screening to the perception of needs and desires following visual inspection with acetic acid as detection of cervical cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2773-7.

Availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel towards mother’s achievement to childbirth services
Rani Romadaniyati, Anisa Binta Jamaika, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

Introduction: Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is a serious problem in Indonesia due to low coverage of childbirth by health personnel. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel and mother’s achievement in childbirth services.
Methods: This was an observational-analytic study involving 100 women who gave birth in 2017 at Bondowoso District. Data analysis was performed using the Spearman test. 
Results: The results of correlation test showed that geographic location, hours of opening, appointments mechanisms, and accommodation had correlation with mother’s achievement to childbirth services (p=0.000). It means that the easier the geographic location to reach, the higher tendency of the mother’s achievement to childbirth services at Bondowoso District.
Conclusion: The formation of an internal health office team, optimizing the role of the head of community health center, birth waiting homes socialization, are solutions to increase mother’s achievement to childbirth services.

Keywords: MMR, availability and accommodation, mother’s achievement to childbirth services

Citation: Romadaniyati R, Jamaika AB, Damayanti NA. Availability and accommodation of childbirth in health personnel towards mother’s achievement to childbirth services. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2779-83.

Relationship between knowledge and commitment of officers with officers’ performance as an effort to improve the finding of patients with leprosy
Riana Dwi Setyantari, Vina Amalia Resti Damayanti, Ernawaty

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is an infectious disease which remains a health problem in the community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the knowledge and the officers’ commitment with the performance of effort to increase detection case of leprosy.
Method: This was an observational study using cross-sectional approach with a total sampling calculation is leprosy officers in primary health cares who found and treated leprosy. 
Result: The results showed that the performance of primary health care of leprosy officers in making early leprosy findings was not good >20% due to the lack of knowledge about the implementation of leprosy findings (B=0.071). The weak commitment of the officers responsible for the implementation of leprosy findings, the performance of early leprosy findings was not good >20% (B=0.005). 
Conclusion: That the knowledge and commitment of primary health care of leprosy officers have a positive effect on performance.

Keywords: knowledge, commitment, leprosy, officers, performance

Citation: Setyantari RD, Damayanti VAR, Ernawaty. Relationship between knowledge and commitment of officers with officers’ performance as an effort to improve the finding of patients with leprosy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2785-91.

Perceived supervisor support and employee job satisfaction in private hospital
Yussi Winarto, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Employee job satisfaction is often associated with salary and career levels obtained in workplace. Unfortunately, this has not been studied much in the hospital work environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction in the hospital work environment in private hospital. This study used cross-sectional design. The samples were 69 persons who met the study criteria and completed the survey. The primary outcome was a strong correlation between job satisfaction and perceived supervisor support. Based on the results of cross-tabulation analysis, a positive correlation between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction was obtained with significant results of 59.4% from 69 samplings (41 respondents indicated support). Strong correlation was observed between perceived supervisor support and job satisfaction showing significant relationship (p <0.01). Perceived supervisor support has a strong correlation with job satisfaction.

Keywords: job satisfaction, perceived supervisor support, private hospital

Citation: Winarto Y, Chalidyanto D. Perceived supervisor support and employee job satisfaction in private hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2793-7.

Evaluation of real estate project construction quality based on entropy - VIKOR method
Tzu-Chia Chen, Cheng-Jui Tseng

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Abstract

Quality evaluation of the essence of architecture is to provide the residents use facilities, living quality in human life proportion between the various elements, of the closest position, and construction engineering technology and management idea, also along with the development of human, from the safe, comfortable, beautiful, sustainable to value direction of development. In order to reflect the quality of the real estate project construction, this study constructs the evaluation index system of real estate development project is to build quality, choose a certain number of samples, using the entropy weight coefficient method to establish the weight of evaluation index system and using VIKOR method respectively to different real estate project carries on the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of option is given. Finally, this study verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method through the real estate project in Shenzhen.

Keywords: entropy - VIKOR method, real estate projects, quality evaluation

Citation: Chen T, Tseng C. Evaluation of real estate project construction quality based on entropy - VIKOR method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2799-804.

Bacterial contamination of health care workers
Saba Abdulsalam Hamid AL-Sultan, Sahir M. Khabbaz, Muthanna A. Al-Sharbaty

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Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infection and health workers including doctors can be a carrier of this microorganism; also it can be present on the sleeve of white coat and auxiliaries and so transmitted between patients. Aim of this study performed to assess the MRSA carrier in health personnel in Al-Jumhori teaching hospital and to assess the benefit of dress code policy. This study was conducted on 500 swabs were taken from nose, sleeve, elbow and auxiliaries of 100 health workers and cultured to assess the presence of MRSA. The results of this study showed 65% of health workers are carrier of MRSA ; also MRSA present in 30% and 34% on the sleeve of white coat and elbow respectively while it was found in 24% of health workers auxiliaries.

Keywords: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), nosocomial infection

Citation: AL-Sultan SAH, Khabbaz SM, Al-Sharbaty MA. Bacterial contamination of health care workers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2805-9.

Molecular detection of virulent exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound and burn samples
Mustafa Riyadh Salman AL-Rubaye, Evren Yildiztugay, Ahmed Uysa, Taghreed Khudhur Mohammed, Hanna N. Abdullah

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the Gram-negative bacteria widespread everywhere in the Pseudomonadaceae family and is able to survive in a wide range of environments. The aim of this study was to determine of virulent exoU genotype and phylogenetic tree of P. aeruginosa isolates using real time PCRand Sanager sequencing. 206 clinical samples were collected from wounds and burns from both sexes. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, Blood agar and Cetrimide agar in order to obtain the bacterial isolates depending on their phenotypic characteristics; biochemical tests as diagnosed with Api 20E; Microgen GnA + B-ID and Molecular detection of exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates by using RT-PCR and Sanger method. The results showed that 12(24%) of (50) isolates were positive for ExoU gene.The ExoU gene were used to analyze the DNA sequence of local isolates and compare them with some standard global isolates according to the ExoU gene available in the GenBank database of the NCBI database. The results showed that the isolates were (98-100%) matched between local isolates and the international standard isolates. The results of the RT-PCR of the ExoU gene were used to detect mutations related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the transitions showed the frequency of 5 mutations of the ExoU gene in all isolates. In addition, there were three types of mutations such as the predicted frame mutation effect was accompanied by only a transition 3, while 4 mutations were shown silent in all isolates. In addition, 2 mutations were shown to be mismatched. Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree for ExoU sequences which indicate one cluster divided into two subgroups. Group 1 showed sister group with P. aeruginosa strain BA7823 (India) reference strain from GenBank database which was used for determining the mutations and polymorphisms in the local isolates of this study.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ExoU gene, toxin, RT-PCR, Sanger methods

Citation: AL-Rubaye MRS, Yildiztugay E, Uysa A, Mohammed TK, Abdullah HN. Molecular detection of virulent exoU mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound and burn samples. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2811-6.

Effect of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) on Nickle, Cadmium, Lead, and total Flavonoid levels of two Iraqi Wheat species
Jwan A. Zainulabdeen, Suhad A. Ibrahim

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Abstract

Background: Since 2008, Pyroxsulam was registered by Dow Agro Sciences as efficient broad-spectrum herbicide for wheat control. Wheat is an important plant involved in the daily meal of human and it is a rich source for benefit contents. Aim: The present project aimed to study the effect of Pyroxsulam herbicide on the levels of some parameters in Iraqi wheat. Materials and Methods: We investigated the concentration of three metals (Ni, Cd, and Pb) and flavonoid in seeds of wheat plants collected from two Iraqi cultivates (Iba 99 and Abu Ghraib 3). Halve of the planted wheat was sprayed with Pyroxsulam herbicide (S group) while the other group was considered as a control group (C group). Results: The results showed that the levels of Ni (an essential cofactor of eight enzymes) and the antioxidant parameter (total flavonoids) were negatively affected as a result of treatment with Pyroxsulam. This effect was clearly apparent from the significant drop in most data of these elements, the same result was indicated for the (Cd, and Pb) concentrations which they passed to the soil. By comparison, Iba 99 cultivate is more crop with using the herbicide than Abu Ghraib 3 cultivate. Conclusion: According to the above results, wheat products after treatment with Pyroxsulam would have less in some antioxidant related contents and it would be useful to design an alternative dose or solution of this herbicide to get healthy products of wheat with high yield.

Keywords: Cadmium, Flavonoid, Lead, Nickle, Pyroxsulam, Wheat

Citation: Zainulabdeen JA, Ibrahim SA. Effect of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) on Nickle, Cadmium, Lead, and total Flavonoid levels of two Iraqi Wheat species. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2817-21.

Impaction prevalence of permanent teeth pattern from orthodontic view
Ahmed Muhsin Yousif AL-Mayali, Mohammed Nahidh, Hussein A. Alnajar, Ali Hadi Fahad

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and distribution of impaction permanent teeth among orthodontic patient samples and to compare the present results with findings of other populations. A digital panoramic radiograph of 2500 orthodontic patients, age 12-40 years, for two years duration (2018-2019) were used in this study to identify 157 patients with impacted teeth. Whole permanent teeth were included except 3rd molar. The presence, number and depth of all the impacted teeth either soft tissue impaction (STI) and bony- impactions (BI) were recorded and a statistics analysis was done by using SPSS. The results of present study show that the prevalence of impacted teeth was 6.28%. The teeth impaction was more commonly in younger population and the impaction in females more than in males. The maxillary canine was the most frequently impacted tooth and most of the patients had unilateral impacted teeth. The bony impaction was more than soft tissue impaction. It can be concluded that the Impacted teeth prevalence in a group of the orthodontic patients was within the average value of the majority of published studies in the literature. the impaction was significantly more prevalent in females. In orthodontics, the impacted teeth play a critical part in aesthetics, occlusion and arch development. The early recognition of these dental anomalies is very important to offer preventive modalities of management.

Keywords: impaction, prevalence, orthodontic, developmental anomalies, radiographic study, panoramic radiographs

Citation: AL-Mayali AMY, Nahidh M, Alnajar HA, Fahad AH. Impaction prevalence of permanent teeth pattern from orthodontic view. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2823-8.

Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from crust of Cucurbita Maxima L. (red pumpkin)
Ban Mohammed Hussein Ali

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Abstract

Lately, the green biosynthesis method has been more concerned with the use of waste vegetable and fruit shells, being less toxic, environmentally friendly, easy to synthesize and important in the manufacture of nanomedicines. The aim was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from red Pumpkin peel hot aqueous extract and the ethanol extract in an environmentally friendly manner, replacing existing methods for synthesizing AgNPs using hazardous chemicals and toxic solvents. This research describes a green process whereby AgNPs were manufactured using silver nitrate and peel of red Pumpkin extract (hot aqueous extract and ethanol extract) as a reducing agent and coating. The nanoparticles were symbolized using UV-Vis, showed absorbance at 430 nm for both extracts consistent with AgNPs spherical particles within (350-550) nm wavelength spectrum and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed an average AgNPs diameter 67 nm and 56 nm respectively for the hot aqueous and ethanol extract.The current study effort investigates the findings Silver Nitrate concentration 1Mm for hot aqueous extract and ethanol extract. Silver nanoparticles were distinguished by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS).

Keywords: green biosynthetic, phytochemical, nanoparticles, silver nitrate, red pumpkin

Citation: Ali BMH. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from crust of Cucurbita Maxima L. (red pumpkin). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2829-33.

Use the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) in DNA fingerprinting and its application biological sciences
Sami Khlaif Mansoor, Ehsan F. Hussein, Aqeel Khaleel Ibraheem

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Abstract

DNA fingerprinting is an important tool in criminal investigations. Typing of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) is a genotyping tool that provides a numeric and simple format of data based on the repetitive sequences number. The present study uses DNA fingerprinting by amplify certain specific VNTR regions present at a particular locus of different chromosomes. The biological samples include available materials such as hair and blood present on a scene of crime, blood, buccal and along with fingernail. By amplifying he specific VNTR fragments of different DNA samples & comparing them on agarose gel electrophoresis, we obtained DNA profile of individuals, which in turn helps in criminal identification. It can also indicate whether the individuals are homozygous or heterozygous.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, VNTR, Molecular biology, RFLP

Citation: Mansoor SK, Hussein EF, Ibraheem AK. Use the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) in DNA fingerprinting and its application biological sciences. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2835-9.

Alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics in organic residues – impacted soils
Rashad A. Imran, Suhela J. Kadhum, Mohammed A. Abdulkareem

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Abstract

Soil phosphmonoesterases play an important role in controlling phosphorus cycling for crops, especially in P- deficient soils. Phosphomonoesterases markedly affected by addition of organic residues depending on source, rate, and maturity and stability of these residues. An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics of two soils (silty clay and loamy sand) after addition of different organic sources (cow residue, alfalfa leaves, wheat straw and poultry residue) at rate of 2 %. The experiment was set out in randomized complete design with three replicates. Amended and control soils were incubated at 30ºc for 30 days. Results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity of amended soils was significantly higher than that of control soil, except soil amended with wheat straw. Enzyme activity was differed according to the type of organic residue with superiority of poultry residue. Alkaline phosphatase activity of silty clay soil was significantly higher than that of loamy sand soil. Data also revealed that Vmax and Km values of amended soils were higher than these of unamended soil. Higher Vmax and Km value were associated with using of poultry residue. Estimated Vmax and Km values varied with the type of transformation used to linearize Mechaelis– Menten equation which followed the order: Hanes – Wolf > Eadie – Hofstee > Line Weaver – Burk.

Keywords: alkaline phosphatase, organic residues, kinetics, soil, poultry residue

Citation: Imran RA, Kadhum SJ, Abdulkareem MA. Alkaline phosphatase activity and kinetics in organic residues – impacted soils. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2841-8.

Dermatophytosis infection in Al-Nassiriyah City
Ahmed G. Hassan, Hind M. Mousa

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Abstract

The current study was performed to determine the prevalence of superficial fungal infections among patients who were living in Al-Nassiriya city, and were attending a private clinic. One hundred patients with ages range from (3-65 years) were tested for fungal skin infections using a microscope and laboratory designed for expected diagnostic methods. The Results demonstrated that 55% of patients had skin lesions followed by nail lesions (27%) and scalp lesions (18%). The Tinea corporis was the most common types of clinical ringworm infections followed by Tinea ungium and Tinea capitis, while Tinea pedis and Tinea incognito were the least frequent with same percentage. The dermatophytes infection was higher in females than males, where tineacorporis, and tinea unguium displayed higher infection rates in females while tinea capitis, and tinea manuum showed higher infections in males than females. Also, the results indicated Microsporumcanis was the most common etiological agent of dermatophyte infection followed by Trichophyton tonsurans, and Microsporumgypseum, while Trichophyton mentagrophyte was the least frequent of the isolated species. The findings of the current study demonstrated higher prevalence of dermatophytosis in Nasiriyah area. So the accurate and early diagnosis can help in successfully treatment of dermatophytosis and prevent complications.

Keywords: dermatophyte, tinea infection, Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp.

Citation: Hassan AG, Mousa HM. Dermatophytosis infection in Al-Nassiriyah City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2849-53.

Environmental impact assessment in coal-burning power plants based on AHP and entropy weight VIKOR method
Tzu-Chia Chen, Cheng-Jui Tseng, Shu-Yan Yu

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Abstract

In the case of increasing power demand and increasingly serious environmental pollution, the study on environmental impact of coal-fired power plants on coal-fired power generation projects with coal as the main raw material has certain theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the comprehensive impact of coal-fired power plants on the environment, this paper studies the environmental impact assessment index system and assessment methods of coal-fired power plants in Taiwan. Firstly, the paper analyzes the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants. Then the comprehensive evaluation index system, the selection of evaluation factors, the quantification of evaluation indexes and the evaluation model of the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants are emphatically studied. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the weight of each index, and then a comprehensive evaluation model was established using VIKOR method. The whole index system was firstly evaluated from three aspects, namely nature, ecology and economic society, and then the overall comprehensive evaluation was carried out. Finally, the index system and model are applied to the actual evaluation of power plants, and the feasibility of the model is illustrated with an example, so as to provide a method reference for the environmental impact evaluation of power plants.

Keywords: coal-burning power plants, environmental impact assessment, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), entropy weight, Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR)

Citation: Chen T, Tseng C, Yu S. Environmental impact assessment in coal-burning power plants based on AHP and entropy weight VIKOR method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2855-65.

State authorities and public institutions interaction features in youth policy implementation: Current issues
Ekaterina L. Vodolazhskaya, Ekaterina V. Senatova, Aleksandr A. Novikov, Elena V. Novikova, Sofia Sh. Ostanina, Larisa F. Zhandarova, Oleg A. Skutelnik

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Abstract

The relevance of this article lies in the study of such a social phenomenon as youth policy. Especially significant are the representations of the existing practices of youth policy designing and young people participation in social programming to implement various types of social innovations. Socio-psychological support of youth policy is considered as an independent topic with the questions of the youth identity crisis and the search for models of building solidarity in the new historical realities. The purpose of the research is to study youth policy from the perspective of social programming; to identify and analyze the features of youth policy in modern conditions. Research methods: as a research method, we used survey and interview methods that allow us to identify the specifics of young people social status as an indicator of society state as a whole. Research results: the article considers constructs of youth policy used in official administrative texts - state programs in the field of youth policy and unofficial texts of these programs developers. The novelty and originality of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the context of programming youth policy in modern conditions is studied. The main components are shown: normative, language, spatial, event-time, and problem contexts. It is shown that youth policy is constructed as a network of interconnected social practices of various kinds, including practices of youth participation in programming, based on the model of representation of youth interests by its affiliated representatives. For the first time, it is revealed that the construction of social practices of youth participation occurs with the designation of the role repertoire of young people and is reduced to roles: problem bearer (predominance of problem discourse); recipient of social benefits; passive participant of events (resource-oriented attitude to the younger generation); social practice of youth participation is characterized as problematic. This article shows that the problems of human development can be solved only through the active participation of young people in the interaction of the state and civil society and should be considered as criteria for the effectiveness of youth policy implementation. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in political science, legal psychology, social psychology, age psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: youth policy, youth, public institutions

Citation: Vodolazhskaya EL, Senatova EV, Novikov AA, Novikova EV, Ostanina SS, Zhandarova LF, et al. State authorities and public institutions interaction features in youth policy implementation: Current issues. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2867-2.

Effect of some environmental indicators on physiological disturbances and endocrine disorders in Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848) and Cyprinuscarpio l, 1758
Muna H. AL-Saeed, Arwa H. AL-Saeed, Abdulbari A. Alfaris, Muna M. Jori

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Abstract

The pollutants are the effective factors of the presence and spread of aquatic organisms, and the haematological and hormonal parameters are the most common stress indicatorsthat can estimated the fish health. In the present study, some chemical and physical parameters were analyzed from two stations in Basrah province, from Marine Science Centre tanks –BasrahUniversity and the other station in Al-HababaRiver in AbuAl-Khasseebdistrict. An attempt has been made to study the effect of pollutant stressors on haematological [red blood cell count (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC)] and hormonal (TSH, T3, T4, testosterone, cortisol and glucose) parameters of two types of fish Tilapiazillii and Cyprinuscarpio. Under the effect of natural stressors, pysico-chemical factors were found to exhibit significant decline in RBC, Hb, PCV and WBCs. DLC when viewed revealed a decrease in lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils whereas neutrophils and thrombocytes exhibited rather an appreciable increase. A significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) cortisol and glucose levels were observed up. Tilapiazillii and Cyprinuscarpio also depicted significant decline in TEC, Hb and Hct under the effect of phosphate (6.05 mg/l). TLC depicted significant increase and among Differential leucocyte count (DLC) lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils register an increase but neutrophils, basophils and thrombocyte counts exhibit a decline in their numbers, also Cortisol and glucose levels were noticed to increase. Generally, C. carpio was more affected than T.zillii regarding haematological, biochemical indicators and histopathological examinations.

Keywords: physiological disturbances endocrine, <İ>Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848), CyprinuscarpioL, 1758

Citation: AL-Saeed MH, AL-Saeed AH, Alfaris AA, Jori MM. Effect of some environmental indicators on physiological disturbances and endocrine disorders in Tilapiazillii (Gervais, 1848) and Cyprinuscarpio l, 1758. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2873-80.

Factors affecting employee satisfaction at Surabaya Private Hospital
Kristiawan Vincentius Agung, Nyoman Anita Damayanti

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Abstract

One of the indicators of a good human resources management in a company is employee job satisfaction. This article was conducted to find out the main factors that give most influence on employee job satisfaction at Premier Hospital, Surabaya, and provide effective recommendations to increase employee job satisfaction based on the existing factors. In December 2018, employee satisfaction survey was carried out at Premier Hospital, Surabaya, to 60 randomly selected respondents by utilizing Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). From the survey results, there were three main factors affecting employee job satisfaction at Premier Hospital, Surabaya. These were the compensation factor, reward system, and supervision. By knowing the main factors affecting employee job satisfaction, there will be effective steps to improve the employee job satisfaction. The leaders and management at Premier Hospital Surabaya had to be able to improve these three factors to increase the employee job satisfaction in the company.

Keywords: employees, job satisfaction, compensation, reward system, supervision

Citation: Agung KV, Damayanti NA. Factors affecting employee satisfaction at Surabaya Private Hospital. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2881-5.

Organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction: A study in Suburban Hospital in Indonesia
Alita Dewi Percunda, Nungky Taniasari, Djazuly Chalidyanto

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Abstract

Introduction: The performance evaluation performed is aimed at increasing the efficiency of workers. This study has been carried out to observe the connection between organizational justice with performance appraisal satisfaction. 
Methods: A questionnaire was used to measure organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction given to employee in Anwar Medika General Hospital, Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Data analysis had been done descriptively and through linear regression for correlation coefficient. 
Result: The descriptive analysis showed mean value for organizational justice, which was 3.03 ± 0.26. The highest dimension was interactional justice with mean value of 3.04 ± 0.26. The test showed significant correlation justice and performance appraisal satisfaction using t-test linear regression, showing correlation (p < 0.05) as well as interactional justice, procedural justice, and distributive justice. 
Conclusion: The correlation of organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction showed that factor contributing to satisfaction with performance appraisal system is the fairness of organization.

Keywords: organizational justice, performance appraisal satisfaction, hospital

Citation: Percunda AD, Taniasari N, Chalidyanto D. Organizational justice and performance appraisal satisfaction: A study in Suburban Hospital in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2887-91.

Exploration of the relationship of vitamin B12 with some anthropometric measurements in Type2 diabetic patients
Athra,a R. A. AL-Esawi, Shakir F. T. Alaaraji

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most prevalent metabolic unrest affecting the people all over the world. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12), is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the eight B vitamins, metabolically important Vit B12 deficiency later will consequence in diabetes-related complications. current data was undertaken to exploration of the relationship of Vit B12 with some anthropometric measurements in type2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods: This study consisted of 60 patients with T2DM, attending Al- Ramadi teaching hospital and Al-Fallujah teaching hospital and 24 healthy individuals as controls. Serum Vit. B12 level was determined by ELISA technique while weight, height, waist, thoracic, neck, and hip circumferences carefully measured, also body mass index (BMI), waist/neck ratio (W/N), waist/thoracic ratio (W/T), waist/hip ratio (W/H) and were documented. Results: Vitamin B12, was found to be decreased in the patients with T2DM as compared to controls (P< 0.000l), and waist to hip ratio, waist to thoracic, and Body mass index were importantly greater in T2DM patients than in HCs with (P < 0.000l) for these parameters. Vit. B12 has important negative correlation with fasting serum glucose (FSG), weight, (P<0.001), HC, NC, BMI (p<0.05), W/H, W/T (p>0.05), while positive relationship between thoracic circumference (TC) and W/N (p= 0.05) was noticed. Studied variables presented the following descending order of area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) FSG (1), BMI (0.875 (Vit. B12 (0.825), W/H (0.8743), W/T (0.7837), weight (0.764), W/N (0.6715), W. C (0.7646) H. C (0.6444). Conclusion: Serum Vit. B12 level can be used as a novel biomarker in identification type 2 DM, also BMI, W/H and W/T may be a good biomarker in diagnosis type 2 DM.

Keywords: Type2 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitamin B12, BMI, waist circumference

Citation: AL-Esawi ARA, Alaaraji SFT. Exploration of the relationship of vitamin B12 with some anthropometric measurements in Type2 diabetic patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2893-01.

Study of gentamicin combined with polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from lactobacillus plantarum
Yehya Jaber Hassan Al-Ardawy, Wejdan Ridha Taj-Aldeen

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Abstract

Background: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural bio-polymers, which are formed by many micro-organisms in the context of a carbon and energy reservoir. PHAs are mainly dependent on the number of carbons and their molecular weight in the monomer unit. PHAs are biomedical products due to their biocompatible, biodegradable or non-toxic effects. Methodology: Nine bacterial isolates were isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples in different locations of Babylon province were diagnosed to Pseudomonas spp via traditional methods. In addition to three isolates of Lactobacillus bacteria obtained from the Advanced Microbiology Laboratory/ College of Science/ Babylon University, they were isolated from dairy. Results: all isolates were screened for PHA production by Sudan black B and Nile blue A. six isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and three of Lactobacillus spp. were shown positive for the production of PHA. After primary screening the polymer was extracted by sodium hypochlorite and chloroform. The best producing polymer in 3.4% from cell dry weight was found to be Lactobacillus spp1 was identified and characterized by VITEK 2 compact device; the result showed 87% identical to Lactobacillus plantarum. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used to show the functional group of extracted polymer from L. plantarum, FT-IR was used to show the functional groups of PHA samples were identified as C-O, C-H and C=O. The FT-IR spectra of PHA containing carbonyl group (C=O) occurred in a strong band at 1739.85cm-1. The solubility of PHA was also measured in several solvents. The results showed that the polymer was well dissolved by chloroform and Dimethyl sulfoxide. The polymer produced from L. plantarum was combined with Gentamicin was added to obtain a 5:1 or 10:1 (w/w) Gentamicin content to improve the performance improvement of Gentamicin against bacterial biofilm. Diagnosed pathogenic bacteria were then obtained from hospitals in Babylon province for later use in Gentamicin and PHA loaded Gentamicin running tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of the Gentamicin concentration was 0.2 mg/ml. The antibacterial activity of Gentamicin, PHA loaded Gentamicin (5:1 or 10:1) and PHA was studied against two types of gram-positive (Enterococcus spp) and gram-negative (K. pneumoniae) bacteria; the results show the effect of PHA loaded Gentamicin (5:1 or 10:1) stronger than Gentamicin against pathogenic bacteria, while there is not any effect for the alone polymer.The biofilm formation was studied on a wavelength of 630 nm via the ELISA reader and it was found that both isolates can form biofilms. Conclusion: The study concluded that Polyhydroxyalkanoate loaded Gentamicin (1:5) was stronger than Gentamicin and Polyhydroxyalkanoate loaded Gentamicin (1:10) against the biofilm formation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), gentamicin, chloroform, biofilm

Citation: Al-Ardawy YJH, Taj-Aldeen WR. Study of gentamicin combined with polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from lactobacillus plantarum. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2903-10.

Levels of some cardiac hormones in patients with heart diseases in Tikrit city
Hind T. Hamad, Zaid M. M. Almahdawi, Zaidan J. Zaidan, Mohammed A. Rashan

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Abstract

Objective: The present study was designed to test the level of some cardiac hormones like endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in serum of heart diseases patients compare with control group. This study was conducted on heart diseases patients in Cardiac Care Unit (C.C.U.) in Salah- Aldin General Hospital in Tikrit City-Salah-Aldin governorate. The study, began in 31 Desember 2018 to 1 st September 2019 and included 90 subjects divided in two groups ,the first group was (10) apparently healthy subjects10 male and 10 female, while the second group was 80 patients with different heart diseases (20 Heart Failure (HF) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Myocardial Infarction (MI) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Unstable Angina (UA) 10 male and 10 female, 20 Stable Angina (SA) 10 male and 10 female, were attended from Salah - Aldin General Hospital. Blood samples was collected from patients and healthy subjects and then serum separated for testing. The results of this study showed there were a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in all Heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects and the highest concentration of endothelin-1 was found in heart failure group, while the highest concentration of ANP was found in myocardial infarction group. Material and methods: Venous blood samples were collected from the vein from all patients and healthy subjects at study entry and after a 20-min period and serum was separated by centrifugation at 1500 g for 10 min at 4 Cfor hormonal testing. Endothelin-1and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormones concentration in serum of heart diseases patients was estimated depends on kit procedure is an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) from Bioassay Technology, China. Results: There was a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of endothelin-1 in all heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects and the highest concentration of endothelin-1 was found in heart failure group, ANP There was a high significant increasing ( P≤ 0.01) in the concentration of ANP in all Heart disease groups as compared with control healthy subjects ,the highest concentration of (ANP ng/ml) was found in Myocardial infarction group. Conclusion: Serum endothelin-1 and Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone concentration were significantly increased (P≤ 0.01) in all Heart diseases groups as compared with control healthy subjects. This finding suggests that endothelin may be a marker of rapid coronary artery disease progression and may also have a pathogenic role in this process.

Keywords: heat diseases, Endothelin-1 (ET-1) , Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)

Citation: Hamad HT, Almahdawi ZMM, Zaidan ZJ, Rashan MA. Levels of some cardiac hormones in patients with heart diseases in Tikrit city. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2911-5.

The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on blood parameters and immunoglobulin A in male rats with diarrhea induced
Halah S. Abdulkareem, Karkaz M. Thalij, Qanat M. Atiyea

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Abstract

Objective: The present study was designed to detect the ability of ZnO NPs to inhibit the bacterial isolates that cause diarrhea in laboratory male rats and determination the blood parameters, liver enzyme functions and IgA levels after treatment with ZnO NPs. Material and methods: Twenty rats of 6 weeks-old male were used and divided as follow: Group 1: Control group that were not treatments. Group 2: The animals were infected with 1.2×10ᵔ8 of Clostridium difficile, (Infected group). Group 3: The rats were infected with C. difficile and orally dosage with 150mg/kg from ZnO NPs for two weeks. Results: The results showed that the orally dosage from C. difficile was causing the significant (P<0.05) decreased in RBCs, Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), HCT, and significant increase of WBCs count, neutrophil and decreased the lymphocytes count cells. Also, it was caused in significantly increased of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes in serum and IgA levels compare with same values in control group. the orally dosage from ZnO NPs was done all parameters were come at similar of the same parameters in control group. Conclusion: It’s concluded that ZnO NPs has ability to potential inhibition activity against C. difficile that induced diarrhea.

Keywords: C. difficile, ZnO NPs, liver enzyme, IgA

Citation: Abdulkareem HS, Thalij KM, Atiyea QM. The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on blood parameters and immunoglobulin A in male rats with diarrhea induced. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2917-20.

Synthesis and characterization of plant extracts loaded PVA/PVP blend films and evaluate their biological activities
Shemaa A. Soud, Buthenia A. Hasoon, Afnan I. Abdulwahab, Nehia N. Hussein, Raghad Khwater Maeh

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Abstract

Background: antibacterial agent based on herbal extracts is considered an attractive area for developing countries. Nevertheless, herbal aqueous extracts usually show drawbacks, such as long-term volatility, poor bioavailability and rapid burst release. Methodology: In this study, polymer films were prepared from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA), then post-loaded with T. indica, C. pepo, H. sabdriffol, and L. nobilis hot water extracts. The effects of two polymers (PVA, PVP) and of the incorporated extracts were studied concerning the physical and in vitro bacterial growth inhibition properties of films; additionally, the antioxidant activity of each extracts was investigated. Results: The results showed improved swelling behaviour and mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and % elongation at break) of the cross-linked PVA/PVP films (CPP) compared to pure PVA (PV) films. Plant extracts conferred significant antibacterial effects to (CPP) films toward E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Also, both T. indica and H. sabdriffol extracts showed strong antioxidant against DPPH in vitro. Conclusion: The prepared films showed significant antibacterial activities, specifically in films loaded with the T.indica extract against E. Coli and in films loaded with C.pepo and L.nobilis against S.aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, plant extract, PVA/PVP film

Citation: Soud SA, Hasoon BA, Abdulwahab AI, Hussein NN, Maeh RK. Synthesis and characterization of plant extracts loaded PVA/PVP blend films and evaluate their biological activities. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2921-31.

The effects of oral dosage of glutathione and some biological agents on immunity and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced with immunosuppression
Zahraa D. Abdel-Hamid, Karkaz M. Thalij

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Abstract

Objective: The research was aimed to determine the effects of glutathione extracts and some biological agents on immune and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune. Methods: Glutathione was extract from spinach leaves and estimated the concentration used a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined the effect of orally dosage at one mg/ml alone or with both Zinc or Vit C or cell concentration of Lactobacillus plantarum (CCLP) on the immunity and biological parameters of male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune and breeding for 28 days. Results: The results indicated that aqueous spinach extract was contained glutathione at a concentration of 246 µg/g in the case of extraction using aqueous extract. The Immunosuppression induced was significantly (p<0.05) decreased of IgA, IgG and IgM values and became at 1022, 2031 and 121.5 mg/dl respectively compared with the control rats group which at 1564, 3206 and 174.7 mg/dl respectively while the orally dosage from biological parameters was caused in amelioration of immunity parameters to became similar of values with the control rats group. Also the oxidative stress parameters value as GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase enzyme were significantly decreased to 222, 0.17, 375 and 0.31µmol/L respectively and increased in MDA value to 4.6 µmol/L compared with the rats in control group, and the used of glutathione alone or with the biological parameters were done improvement to similar values in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral dosage of glutathione alone or with biological agents was significantly effective in improving immunity and decreasing the oxidative stress values in the laboratory rats that induced immunosuppression.

Keywords: glutathione, biological agents, sandimmune, oxidative stress, male rats

Citation: Abdel-Hamid ZD, Thalij KM. The effects of oral dosage of glutathione and some biological agents on immunity and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced with immunosuppression. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2933-9.

blaOXA genotyping of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens
Ali Nafe Suwaidan, Hassan Fadhil Naji

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Abstract

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that is found and isolated from various environments including plants, animals, soil and humans. This bacterium accounts for 10-15% of the nosocomial infections worldwide and is considered the third most-common organism associated with hospital-acquired infections such as urinary catheter-associated infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as blood, burn and wound infections, particularly involving wound infections in immunocompromised patients. Methodology: One hundred and sixty samples were collected from clinical specimens from the Babylon hospitals during the period of July-2019 to November-2019. These samples included 40 injury samples, 55 diabete-infected foot samples and 65 burn samples. Blood agar (Himedia) and MacConkey agar (Himedia) were used to isolated this bacterium, using the streaking technique and identified depending on their morphological properties (cultural and microscopical), biochemical tests, and then confirmed by PCR-sequencing for universal 16S rRNA gene. An antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using clinical and laboratory standards institute guideline (2019). Results: The results revealed that only 30 isolates were P. aeruginosa. The highest resistant percentages toward the antibiotics were found with ceftazidime and cefotaxime (96.7 %), while the lowest resistant percentages were found with colistin and polymyxin B (40 %). The ability of these isolates to produce OXA β-lactamase was investigated using PCR, it was found that 26.6% of the isolates belong to OXA-I, 40% of the isolates belong to OXA-III and no one of these isolates belong to OXA-II. Conclusion: The rates of OXA-type β-lactamases producing P. aeruginosa isolates from the clinical specimens were notable, therefore, the management and the treatment strategies should be revised and the proper use of the infection-control measures is needed to reduce the spread of the resistant genes in the isolates of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, blaOXA, diabete-infected foot, burn, injury, multi-drug resistance

Citation: Suwaidan AN, Naji HF. blaOXA genotyping of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2941-8.

The effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus
Rana S. Hasan, Abeer A. Ali, Ahmed A. Ali, Safaa M. Sultan, Shehab A. Yousf

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Abstract

This study showed the effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus parasite. The echinococcus cysts was isolated from the livers of slaughtered sheep in Mosul city. The vitality of the cysts was studied under the microscope using a 0.1% aqueous aucine. concentrations were used (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90) µg/ml from an extract of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica plants to study its influence on the vitality number of the proscolex. These proscolex were treated with the extract for different time periods ranging from (0, 15, 30, 45, 60) minutes, the study showed a significant effect of Urtica dioica plant on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus. Flavonoids had a fatal effect on killing the proscolex in the concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90) µg/ml for time periods ranging from (0, 15, 30, 45, 60) minutes. The 90 µg/ml showed a high effect on killing the proscolex. Alkaloids also showed a similar effect to flavonoids on killing the proscolex in the same concentrations and time periods, while the alkaloids were extracted from Annona muricata has a moderately effective on killing the proscolex in the same concentrations and time periods. While the cleucosides and flavonoids extracted from Urtica dioica did not show any effect in the same concentrations and time periods.

Keywords: Annona muricata, Urtica dioica, Echinococcus granulosus

Citation: Hasan RS, Ali AA, Ali AA, Sultan SM, Yousf SA. The effect of Annona muricata and Urtica dioica on killing the proscolex of Echinococcus granulosus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2949-52.

Investigating the association of vitamin D levels with RF and HMGB1 in Rheumatoid arthritis patients in Basra, Iraq
Alaa Abdul-Hussein Alsaedi, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Saad Waheed

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Abstract

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is autoimmune disease characterized by swollen joints and the presence of autoantibodies. Many factors can affect the susceptibility of a person to this autoimmune disease, one of these factors is the level of vitamin D (VD3). The aim of the study is investigating the relationships of VD3, RF and HMGB1 in RA patients in Basra. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 participants were included RA patients (n=113) and healthy control (HC) (n=41) from both sexes, age range 23-75 years. The sera of RA patients and HC were tested for the level of Rheumatoid Factors (RF) included (IgG and IgM), VD3 and Human HMGB1 protein measurement by ELISA. Results: Our results showed that the level of RF were significantly higher and VD3 was significantly lower in RA patients in compare with HC. Furthermore, serum HMGB1 levels were higher in RA patients without treatment, but decreases upon therapy in patients while it was low in HC. A significant differences noticed in serum HMGB1 levels in RA patients depended on the types of drugs. Positive correlation between VD3, HMGB1 and the disease progress, while negative correlations were found between VD3, RF and HMGB1. Conclusion: The status of VD3 in RA patients living in Basra and its relation to the levels of RF and the pro inflammatory mediator HMGB1, documenting that VD3 deficiency play a role in causing the inflammation during RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid Factor, Vitamin D3, HMGB1

Citation: Alsaedi AA, Al-Ali SJ, Waheed S. Investigating the association of vitamin D levels with RF and HMGB1 in Rheumatoid arthritis patients in Basra, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2953-61.

Relationship between multi-drug resistance and extended-spectrum β-latamase genes of Acinetobacter baumannii in different wards at Basra Hospitals
Muna Abdul-Imam AL-Mazini

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Abstract

Background: The present study was aimed for determination the prevalence of Extended- Spectrum β- Lactamase (ESBL) genes from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from hospital-acquired infection at Basra hospitals and to determine the relationship ESBL genes with Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among these A. baumannii isolates. Methodology: A total 120 samples were collected from burn, urine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and pediatric wards at different Basra hospitals and these were identified depending on standard microbiological methods with VITEK-2 system. The high percentages were (31.5%) isolates of Staphylococcus aureus followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.6%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (25.3%). Results: Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test and Multi-Drug Resistance of A. baumannii were achieved according to CLSI method. It has been found that A. baumanii had high resistance that Cefotaxime (94%), Imipenem (91%), Cefoxitin (85%), Merpenem (82%), Gentamicin (76%), Aztreonam (73%), Ciprofloxacin (70%) and Ampicillin (61%). On the other hand, high percentage (84.6%) of multidrug resistance was observed in A. baumannii. In addition, phenotypic expression of ESBL- A. baumannii was demonstrated by Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) method in (73%) isolates of MDR- A. baumanii . ESBL genes (bla- TEM, bla- SHV, bla- CTX) of these isolates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. The most frequent genes of A. baumannii were bla- TEM genes 21(64%), followed by bla-SHV genes 17(52%) and bla- CTX genes 14(42%). Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that significant relationship can be occurred between MDR isolates of A. baumannii with ESBL genes among environment of Basra hospitals.

Keywords: Multidrug Resistance, ESBL genes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Hospitals

Citation: AL-Mazini MA. Relationship between multi-drug resistance and extended-spectrum β-latamase genes of Acinetobacter baumannii in different wards at Basra Hospitals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2963-8.

Synthesis and study electrical properties of new polymer Copper Oxide NanoComposite
Azhar Farooq, Maida H. Saleem, Basma J. Ahmed

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Abstract

Cupric oxide nanoparticles CuO NPs can be produced by sol-gel. The copper oxide nanocomposite (CuO/PAG) was prepared by added suspension solution of CuO NPs to polymer blend (PAG) which was prepared by mixing poly acetal resin with gelatin. The nanoparticles morphology is categorized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the Scherrer formula, the average crystallite size of CuO nanoparticles can be computed. The analysis of powder XRD shows a formed monoclinic CuO phase with 15 nm average particle size. There is good agreement between the data obtained by XRD and microscopic measurements. The electrochemical characteristics for synthesized nanocomposite have been examined. The dielectric performance for a sample involving dielectric loss, AC conductivity and dielectric constant has been recorded under numerous frequency levels.

Keywords: Copper Oxide, Conductivity, NanoComposite, Resin

Citation: Farooq A, Saleem MH, Ahmed BJ. Synthesis and study electrical properties of new polymer Copper Oxide NanoComposite. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2969-74.

Effects of halothane on the peripheral lymphocytes and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells in operation room workers
Fadil A. AL-Quraishe, Ali M. AL-yasari

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Abstract

Background: Halothane is one of commonly inhalation anesthetic use in Iraq and the rest of the countries. Anesthetic is substance which reduce sensitivity to pain or is drug used to induce anesthesia that lead to temporary loss sensa-tion or awareness consciousness and which block only sensation of pain stimuli
Aim of study : This study was requested by Iraqi ministry of health to focus on the side effects of halothane on the patients and health,a study was perform-ed to evaluate the effects of the halothane anesthetic waste to induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells respectively in operation room workers (ORWs).
Material and Methods : SCE and MN,a sensitive measure of genotoxicity were counted SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes and MN in buccal mucosa cells for 40 ORWs exposure to halothane gases waste and 20 healthy person as con-trol who had never works in operation room.
Results : All of the ORWs exposure to halothane gases waste, have cells with SCE and MN frequencies, in analysis, ORWs was significantly increased SCE in ≥ 10 year and ≤ 5 year compared with control group with mean±SD (11.31± 0.9 and 7.67±0.33)respectively vs mean±SD (5.55±1.6), P< 0.001).fothermore, a significantly increased higher MN frequency with mean± SD (7.53±0.78 and 5.02±0.53) in ORWs with ≥ 10 year and ≤ 5 year respectively comparison with their control group with mean±SD (2.40±0.40),(p<0.001).Also non-significant differences in SCE and MN frequencies according to the gender.
Conclusion : The chromosome damage and genotoxicity are related to the ORWs daily exposure to halothane waste and may be increased by accumula-tive with duration of exposure to free radical and reactive oxygen species lead to damage in their cells of peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells over time of work.

Keywords: Hallothane, Sister Chromatid Exchange, Micronuclei, Anesthetic

Citation: AL-Quraishe FA, AL-yasari AM. Effects of halothane on the peripheral lymphocytes and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells in operation room workers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2975-81.

A weak effects of bee venom on rat superoxide dismutase, catalase and Malondialdehyde activity: Rheumatoid arthritis model
Alaa Tareq Shakir, Rasha Kadhim Mahdi, Kassim Abdulla Al-Morshidy

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Abstract

Based on several active molecules and complex mixture component, bee venom used as folk medicine. We measured the biological effects of bee venom on rat three antioxidant staff in the current study, these were the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde, for which forty rats are being used. The experiment groups were randomly sub-grouped into 8 groups (n=5 for each one). Our results showed no significant variation in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in all groups whereas Malondialdehyde reveled significant decrease in the bee venom 10 µg/kg after 5 days following injection of CFA in comparison with both control and rheumatoid groups. As conclusion a weak evidence of bee venom effects on three antioxidant under consideration.

Keywords: bee venom, superoxide dismutase, catalase a, Malondialdehyde

Citation: Shakir AT, Mahdi RK, Al-Morshidy KA. A weak effects of bee venom on rat superoxide dismutase, catalase and Malondialdehyde activity: Rheumatoid arthritis model. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2983-7.

Estimation of physicochemical parameters and antibiotics resistance patterns in Almamierh treatment plant in Babylon Province, Iraq
Noor Haider AL-Taei, Ayad M.J AL-mamoori, Nisreen AL-Hmoud

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Abstract

Surface water contamination remains a major worldwide public health concern and may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The current study dealt with the assessment of physicochemical parameters in the wastewater treatment plant in Almamierh, in the city of Babylon Province, Iraq. The treated water in this plant is used for agricultural purposes. To evaluate water quality, samples were collected from three sites (input, sedimentation, output) for estimation physicochemical parameters that includes (Water temperature, EC, PH, BOD, COD, TDS). the highest concentration recorded in the first site, especially BOD5 (235 Mg/L), COD (761 Mg/L), TDS (626.432 mg/L), while the EC was the highest value in the second location (1008ms/cm). These samples subjected to bacteriological analysis and a number of bacterial species have been isolated, such as: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were tested for resistance to 12 classes of antibiotics, the results showed that the highest resistance levels were to β-lactam antibiotics, followed by penicillin, cephem, Fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, glycopeptides, and erythromycin.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, wastewater, antibiotic resistance bacteria

Citation: AL-Taei NH, AL-mamoori AM, AL-Hmoud N. Estimation of physicochemical parameters and antibiotics resistance patterns in Almamierh treatment plant in Babylon Province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2989-6.

Influence of ascorbic acid and tocopherol on the vegetative, physiological and chemical traits of dates palm tissue, Barhi cultivar, irrigated from the Shatt Al-Arab water
Khaun A. Muhsen, Hamza A. Hamza, Mariam J. Mohammad

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Abstract

This study was conducted in one of the private orchards in Al-Dair district, north of Basra Governorate during the 2019 AD growing season, with the aim of studying the effect of foliar spray with antioxidants, Asc and Toc on some physiological and biochemical traits of tissue dates palm offshots, Al-Barhi cultivar which was irrigated from Shatt Al-Arab water. The experiment included seven treatments with antioxidants using the concentrations 125, 250 and 375 mg L-1 for each in addition to the control treatment (with distilled water only). The offshoots were sprayed four times. The results of the study showed the following: 1) The treatment of spraying with Toc at a concentration of 375 mg.L-1 recorded a significant difference in the increase of the height of the offshoot, and in the leaf content of the soluble protein f.w. The treatment also recorded the highest amount of P and K that reach 1.60 and 4.23 mg.g-1 d.w, respectively, and led to a decrease in the amount of Cl-, as it reached 11.17 mg g-1 d.w. It also increased the activity of the Po enzyme, which reached 81.88 units g-1 d.w. 2) The results of the study showed that spraying with Asc with a concentration of 375 mg L-1 reported significantly higher increase in the number of leaves and the leaf area and % for the water content of the leaves. It also led to an increase in the pigment of total Chl, total soluble carbohydrates and vitamin C, whose concentrations in the leaves reached 6.92, 49.39 and 34.77 mg g-1 f.w. The same concentration of ascorbic acid reduced the proline and Na concentration in the leaves to 13.26 mg g -1 dry weight and 0.18 mg g-1 dry weight respectively. In addition, the treatment increased the concentration of N in the leaves that amounted to 21.33 mg.gm-1 d.w, as well as an increase in the K:Na to 22.50. It also led to lowering ABA to 41.83 µg g-1 f. w.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, Tocopherol, Date Palm Tissue, Peroxidase, ABA

Citation: Muhsen KA, Hamza HA, Mohammad MJ. Influence of ascorbic acid and tocopherol on the vegetative, physiological and chemical traits of dates palm tissue, Barhi cultivar, irrigated from the Shatt Al-Arab water. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):2997-3007.

RAPIDEC®CARBA NP-, CHROMID®CARBA agar- and MHT-based investigation of Carbapenem Resistance-Gram Negative (CRGN) bacteria isolated from wastewater in Basra city
Ismaal Jmia Abas, Abbas Dareb Shaban, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmshi, Noor S.K. AL-Khafaji

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Abstract

Background: Carbapenem are a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics exploited as a final resort in the controlling of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria may reach the wastewater via effluent of untreated hospital wastewater in addition to vital role of drug manufacturing companies that loaded their wastewater with such antibiotics leading to emergence of carbapenem resistance bacteria. The current study aims to investigate the carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria among wastewater using three different phenotypic methods. Methodology: During a winter period of 2018, 852 wastewater samples were collected from Basra city and cultured on MacConky agar and then confirm identification by API-20E. The Kirby-Bauer were used for screenings of carbapenem resistance and then the carbapenemase producing confirmed by three different phenotypic methods: MHT, RAPIDEC®.CARBA NP and CHROMID®.CARBA agar. Results: The results of bacterial isolation revealed positive culture for 742 (87.08%) of samples while 110 (12.92%) give no growth. Gram negative bacteria were recovered from 514/852 (60.32%) of samples and 228/852(26.76%) for Gram-positive bacteria. All 514 gram negative isolates were submitted for carbapenem producing using disc diffusion method for imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem. The results showed that only 38/514 (7.39%) of Gram negative isolates were resist at least one of the three used carbapenem antibiotics. 10/38 (26.31%) of Gram negative isolates were resist to meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. 21/38 (55.26%) were resist to meropenem and imipenem while all isolates 38/38 (100%) were resist to meropenem. The 38 isolates of carbapenem producing Gram negative (CRGN) were 20/38 (52.631%) for E. coli, 11/38 (28.947%) for K. pneumoniae, 5/38 (13.157%) for P. aeruginosa and 2/38 (5.263%) for P. mirabilis. The results of three phenotypic assay to investigate the carbapenemase production showed that RAPIDEC®CARBA NP reveal 36/38 (94.74%), MHT reveal 31/38 (81.58%) and CHROMID®CARBA agar reveal 27/38 (71.05%) of isolates were carbapenemase producer. Conclusion: It is easily to conclude that, the carbapenemase producing Gram negative (CPGN) bacteria may reach the wastewater from hospital effluent and drug manufacturers. RAPIDEC®CARBA NP was rapid, accurate and suitable assay for detecting CPGN bacteria.

Keywords: Carbapenemase, wastewater, CHROMID®CARBA, RAPIDEC®CARBA NP, MHT

Citation: Abas IJ, Shaban AD, Al-Dahmshi HO, AL-Khafaji NS. RAPIDEC®CARBA NP-, CHROMID®CARBA agar- and MHT-based investigation of Carbapenem Resistance-Gram Negative (CRGN) bacteria isolated from wastewater in Basra city. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3009-14.

An anthraquinone derivative from Coptospella tomentosa (Blume) root (Merung)
Erwin, Anita Karolina Dari, Djihan Ryn Pratiwi, Bohari, Anton Rahmadi

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Abstract

Coptosapelta tomentosa (Blume) (Merung) is a type of tropical plants traditionally being used as a medicine by the Dayak tribes in Indonesia. This experiment aims to identify compound in the class of anthraquinone derivative from the ethyl acetate fraction of Coptosapelta tomentosa (Blume) root. In this study, an anthraquinone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Coptosapelta tomentosa root using flash column chromatography. The compound was identified as 1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) anthracene-9,10-dione (digiferruginol) (1). The structure of 1 was established based on Ultraviolet Visible, Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/QToF-MS) spectroscopic data. The antitumor and antioxidant activities of this compound were investigated by MTT assay against murine leukemia P-388 cells and DPPH free radical scavenging method, respectively. Antitumor and antioxidant activity test results show that compound 1 may have potent antitumor property but with moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antitumor, antioxidant, Coptosapelta tomentosa, DPPH, traditionally

Citation: Erwin, Dari AK, Pratiwi DR, Bohari, Rahmadi A. An anthraquinone derivative from Coptospella tomentosa (Blume) root (Merung). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3015-7.

In vivo effects of different doses of ciprofloxacin on glutathione reductase activity in some rat tissues
Kutayba F. Dawood

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Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin on the enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase (GR) in the brain, cardiac, small intestine, and testes tissues of rats. GR enzymes contribute to maintaining appropriate concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Seventy-two adult male albino rats were divided into four groups (I–IV). Rats in group I (control) were injected with sterile distilled water, whereas animals in experimental groups (II-IV), were injected intraperitoneally with ciprofloxacin in single doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Dosages effects of antibiotic were investigated at three specific periods (in the first, the third, and the seventh hour). The obtained results showed that brain GR activity in ciprofloxacin groups was inhibited compared to the control group all periods (p <0.05). After seven hours, ciprofloxacin found to significantly inhibited the enzyme activity in cardiac tissues especially in group IV (p <0.05). In the II and III groups, however, the small intestine reductase enzyme activity was not affected by ciprofloxacin doses, excluding group IV, where the enzyme activity decreased after seven hours of treatment (P <0.05). As for the GR enzyme activity in rat testis, it was a decrease compared to the control in the treated groups from the start of the third hour to the end of the period (P <0.05).

Keywords: Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione, Ciprofloxacin, oxidative stress, enzyme

Citation: Dawood KF. In vivo effects of different doses of ciprofloxacin on glutathione reductase activity in some rat tissues. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3019-23.

Effect of cigarette and water-pipe smoking on osteocalcin and RANKL serum levels among Iraqi university students
Zahraa Hussein M. Kadri

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Abstract

Osteoporosis is most common skeleton illness characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility that putting patients at risk of fracture and smoking considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to assess osteocalcin and receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels in two smokers groups of university students. The first include 61 cigarette-smokers and the second include 64 cigarette/water-pipe smokers, as well as 70 non-smokers (control group). A significant reduction was seen in osteocalcin serum level especially in the second group as compared to non-smokers, while RANKL serum level was significantly elevated. The osteocalcin/RANKL ratio was also significantly decreased in cigarette-smokers. These effects were exaggerated in cigarette/water-pipe smokers. In conclusion, the two mediators; osteocalcin and RANKL, may be good predictors for the development of osteoporosis especially in young adults.

Keywords: smoking, osteocalcin, RANKL, osteoporosis

Citation: Kadri ZHM. Effect of cigarette and water-pipe smoking on osteocalcin and RANKL serum levels among Iraqi university students. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3025-30.

The Iraqi dominant rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) under a stomach-based histological study
Sawsan Gafoori Ahmed, Shaymaa K. Jaifar, Masart Swadi Medakel

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Abstract

Background: The wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is highly present in Iraqi rural regions. Objectives: Due to no histological information regarding the histological characterization of this local rabbit, this study was conducted to identify histological characteristic features of its stomach. Materials and Methods: According to that, ten stomach tissue samples were collected from ten rabbits. These samples were tissue-section-processed, stained using Harris hematoxylin and eosin dyes, and visualized and photo-taken under a light microscope. Results: The gastric wall of the rabbit consisted of a quadric-tunic layer, in to out; mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The inside surface of the stomach was lined by mucosal cells that made an appearance as a tall simple columnar epithelium spread through the pits of the stomach. Moreover, the mucosa displayed three histologically distinct regions based on glandular tissue types (branch-, tubule-, and coil-like appearance) in which these glands were short in the cardiac and pyloric regions. The fundic gland region showed simple long straight branch-like tubular features and revealed mostly mucous secreting cells and less frequent parietal cells in the cardiac and pyloric glands. Furthermore, the fundic gland region consists of different kinds of cells; however, the parietal and chief cells are the highly common cells in this region. Conclusion: Characteristic regions are presents in the gastric mucosa of the rabbit with high distribution of parietal and chief cells in the fundic gland region.

Keywords: Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit stomach, stomach histopathology

Citation: Ahmed SG, Jaifar SK, Medakel MS. The Iraqi dominant rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) under a stomach-based histological study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3031-4.

Molecular investigation of an unusual bacteria causing severe UTI among public water closet users: Mechanisms of characterization and Engineering solutions
Asal Aziz Tawfeeq, Sami Ridha Aslan, Saif A. Moneeb

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) compose one of the most common community-acquired infections, where Escherichia vulneris does not signify a pathogenic role in it. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that insufficient water closets play a vital role in the implications of disease transmission and health problems for all attendees. Besides, the defective water closets at the educational facilities with insufficient access to clean toilets could bring harmful health effects such as severe urinary tract infections for both staff members and students due to their exposure to bioaerosol infections which are transmitted easily in dirty public water closets. Thus, this study designed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infections among defined employees with the estimation of the role of individual water closets in the incidence of microbial etiology.
The Results show significant prevalence of UTIs recorded among employees of both sexes working at an educational facility and sharing the same unisex water closets during their daily-worktime. The causative pathogen isolated from both positive UTI urine samples and water closets was E.vulneris profiled by API 20E, identified by 16s rRNA gene sequence and the production of heat-labile and hemolysin toxins molecularly characterized by RT-PCR. The water closets indoor air quality and performance evaluated with sensors to plot the link of the UTI microbial etiology. 
From this study can be Concluded a Significantly prevalent upper and lower UTI cases encountered amongst employees of an educational facility where Escherichia vulneris was the main invading pathogen. Isolated strains of E.vulneris revealed a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance and susceptibility to Cephalosporins and Ciprofloxacin only, the gene sequence of 1400bp of the 16s rRNA, and the production of hemolysin (hlyA 1177bp), and heat-labile (LT 508 bp) toxins. Besides, the inadequacy of the water closet at the workplace imposes an extra burden on the health of the employees as it might promote many community-acquired diseases.

Keywords: molecular characterization, E.vulneris, employees, educational facility, Water Closets, UTI, RT-PCR

Citation: Tawfeeq AA, Aslan SR, Moneeb SA. Molecular investigation of an unusual bacteria causing severe UTI among public water closet users: Mechanisms of characterization and Engineering solutions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3035-44.

The relationship between the of prolidase activity and rheumatoid arthritis
Mostafa Ali Abdulrahman, Barda Anwer Jasim, Adeeb Mahfooth Farag AL-Samaria

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Abstract

This study was conducted for the period from 15/12/2019 to 30/01/2020 in the laboratories of Samarra General Hospital and outpatient clinics, as 40 samples were collected (20) a sample infected with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed by doctors and (20) healthy samples as a control group. Their ages ranged between (35-80) years. As 6 ml of venous blood was withdrawn and (4) ml was placed in plastic tubes and free from anticoagulant for the purpose of Determination concentrations (Prolidase, MDA, Ceroplasmin) and (2) ml to Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate ESR, and the results were statistically analyzed by testing the variance at a significant level P≤ 0.05. The results showed a significant increase in the effectiveness of prolidase enzyme in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to the control group at a significant level P≤ 0.05 and an increase in the concentration of Ceroplasmin, ESR and malondialdehyde in the patients group compared to the control group P≤ 0.05

Keywords: Prolidase Activity, Cp, MDA, rheumatoid arthritis

Citation: Abdulrahman MA, Jasim BA, AL-Samaria AMF. The relationship between the of prolidase activity and rheumatoid arthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3045-9.

Molecular study of Rota A viruses at many farm animals in Iraq
Karar Mohammed Abdul-Sada

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Abstract

Background: The species A of Rotavirus is considered as of medical and veterinary important pathogen, worldwide distributed and responsible for acute gastroenteritis particularly at juvenile ages, the viruses explain marked genetic diversity which represented by numerous number genotypes infect different vertebrate hosts. 
Methods: About 942 fecal samples had been taken directly from the rectum of 403 cattle, 236 sheep,174 goats and 129 of camels, their age younger than 6 months and suffering from diarrhea at different Iraqi Governorates; advanced specific molecular technique was implemented, Reverse Transcription -modern- Real Time PCR technique (rRT- PCR) with utilizing of a new generation thermo-cycler to obtain reliable result regarding exact viral genotypes in these animals at Iraq. 
Results: The RVAs were observed in 29.61% of diarrheic animals the percentages of infection among these animals as followings: cattle, sheep, goats and camels were 31.51%, 29.23%, 27.58% and 27.13%, respectively, the distribution pattern of viral genotypes as following: in cattle: G6, G8, G10, P[1] and P[5] in addition to P[11]; in sheep: G3, G6, G10, P[1] and P[11]; in goats: G6 and also P[5]; in camels: G10, P[1] and P[11]. G10 was the most dominant among specific genotypes in all animals in this study.
Conclusions: According to the author’s knowledge, the present study is the first study that recorded G3, G6, G8, G10, and also P [1], P [5] besides to P [11] in above animals at Iraq, which offers a valuable and reliable epidemiological information pertaining RAVs genotypes that were urgently needed for both human and animal necessary hygiene regards.

Keywords: Rota A viruses, G and P genotypes, Reverse transcription, Real Time PCR

Citation: Abdul-Sada KM. Molecular study of Rota A viruses at many farm animals in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3051-7.

Anti-fungal activity for some nanoparticles against some yeast and mold strain
Zahraa A. Althabet, Taha H. Alnasrawi, Ghufran S. Salih

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Abstract

The present research aim to determine the activity of some antifungal nanoparticles against some molds and yeast strains since Nanoparticles are of wide use in medical field as antimicrobial agents and many promised results show that’s it’s could be suitable for human use with low concentration and these includes multiple metal oxides such as yttrium, copper, nickel, zinc, iron and silver that have antimicrobial activity, in this research we test the antifungal activity of some nanoparticles (NPs) against different strains of mold and yeast. Antimicrobial activity of NPs was accomplished by the mean of disk diffusion assay using dilutions of (200, 100, 50, 25, and 12.5) and the MIC and MFC of each isolate is determined.as well as antibiotic discs were acquired in order to compare its antifungal activity within NPs activity,and those antibiotic include Amikacin (AK30), Cefotaxime(CX30), Ciprofloxacin(CPR5), Gentamicin(CN10). The results show that zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cupper oxide, silver and yittrium nanoparticles have no anti-fungal activity against tested fungi, while there was different inhibitory effect of antibiotics against the selected fungal strain and the KCA antibiotic appeared with the highest activity while the FLU appeared with the least activity.so that its concluded that using NPs as an economic alternative anti-fungal medicine especially in treating ectopic infections must be with high concentration since low concentration give no result without taking risk of developing resistant fungal strains as with antibiotics, as well as to use lab animals for most accurate results.

Keywords: nanoparticles, minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal fungicidal concentration

Citation: Althabet ZA, Alnasrawi TH, Salih GS. Anti-fungal activity for some nanoparticles against some yeast and mold strain. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3059-67.

Pharmacological correction of changes in the chemical and mineral composition of rat’s skeletal bones by Mexidol after 60-day of Tartrazine administration
Vladyslav I. Luzin, Olga N. Fastova, Aleksey V. Tverskoi, Vitaliy N. Morozov, Elena N. Morozova, Anastasia V. Tverskaya

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Abstract

Currently, the yellow synthetic azo dye tartrazine is widely used in such industrial fields as pharmy, food and cosmetology. The effects of tartrazine on morphological and functional state of bones as well as ways of correction of changes insufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to establish the possibilities of using Mexidol as a pharmacological corrector for changes in the chemical and mineral composition of skeletal bones in mature rats after 60 days of using tartrazine. The research was carried out on 175 white mature male rats, divided into 5 groups. 1st group - control; 2nd and 3rd groups - 1 ml of tartrazine solution was administered to rats daily intragastrically at dose 750 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively for 60 days; 4th and 5th groups - 1 ml of tartrazine solution was administered to rats daily intragastrically at dose 750 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively for 60 days and intramuscularly 5% solution of mexidol at dose 50 mg/kg body weight. The periods of observation were 3, 10, 15, 24 and 45 days after the end of 60-days tartrazine administration. The chemical and mineral composition of the humerus, hip bones, and the third lumbar vertebra were studied by gravimetric method. Also the spectrophotometry was used. The application of mexidol is accompanied by smoothing out the negative effect of 60-day tartrazine administration at dose of 7500 and 1500 mg/kg body weight on the mineral and chemical composition of the rat’s skeletal bones from the 15th to the 45th days of observation. The mineral and chemical structure of bones was recovered to control values more quickly in group with the use of tartrazine at dose of 750 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: bones, chemical and mineral composition, tartrazine, mexidol

Citation: Luzin VI, Fastova ON, Tverskoi AV, Morozov VN, Morozova EN, Tverskaya AV. Pharmacological correction of changes in the chemical and mineral composition of rat’s skeletal bones by Mexidol after 60-day of Tartrazine administration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3069-72.

G316A growth hormone polymorphism in pigs of various breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia
Eduard A. Snegin, Olesia Yu. Artemchuk, Anton A. Sychev, Anatolii S. Barkhatov, Sergei R. Yusupov, Elena A. Snegina, Aleksandra Yu. Tishchenko

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Abstract

Using the RFLP method, pigs were genotyped for the growth hormone gene (mutation G316A). The study involved 187 boars of four breeds (Duroc, Large White, Landrace and Yorkshire) from the Belgorod region of Russia. The AG genotype frequency for most breeds has the highest values equal to 0.426, 0.489, 0.413, and 0.468, respectively. In the Duroc, Large White and Landrace breeds, the G allele (0.383, 0.479, and 0.467, respectively) and the GG genotype (0.170, 0.234, and 0.261, respectively) have the lowest frequency. At the same time, in Yorkshires, allele A (0.298) and genotype AA (0.064) are characterized by the lowest frequency. We believe that a similar picture can be associated with the peculiarities of selection in various breeds. According to the χ2 test, all studied breeds are in a state of Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.

Keywords: pigs, growth hormone, A316G polymorphism, RFLP

Citation: Snegin EA, Artemchuk OY, Sychev AA, Barkhatov AS, Yusupov SR, Snegina EA, et al. G316A growth hormone polymorphism in pigs of various breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3073-6.

Production of high quality sheep’s milk
Assan Ospanov, Botagoz Toxanbayeva

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Abstract

Sheep producing milk for people start with the beginnings of domestication. It is an excellent raw material for different types of food production, which gives prospective of its development in milk industry. Genetic selection and better feeding conditions led to several superior sheep breeds in Kazakhstan in terms of productivity, proving a great potential for evolution in market demand. The quality of ship milk is paramount in controlling the quality of products made from it. It is necessary to identify the factors affecting the productivity and quality of sheep milk for production with emphasis on Kazakhstan. Some of the factors, such as genotype of the sheep are difficult to control, but the farmer to produce high quality milk can manipulate environmental factors, such as nutrition and management of the milking flock. To obtain a productivity of high quality milk ewes must be milked out regularly and completely, which implies adopting appropriate milking routines and milking equipment. It is also important that ewes are healthy and receive adequate diets. Comprehensive reviews are presented of the latest aspects of production, technology and quality of sheep milk.

Keywords: sheep’s milk, production, technology, quality, diary product, factors, genotype, milking routines

Citation: Ospanov A, Toxanbayeva B. Production of high quality sheep’s milk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3077-84.

Genetic detection of in vA, sipB, SopB and sseC genes in Salmonella spp isolated from diarrheic children patients
Maryam Sadiq Obayes, Oruba K. Al-Bermani, Shaima Ahmed Rahim

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Abstract

Salmonella Gram-negative bacteria infect human and animals and cause gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Type III secretion system are important virulence factor of salmonella it basically and functionally associated with flagella meeting systems and typically comprise more than 20 proteins subunits that are found in the internal and external membrane of the bacterial cell. The current study aims to conduct an detection the candidates genes of type III secretion system as important virulence factor of a clinical Salmonella spp. The Patient and methods: current study includes 120 stool samples collected from 120 diarrheic children, age range from (2 to 3 years) for the period from November (2018) to December (2018) from Babylon province Iraq. After culturing samples, Salmonella spp.diagnosed. DNA extraction and PCR were achieved for detection type III secretion system genes of Salmonella spp. The results: out of 120 stool sample, 58 samples were positive for Salmonella spp. we revealed that Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella paratyphi, the most common serovar of Salmonella enterica, was Salmonella typhi at 29.3%. Genetic detection of type III secretion system by PCR technique explains that Inva A was found about at all isolates except one isolate at percentage (93.1%) and SipB occurrence was (18.9%) finally SseC occurrence was (1.7%) whereas SopB was not detected in all salmonella isolates. inva A gene is most reliable gene in the diagnosis of Salmonella spp. and not all isolates contain a different genes of type III secretion system.

Keywords: Salmonella Type III secretion system, invA, sipB, sseC, sopB

Citation: Obayes MS, Al-Bermani OK, Rahim SA. Genetic detection of in vA, sipB, SopB and sseC genes in Salmonella spp isolated from diarrheic children patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3085-91.

Removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions using biosorption technique: Review article
Salah A. Jassim

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Abstract

The aim of this article is to review the biosorption of metal ions by different biosorbents, such as agriculture waste, fruit peels, industrial waste, fungi and alga. All these types were studied in this work using several parameters.
The maximum uptake of the metals (expressed by mg metal/g biosorbent) has been adopted as a criterion for the metal recovery efficiency. It has been concluded that pH is the most important parameters governing the efficiency of such process. This study is covering the literatures during the last two decades.

Keywords: toxicity, metals, biomass, biosorption, recovery, removal

Citation: Jassim SA. Removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions using biosorption technique: Review article. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3093-9.

Evaluation of serum IgE, TNF alpha at patients with genital warts, Iraq
Nisreen Kaddim Radi, Ihsan Jara Atiyah, Samerh Shaker Hamood

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Abstract

Condylomata acuminata also known as genital wart result from the infection with human papilloma viruses particularly HPV type6 &11.Thirty three samples (blood and skin tissue) were accumulated from patient with genital warts (females) whom visit dermatology department of Hilla hospital/Iraq, with thirty three sera gathered from healthy persons act as control group. The diagnosis was achieved via dermatologist and by applied in situ hybridization (ISH) test to detect HPV types 6&11 .The estimation of IgE and TNF α levels at patient sera were done by using ELISA test. The result show that About 92% of patient with genital wart donated appositive result to the infection with HPV type 11 and 6,and there were significant increasing in IgE levels at patients sera compared with control group Mean ± S.E[202.36 ±10.16, 24.12± 1.68 IU/ML]and also TNF α show increasing in their level at patients sera compared with control groups Mean ± S.E[68.18 ± 1.72, 46.68 ± 1.13 pg/ml].

Keywords: genital wart, IgE, in situ hybridization, females, HPV, ISH

Citation: Radi NK, Atiyah IJ, Hamood SS. Evaluation of serum IgE, TNF alpha at patients with genital warts, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3101-6.

Case Report of the pathogenesis disease benign papillary mesothelioma
Afrita Amalia Laitupa, Winariani Koesoemoprodjo, Dewa Made Artika

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Abstract

Background: Mesothelioma is a disease that attacks the mesothelium cells or the external part of the organ. Mesothelioma often attacks pleura of the lung organs. One of the development of mesothelioma is Benign Papillary Mesothelioma. This disease is a rare disease. Benign Papillary Mesothelioma is a cancer that caused by the Simian-40 virus (SV-40) and can be induced by exposure to asbestos. Purpose: This study aimed to record the pathogenesa of Benign Papillary Mesothelioma disease in a female patient. Methods: This study used the recording data of patient from the clinical data, radiological and histopathological as the supporting data. In patient’s history, the patient’s condition experienced progression by a pleural effusion, SVKS and a high risk of thrombosis. That invasion was examined by the results of pleural fluid analysis, pleural fluid cytology and chest X-ray CT with contrast. Result: In patients with tumors, an emergency could occur if it did not treated immediately and caused a life threatening. The drugs management of patients with SVKS and the risk of thrombosis can help reduce patient complaints. Conclusions: Mass biopsy was also conducted by using HE staining, where the diagnosis results told the patient has chronic pleurisy, pulmonary edema and congestion. Patients were planned for platinum-based chemotherapy.

Keywords: papillary mesothelioma, pathogenesis, case report

Citation: Laitupa AA, Koesoemoprodjo W, Artika DM. Case Report of the pathogenesis disease benign papillary mesothelioma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3107-14.

Rare Case Report: Female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von Recklinghausen’s disease
Afrita Amalia Laitupa, Isnin Anang Marhana

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Abstract

Background: The cases of mediastinal neurofibroma tumors without von Recklinghausen’s disease are very rare. Clinical manifestations of tightness that do not get better with prolonged treatment using bronchodilators and steroids. After further examination and patient’s history, a diagnosis of mediastinal mass can be established, that suppress the respiratory tract. Purpose: aim to know female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von recklinghausen’s disease. Method: Old adult patients who experience mediastinal neurofibroma tumors with symptoms of shortness of breathing that are increasingly aggravated especially when cold and fatigue. Symptoms are related to compression or invasion directly to structures around the mediastinum or associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Asymptomatic patients are usually associated with benign tumors and vice versa patients with symptomatic usually associated with malignancy. Result: The development of a malignant tumor occurs in 10% of cases of neurofibroma especially in patients with neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease). The duration of ongoing disease coupled with complication from other diseases makes different alternatives the best indication. Conclusion: This tumor had reached the stage of surgical therapy to achieve safe and completed tumor excision. This therapy was carried out as an optimal effort to obtain a better prognosis for the patient’s disease.

Keywords: Mediastinum Neurofibroma tumors, severe tightness, surgical therapy

Citation: Laitupa AA, Marhana IA. Rare Case Report: Female patients of mediastinal neurofibroma without von Recklinghausen’s disease. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3115-23.

Polymorphism in the leptin gene (T3469C) of Different Pig Breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia
Eduard A. Snegin, Olesia Yu. Artemchuk, Anton A. Sychev, Anatolii S. Barkhatov, Sergei R. Yusupov, Elena A. Snegina, Aleksandra Yu. Tishchenko

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Abstract

Pigs were RFLP-genotyped for the leptin gene (mutation T3469C). The study examined 185 boars of four breeds (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from the Belgorod region of Russia. In all breeds, the wild T allele is the most frequent, which is responsible for leaner meat and lower fat content. The highest frequency of the C mutant allele was found in the Large White (0.223), and the lowest – in Yorkshire pigs (0.011). At the same time, no homozygotes were found for this allele in Landrace and Yorkshire meat breeds. In general, the allele frequencies of the studied breeds correspond to the frequencies of European and Canadian selection. According to the χ2 test, all studied breeds are in a state of genetic equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg.

Keywords: pigs, leptin, 3469 mutation, polymorphism, RFLP

Citation: Snegin EA, Artemchuk OY, Sychev AA, Barkhatov AS, Yusupov SR, Snegina EA, et al. Polymorphism in the leptin gene (T3469C) of Different Pig Breeds of the Belgorod Region of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3125-9.

Early versus late tracheostomy in critically ill patients
Safaa Hussain Alturaihy, Dhay Mohammad Modhafar

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Abstract

Introduction: Tracheostomy is a common surgical procedure which is done in intensive care unit patient ICU. We examined the potential effects of time tracheostomy in ICU.
Aim: A retrospective and prospective study was designed to clarity the effect, outcome and prognosis of early and late tracheostomy in such two groups.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted at department of otolaryngology in Al-Hilla Teaching General Hospital over a period of two years from Feb 2014 to Feb 2016, regardless the age, sex and type of tracheostomy.
Tracheostomy was considered as early ET if it is performed before or on day ten of mechanical ventilation MV of 263 ICU patients,64 require tracheostomy,23 of whom were early and 42 were late.
Results: 1 Most common causes of ICU admission who need ET was traumatic patient
2 Overall mortality rate was less in ET vs LT group
3 Other outcomes like (duration of MV, LOS, VAP, laryngotracheal lesions) were also less with ET vs LT
Conclusion: Based on our study, ET is expected to have better outcome on ICU patient

Keywords: early tracheostomy, ICU, mechanichal ventilation, late tracheostomy

Citation: Alturaihy SH, Modhafar DM. Early versus late tracheostomy in critically ill patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(2):3131-8.