EurAsian Journal of BioSciences (Eurasia J Biosci, e-ISSN 1307-9867) is an international, refereed electronic journal. It publishes the results of original research in the field of biological sciences especially related to morphology, physiology, genetics, ethnobiology, ethnobotany, taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Advantages of publishing in Eurasia J Biosci

  • Independent, rigorous peer review
  • Rapid publication
  • Open access – gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. 
  • Quality: Eurasia J Biosci applies the professional copyediting and typesetting processes.
  • Indexed in major databasesEurasia J Biosci is indexed by AGRICOLA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, SCOPUS, SCImago, Zoological Record (Thomson Reuters) etc. All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI)- CrossRef. 

Current Issue (Volume 13, Issue 2, August-December 2019)

(In Progress)

Determination of environmental considerations for the use of dispersant species in different areas of the Caspian Sea
Alaleh Gholipour Peyvandi

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Abstract

The diversification of activities on the shores on the one hand and the conflict between operators or part programs on the other hand make the monitoring and optimal management of resources in the coastal areas of the country compulsory.
An example of coastal issues that requires continuous and integrated management can be mentioned in some cases, such as coastal environmental issues and preventing possible damage to beaches. Addressing or reducing these problems is a serious challenge for local governments and central governments that, if continued, their harmful effects could have irreparable effects and damages. Therefore, beaches should be managed in such a way that they can be exploited. Rationalize the resources and capacities available.
One of the important issues related to coastal waters and their pollution is pollution of oil, and it is presented in order to reduce this important and effective pollutant which one of them is chemical purification, or the use of dispersant oil spots (dispersants). In this research, discussion of various types of dispersants has been carried out, and tests for toxicity and efficacy testing as well as quantitative testing of these materials have been carried out.
In the efficacy study it was found that if dispersant is effective, a quaternary solution is created which causes the water to become cloudy, and the reference solution that is used is not transparent, and only the oil spots are visible inside the water column. In the quantitative determination test 4 standard mixtures which each represent the performance of these materials, namely 100% efficiency, 75%, 50% and 25%.
In the quantification test, four standard mixtures prepared, that each represent the performance of these materials, namely 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%.
In addition, the treatment of oil with dispersants, due to increased concentration of dissolved oil in water, increases the effect of direct oil toxicity on plant and animal life. Also, the relationship between the efficacy of dispersant and the three viscosity, temperature and flow factors was investigated and it was concluded that the effectiveness of dispersant decreased with increasing viscosity; Some dispersants in higher temperatures and with lower salinity and other low temperature dispersants operate with higher salinity.

Keywords: dispersant, oil pollution, Lc50, toxicity, viscosity

Citation: Peyvandi AG. Determination of environmental considerations for the use of dispersant species in different areas of the Caspian Sea. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):651-62.

Analysis of the current situation related to the food security of indigenous population of the Northern Russia
I. R. Shegelman, P. O. Shchukin, A. S. Vasilev

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Abstract

The food security of indigenous population of the Russian Northern regions represents quite a pressing problem and there are a number of important factors that should be considered when studying the issue. The composition of food products included in the diet of indigenous population of different countries and Russia, the methods of food preparation and preservation during centuries were influenced by the natural and productive conditions of life, work and leisure, which necessitates the study of specific nature of such nutrition. Over the last years, the diet culture of the indigenous population of the Northern Russia changed significantly influenced by a number of reasons: the industrialization of the regions and the organized development of the enormous raw material resources located there (minerals, forest resources etc.); the impact of migration processes, which led to the broad northern areas of Russia being inhabited by the population from the center and south of Russia, as well as from other territories of the Soviet Union (which is particularly evident in the late 1940s and subsequent post-war years) that had own diet culture; organized access of the population to a variety of store-bought food products, which significantly replaced the traditional food. The article provides the analysis of the current aspects of food security of indigenous population of the Northern Russia aimed at identification of nutrition patterns of different ethnic groups of the Northern Russia, promoting the population’s efficient involvement in life activities.

Keywords: indigenous population, food security, Northern Russia, nutrition, traditional diet

Citation: Shegelman IR, Shchukin PO, Vasilev AS. Analysis of the current situation related to the food security of indigenous population of the Northern Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):663-72.

Growth of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants with mediated compost biochar on coastal sandy land area in Bantul Regency Indonesia
Dewi Ratna Nurhayati, Siswadi

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Abstract

This study aims to determine the growth of sesame plants that applied biochar organic matter on coastal sandy land. The coastal sandy land area of Indonesia is large enough. It is known as one of the marginal lands that have low productivity due to dominant soil constituent material of sand (>80%) so that it affects the availability of water and plant nutrient negatively. To improve the water-holding capacity, an applied technology is urgently needed so that it can be used as a growing material of sesame. A novel technology through the use of specific biochar, activated coconut shell charcoal, was proposed. Due to its functions in optimizing growing medium, improving soil properties physically, chemically, and biologically as well as in holding water and providing nutrients, the used biological charcoal would work as biological soil amendments. It is expected that biochar can be continuous sources for plant needs. The experiment was factorial design laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design involved 14 treatments with three replications consisting of combinations of seven charcoal applications and two sesame varieties. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test were used as a post-hoc analysis (p<0.05). The experimental results showed that the optimum plant growth was obtained from the application of coconut shell charcoal at a dose of 10 ton/ha combined with chicken manure at a dose of 30 ton/ha, such as tallest in height, highest net assimilation rate, and had most flowers.

Keywords: growth sesame plant, biochar, biochar on sand land, Coastal Sandy Land

Citation: Nurhayati DR, Siswadi. Growth of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants with mediated compost biochar on coastal sandy land area in Bantul Regency Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):673-9.

Evaluation of canola germination characteristics under priming condition
Nasrollah Atashi Shirazi, Foroud Bazrafshan, Omid Alizadeh, Koroush Ordookhani, Alireza Safahani Langroodi

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Abstract

This study performed to evaluation of priming and priming duration effects on some germination’ characteristics of two canola cultivars (Zurika and Talayeh) as factorial randomized complete design with three replications at the Besat Research Center, Fars Province, Iran. The first factor treatments included cultivars and second factor was salicylic acid in 3 levels (750, 1500 and 2250 M), ascorbic acid in 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm), polyethylene glycol on 2 levels (-2 and -4 bar), potassium chloride 2 level (-5 and -10 bar) Brassinosteroid on 2 levels (20 and 40 micrograms per liter), gibberellic acid on 2 levels (100 and 200 mg), nano zinc chelate and nitrogen each at two levels (1 and 2 mg) and priming water, also third factor included priming duration at 3 levels (3, 6 and 12 h). Totally, according to result it was founded that priming had positive effect on germination characteristics also it was determined that gibberellic acid, salicylic acid and Ascorbic acid had highest effects in compared to other priming, with increasing of concentration and duration of priming, studied traits increased in responses to treatments. According to interaction between priming and duration, it was founding that highest radicle length (6.13 mm) and plumule weight (0.172 g) were obtained by BR20 for 3h duration, also KCL-5 treatment with 12h duration showed highest means for plumule length (4.19mm) and seedling length (52.37mm). The results showed that highest seedling weight (0.315 g), allometric coefficient (1.074) and weight vigor index (0.218) were obtained by GA100 for 3h.

Keywords: canola, cultivar, priming

Citation: Shirazi NA, Bazrafshan F, Alizadeh O, Ordookhani K, Langroodi AS. Evaluation of canola germination characteristics under priming condition. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):681-6.

Investigation of the influence of the thermal effects on the FeCrAl alloys Kh15Yu5 and Kh23Yu5
B. Kh. Khusain, A. R. Brodskiy, V. I. Yaskevich, M. Zh. Zhurinov, A. Z. Abilmagzhanov

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Abstract

FeCrAl alloys having the composition of chromium added to iron is peculiar by in the increased corrosion resistance of the new metallic alloy compared to pure iron. Such FeChAl alloys are used in numerous different applications as a corrosion resistant, oxidation resistant and heat resistant material. Owing to their resistance and good mechanical characteristics, FeCrAl alloys are regarded as one of the main structural materials for use in nuclear power plants. They are commonly used within industrial applications where high-temperature oxidation resistance is needed. The good resistance to oxidation, sulfur resistance and corrosion resistance are attained due to a dense oxide film formed on the surface that prevents the rapid further degradation of the material. In this study, two FeCrAl alloys are investigated - Kh15Yu5 (15%Cr5%Al) and Kh23Yu5 (23%Cr5%Al). Using the method of Mössbauer spectroscopy, the study was conducted on the influence of temperature and period of heating on the cold-rolled ribbon of FeCrAl alloys Kh15Yu5 and Kh23Yu5 with the thickness of 50 µm. It is shown that these alloys, as a result of thermal effect, are prone to the layering in solid solution, forming the areas depleted and enriched with chromium and aluminum.

Keywords: FeCrAl alloys, chromium-containing alloys, Mössbauer spectroscopy, effective magnetic field, impurity atoms, solid solution layering

Citation: Khusain BK, Brodskiy AR, Yaskevich VI, Zhurinov MZ, Abilmagzhanov AZ. Investigation of the influence of the thermal effects on the FeCrAl alloys Kh15Yu5 and Kh23Yu5. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):687-94.

Assessing of the learning needs of nurses in medical and surgical and emergency wards: nursing continuing education requirements
Shamaneh Mohamadi, Fariba Borhani, Malahat Nikravan-Mofrad, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Farshid Monajemi, Hossein Roohi Moghaddam

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Abstract

Introduction: Continuing education (CE) is increasingly needed for nurses to keep pace with the rapid changes in patient care. A Learning Need Assessment (LNA) is a systematic approach to examining what individuals or groups need to learn. LNAs are often associated primarily with continuing education. Current CE programs are not well designed for showing nurses’ learning needs. Few programs are underpinned by needs analysis in some countries.
Design and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the learning needs of clinically based nurses within medical, surgical and emergency units in Tehran (capital of Iran) hospitals. Data were collected using a learning needs assessment questionnaire developed based on nursing texts and literatures with calculated CVI equal to 0.91 and Chronbach Alpha equal to 0.87. It includes demographic information and 30 learning need for nurses. Nurses that had adequate experience in clinical nursing conveniently selected and determined their learning need.
Results: Ten educational need priorities were determined with 314 nurses, included: tele-nursing (distance-care) (71.60%), hospital infection control and personal protection (61.80%), new approaches of patient education (58.7%), professional communication (57.4%), safety and risk management (53.4%), wound nursing care and New way dressing (50.6%), Nursing research (49.5%), Nursing Law (48.1%), Nursing management (46.9%), Correct Reporting and documentation (46.3%) were among the top 10 education priorities, and over 45% of nurses needed full education.
Conclusion: Learning need assessment is an important and first step of educational planning for continuing education that can provide useful, effective and cost effective knowledge and skills for nurses.

Keywords: learning need assessment, continuing education, medical and surgical nurses, nursing education

Citation: Mohamadi S, Borhani F, Nikravan-Mofrad M, Abbaszadeh A, Monajemi F, Moghaddam HR. Assessing of the learning needs of nurses in medical and surgical and emergency wards: nursing continuing education requirements. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):695-700.

SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) protein as material to enhance the effect of growth hormone in broilers
Anwar Ma’ruf, Nunuk Dyah Retno L, Ratna Damayanti, Nove Hidajati, M. Gandul Atik

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify specific proteins that can slow down the SOCS protein activity in STAT signaling protein termination so that it will induce the increase in GH metabolic effect in enhancing the growth of broilers and their meat quality. It is, therefore, necessary to identify the molecular weight and the composition of the SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) protein acid that act in the signaling of STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) activated by GH (Growth Hormone) in broilers. By identifying the molecular weight and the composition of the amino acids of SOCS proteins, there is a great chance to make a specific protein that can slow down the SOCS protein activity in STAT signaling protein termination. Therefore, there is an increase in GH metabolic effect in enhancing the broilers’ growth and their meat quality. The results indicated that SOCS-1 protein was present in broilers’ liver tissue. An examination with Western Blot noted that the molecular weight of the SOCS-1 protein was 98 kDa. This finding signifies that SOCS-1 protein is a protein that serves as negative feedback on broiler growth through growth hormone.

Keywords: protein SOCS, growth hormone, growth, broiler

Citation: Ma’ruf A, Retno L ND, Damayanti R, Hidajati N, Atik MG. SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) protein as material to enhance the effect of growth hormone in broilers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):701-5.

Muskrat’s (Ondatra Zibetica) endicrine regulation organs as bioindicators for evaluation of ecological conditions in Baikal Region
I. F. Zolnikova, I. I. Silkin, A. P. Popov, E. A. Tomitova, N. D. Ovcharenko

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Abstract

The article describes the morphometric measurements of the adrenal cortex functional zones and analyzes the results of these measurements and the percentage correlation of the zones to the total adrenal cortex area. Besides, an analysis of the functional activity of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculate is presented. The research has shown that the highest tension of the adrenal gland function occurs in the animals inhabiting the north-west outskirts of Irkutsk (Novo-Lenino district). They have a thicker adrenal cortex zona fasciculate and reticular zone as well as a higher functional activity of the reticular zone in comparison to other study groups. This is probably indicative of an intensive production of glykocorticoid, androgens, and estrogens. On these grounds we can assume that this district is the most hazardous for the existence of living organisms which we believe to be a sign of unfavorable ecological conditions. The use of the muskrat as a bioindicator for the evaluation of the ecological conditions in different city districts and the Selenga River delta is unprecedented.

Keywords: muskrat, test object, bioindicator, adrenal cortex, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio

Citation: Zolnikova IF, Silkin II, Popov AP, Tomitova EA, Ovcharenko ND. Muskrat’s (Ondatra Zibetica) endicrine regulation organs as bioindicators for evaluation of ecological conditions in Baikal Region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):707-9.

Evaluation of auxin priming and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress
Najmeh Bagheri, Omid Alizadeh, Shahram Sharaf Zadeh, Farshid Aref, Kourosh Ordookhani

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Abstract

*This article was retracted with the Retraction Note at: http://ejobios.org/article/retraction-notice-to-evaluation-of-auxin-priming-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-yield-7256

This study was performed to the evaluation of auxin and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria priming on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress. Experiment was conducted as a Split Split plot in RCBD design with 3 replications. Main factor included drought stress (irrigation on base of 25, 50 and 75% FC) and sub plots were inoculation at 4 levels (control, azotobacter, pseudomonas and a combination of two bacteria), also sub sub plot were auxin priming at 4 levels (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1). According to results, application of drought stress led to the reduction grain yield, so, the 50% and 75% water discharge treatments led to 9% and 37% the reduction of grain yield as compared to control, respectively. In relation to bacteria treatments, highest grain yield (4.35 t/ha) obtained by azotobacter inoculation. In relation to auxin application, the 4 mg. L-1 treatment led to 6% the increase of grain yield as compared to control. Highest means of grain yield (3.25 t/ha) under 75% discharge water observed by azotobacter inoculation. We concluded that priming with auxin and rhizobacteria, plays an important role in the induction of tolerance to drought and overcome limitations created by the drought stress on wheat.

Keywords: bacteria, plant regulator, priming, yield, wheat

Citation: Bagheri N, Alizadeh O, Sharaf Zadeh S, Aref F, Ordookhani K. Evaluation of auxin priming and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):711-6.

Seasonal development of introduced apple-tree varieties under arid conditions of Western Kazakhstan
O. N. Kosareva, G. E. Dinova

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Abstract

For the first time the article presents perennial statistically processed results of pheno-observations for 11 apple varieties introduced into the Mangyshlaksky Experimental Botanical Garden, located in the west of Kazakhstan, whose natural conditions are characterized by sharp fluctuations of air and soil temperature in both summer and winter periods, aridity and high content of readily soluble salts in soil with underlying slab of Sarmatian limestone. They determined the average phenodates of the main phenophases and the average duration of growth and development periods among apple varieties, and their variability was revealed. It was noted that generative organs are characterized by significantly lower variability than vegetative ones. In local conditions, there was a significant decrease in the fruiting period, the decrease of yield and the average weight of fruits. The most resistant and productive varieties were selected. The work was conducted on the grant project topic “Introduction of apple tree promising varieties into the culture in arid regions of Western Kazakhstan”.

Keywords: apple tree, varieties, introduction, arid conditions, salinization, phenodates, phenophases, growth and development rhythms, the growth of shoots, yield, fruit weight, variability, resistance

Citation: Kosareva ON, Dinova GE. Seasonal development of introduced apple-tree varieties under arid conditions of Western Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):717-27.

The composition of the amino acids protein ghrelin and neuropeptide y as the basis for regulating energy balance in broilers
Nove Hidajati, Ratna Damayanti, Anwar Ma’ruf

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular weight of the protein ghrelin as a basis to determine the amino acid composition of protein ghrelin and subsequently to make synthetic ghrelin protein whose function is to control energy balance in broilers. Samples isolated from the digestive tract and brain tissue of the broilers and then examined by SDS Page and the Western blot test. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the protein ghrelin had a molecular weight of 44 kDa and composed of methionine, phenylalanine, leucine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine.

Keywords: ghrelin, energy, feed efficiency, broiler

Citation: Hidajati N, Damayanti R, Ma’ruf A. The composition of the amino acids protein ghrelin and neuropeptide y as the basis for regulating energy balance in broilers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):729-32.

Features of intra population variability of Medicago varia Mart. with the expressed mf-mutation on a complex qualitative characteristics
Vladimir I. Cherniavskih, Elena V. Dumacheva, Zhanna A. Borodaeva, Anzhelika A. Gorbacheva, Elena N. Horolskaya, Larisa Ch. Gagieva, Nadezhda V. Kotsareva, Svetlana V. Korolkova

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Abstract

Lucerne has multifunctional value: it is a source of a high-protein forage for farm animals and valuable raw materials for pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this work was studying of features of intra population variability of a lucerne with a mf-mutation on a complex of the qualitative signs, valuable as for the forage production as well as for the pharmaceutical industry. In the years 2016-2018, researchers of the 30 breed population, received as a result of an individual selections from a breed lucerne Krasnoyaruzhskaya 1 on the basis of a high expression of a mutation of multifoliolation (mf-mutation). The high variability of a population of the lucerne in the posterity of the second generation on the basis of expressiveness of the mf-mutation was established. The breed population was distributed by the index of an expression of the mf-mutation as follows: the group with low expressiveness of the sign included 52.8% of numbers, 9.9% of the numbers had the index of an expression up to the standard, 36.3% of the breed population exceeded the standard for 9.3-62.7%. As a result of researches the direct correlation between degree of an expression of the mf-mutation and the feeding efficiency of a lucerne is not revealed. There was established the breed population SP-11 at which the high expression of the mf-mutation and high efficiency of the elevated phytoweight against the background of the low maintenance of saponin and antotcyanin. The population of SP-11 will be included in the selection program for the creation of the lucerne breeds with a high fodder quality. The breed population SP-23, SP-24, SP-28 has a high expression of the mf-mutation, high efficiency of the elevated phytoweight against the background of the high content of the biologically active agents (saponins and antocyanins). These forms will be included in the selection program for creation of breeds of a lucerne with the high content of biologically active agents for the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Medicago varia Mart., multifoliolation, mf-mutation, saponins, antocyanins, feeding efficiency, raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry

Citation: Cherniavskih VI, Dumacheva EV, Borodaeva ZA, Gorbacheva AA, Horolskaya EN, Gagieva LC, et al. Features of intra population variability of Medicago varia Mart. with the expressed mf-mutation on a complex qualitative characteristics. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):733-7.

Bioremidation of heavy metals and role of bacteria
Darya Fazaeli

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Abstract

Background and Objective: Contamination of aquatic and soil ecosystems by heavy metals has been always a threat for environment and health of human communities. Bioremidation is a new method that can remove this problem. This study aimed to examine removal of heavy metal by bacteria.
Method: This review study was conducted on studied about bioremidation of heavy metals with bacteria. The applied sites included Sid.ir-Science direct-ncbi-.ncbi.civilica. Inclusion criterion was having relevant information and keywords.
Findings: The methods used in bioremidation of heavy metals are more efficient related to physic-chemical methods. Bacteria can reduce concentration and toxicity of heavy metals in different ways due to their various resistance mechanisms compared with heavy metals.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that bioremidation is an efficient and proper method to remove heavy metals pollution and bacteria can be used for bioremidation of heavy metals from the environment.

Keywords: heavy metals, bioremidation, bacteria, biosorption

Citation: Fazaeli D. Bioremidation of heavy metals and role of bacteria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):739-44.

The traditional values of Topat War for spring conservation at Lingsar, West Lombok-West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
Ahmad Jupri, Zaenal Kusuma

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Abstract

The celebration of local wisdom conducted is filled of many ideas and values to manage and conservation of natural resources including water resources. This research aims to investigate relationship between utilization and management of natural resources with Topat war as local wisdom. The study was conducted at Lingsar village, West Lombok Regency, Indonesia. Qualitative research method was used to explore the social, economic and culture of Lombok community. Data were collected from respondent which were determined as community leaders, traditional leaders and ordinary community member. The result show that the traditional values in Topat war can be applied in the management of water resources. The residents of Lingsar use the water wisely either for agriculture, fisheries or livestock purposes. Lingsar community is still firmly hold strong and prominent value of mutual cooperation, social relations, mutual respect, tolerance, family tolerance and mutual living of social status, economic status between each other.

Keywords: local wisdom, spring conservation, water management, water resource

Citation: Jupri A, Kusuma Z. The traditional values of Topat War for spring conservation at Lingsar, West Lombok-West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):745-8.

Mechanization of the haylage rolls wrapped with film on the basis of the modernization of drive of the mower-conditioner cutting machine
Omirserik Zhortuylov, Anuarbek Adilsheyev, Askar Rzaliyev, Gani Zhumatay, Ulan Bekenov, Azamat Zhortuylov

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Abstract

Harvesting haylage in rolls is one of the most effective ways of harvesting grass fodder. High-quality haylage cannot be obtained without the use of mowers-conditioners, reducing the drying time of the grass mass. The method of vector contours was used to study the crank-beam-drive mechanism of the mower-conditioner knife drive. Analytical equations are obtained, which describe the laws of travel, speed and acceleration of the knife movement. The parameters and modes of the knife drive mechanism are substantiated, tested under production conditions, which allow to reduce the power required by 1.6 times and partially reduce the oscillations of the knife.

Keywords: haylage, roll, technology, winding, film, crank-beam mechanism, drive, cutting unit, inertial forces, crank, double knife stroke

Citation: Zhortuylov O, Adilsheyev A, Rzaliyev A, Zhumatay G, Bekenov U, Zhortuylov A. Mechanization of the haylage rolls wrapped with film on the basis of the modernization of drive of the mower-conditioner cutting machine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):749-56.

The antidiabetic effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) extracts towards glucose concentration, langerhans islets, and leydig cells of hyperglycemic mice (Rattus norvegicus)
Dewa Ketut Meles, Wurlina, Dewa Putu Anom Adnyana, Chaterina Puspadewanti Rinaldhi, Rian Rizky Octaviani, Desak Ketut Sekar Cempaka

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Abstract

Purpose: This study was aimed to prove the fruit extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) towards blood sugar levels, of Langerhans islets cells, and Leydig cells of hyperglycemic white mice (Rattus norvegicus).
Methods: Twenty-five mice were divided randomly into 5 groups. They all were induced intraperitoneally by alloxan with dosage of 150 mg/kg in order to damage to the pancreas. From all treatments group, three groups (P1, P2, and P3) were treated with various doses of bitter melon extract with dosage 29, 50, and 59 mg/1 ml/day, respectively. As a comparative group, –negative control group (P0 +) were given with CMC-Na 0,5% 1ml/day, whereas the positive control group (K+) were given Glibenclamide® 0.126 mg/1 ml/day. Bitter melon extract was given for 21 days. In the first day of treatment, blood glucose level of mice was examined after 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours after treatments. The blood glucose examinations were subsequently continued at days 7th, 14th and 21st after treatment. After 21 days, the pancreas and testes of mice were taken for histopathological preparations made.
Results: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) extract had antidiabetic effects that can lower blood glucose level, improved pancreatic beta cell damage, and increased the Leydig cells number in a dosage of 50 mg/1 ml/day on the 21st days after treatment.
Conclusion: the extract of bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L.) at a dosage of 50 mg/kg/1ml/day can lower blood glucose levels and increased the number of Langerhans islets and Leydig cell of hyperglycemia mice.

Keywords: hyperglycemia, melon extract, blood sugar levels, pancreas cells, leydig cells

Citation: Meles DK, Wurlina, Anom Adnyana DP, Rinaldhi CP, Octaviani RR, Sekar Cempaka DK. The antidiabetic effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) extracts towards glucose concentration, langerhans islets, and leydig cells of hyperglycemic mice (Rattus norvegicus). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):757-62.

Changes of metabolism in animals due to conditions of a purulent wound process while using photomineralisation as dressing tools
U. A. Krut, I. I. Oleynikova, A. I. Radchenko, E. V. Kuzubova

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Abstract

Annotation: the wound process is difficult, multicomponent and has its own a phase of character. Recently, there has been an active search for new products for the treatment and prevention of purulent wounds. The effect of sorbents on the process of wound healing is being studied. The impact of the damaging factor causes the development of inflammation, which leads to immediate biochemical changes. During primary alteration, cells are destroyed and their contents are released, the permeability of the vascular wall increases, and individual blood components can be easily transported to the external environment. Previously, a decrease in the concentration of total protein in the blood has already been noted. At the first stage of the wound process, one part of the protein is transferred to the exudate, and the other goes to decay to amino acids. In terms of energy disbalance amino acids enter into deamination and transamination reactions, as indicated by the high activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase as well as increased concentration of urea. The products of amino acid breakdown enter the Krebs cycle for subsequent energy production, which is necessary for further regeneration processes. Violations of the integrity of muscle tissue leads to the fact that the concentration of creatinine in the blood increases. Creatine phosphate due to the destruction of muscle fiber does not mobilize the generation of ATP, but reacts to non-enzymatic dephosphorylation with the formation of creatine anhydride - creatinine.

Keywords: wound process, metabolism, phytomineradsorbents, montmorillonite, biochemical changes, metabolism, inflammatory process

Citation: Krut UA, Oleynikova II, Radchenko AI, Kuzubova EV. Changes of metabolism in animals due to conditions of a purulent wound process while using photomineralisation as dressing tools. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):763-7.

Combination of feed protein level and laserpuncture induction of broodstock catfish (Clarias sp.) to increase estrogen, vitellogenin, and egg quality
Dyah Hariani, Pungky Slamet WK

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Abstract

This study determined the combined impact of various dietary protein levels (30, 35, 40%) in adult catfish feed and laserpuncture induction on enhancing the estrogen and vitellogenin levels, and egg quality, based on the fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR), and survival rate (SR) after spawning. The test fish were 8–9-month-old FI hybrids obtained by cross-breeding a mature Sangkuriang female with a mature Paiton male. In total, 172 female (900–1500 g body weight) and 172 male (1140–1750 g body weight) catfish were collected from UPBAT Kepanjen District, Malang, Indonesia. Fish fed diets with increased protein levels and exposed to laserpuncture induction had significantly enhanced estrogen and vitellogenin blood serum levels (P<0.001) in weeks 3 and 6 compared to 6 weeks for the negative control. Based on the egg quality data, the addition of 40% protein in the diet of the reproductively mature females together with laserpuncture induction produced the highest FR, HR, and SR (P<0.05) compared to protein levels 30 and 35%, and the negative control.

Keywords: Clarias sp., estrogen, fertilization rate, hatching rate, laserpuncture induction, protein level feed, survival rate, vitellogenin

Citation: Hariani D, Slamet WK P. Combination of feed protein level and laserpuncture induction of broodstock catfish (Clarias sp.) to increase estrogen, vitellogenin, and egg quality. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):769-79.

Application of chitosan absorbent in reducing the amount of airport wastes containing ethylene glycol pollution
Pedram Azimi, Pirouz Derakhshi, Kambiz Tahvildari, Fereshteh Motiee

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Abstract

In this research, chitin and chitosan were used to remove the water pollutants and wastewater through adsorption process, due to their distinctive biological and physical-chemical characteristics, and their efficiency was investigated to remove ethylene glycol cationic pollutant from aqueous environments of wastewaters generated from airport. Using the ethylene glycol leads to the formation of wastes containing EG mixed with mineral salts. There are several methods for treating these wastes, in the research; we intend to investigate the efficiency of the adsorption phenomenon to remove ethylene glycol from industrial wastes. Non-continuous absorption experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the factors affecting the removal process, including the effect of contact time of absorbent with pollutant, PH, initial concentration of the pollutant and the amount of consumed absorbent. The results indicate that chitosan is suitable for absorbing ethylene glycol from industrial wastewaters, and by increasing absorbent weight, the absorption rate also increases.

Keywords: adsorption, airport wastewater, chitin, chitosan, ethylene glycol

Citation: Azimi P, Derakhshi P, Tahvildari K, Motiee F. Application of chitosan absorbent in reducing the amount of airport wastes containing ethylene glycol pollution. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):781-9.

Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on Schlemm’s canal diameter in a juvenile rat model injected with sodium hyaluronate
Wino Vierlia Vrieda, Lely Retno Wulandari, M. Ma’sum Effendi, Hidayat Sujuti

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on the diameter of the Schlemm’s canal in a juvenile rat model injected with sodium hyaluronate.
Material and Methods: This was an original experimental study with a post-test control group design. Eyeballs of rats aged 4-6 months were used in this study. Samples were divided into six groups: negative control, positive control I with intracameral sodium hyaluronate injection, positive control II with topical Y-27632 10 mM, and three experimental groups with intracameral injections of sodium hyaluronate and Y-27632 10-1 mM, 1 mM, and 10 mM, respectively. Changes of the Schlemm’s canal diameter were evaluated. Quantitative measurements were taken using computerized image analysis with the dot slide program.
Results: There were statistically significant differences among the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The greatest increase in diameter of the Schlemm’s canal was observed in the experimental group given sodium hyaluronate and Y-27632 10 mM, with a mean value of 118.42 µm.
Conclusion: The rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 increased the diameter of the Schlemm’s canal in juvenile rats injected with sodium hyaluronate.

Keywords: Juvenile rat model, rho-kinase inhibitor (Y-27632), Schlemm’s canal, sodium hyaluronate

Citation: Vrieda WV, Wulandari LR, Effendi MM, Sujuti H. Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on Schlemm’s canal diameter in a juvenile rat model injected with sodium hyaluronate. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):791-4.

Histopathological and Biochemical study on the effect of flavonoids isolated from the plant Curcuma longa effective in liver enzymes (GOT, GPT) to female rats infected eggs diabetes induced in alloxan
Yasameen H. Jassim Al-samarrai, Adnan Majeed Mohammad Alsamarraie, Mohammed Abbas Fadhil, Buraq Mahmood Atta AL-badri

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Abstract

The study was conducted in Faculty of Applied Science Department of Applied Chemistry / University of Samarra the study included to recognize the effects of flavonoids isolated from a Curcuma longa plant to minimize the damage caused by diabetes induced by alloxan in the histological structure of liver and the levels of the (GOT & GPT) in liver congeneric. The experimental divided to three group each group contains five rats. The one group is control and the second group is adiabatic animal by peritoneal injection Alloxan 50 mg/kg according to body weight it has not been treated, the final group was the diabetic animals and it has been processed with Alloxan 50 mg/kg and flavonoids compound 40 mg/kg and in the final of the experiment the animal killed for anatomy liver and cut 2gm of it to do histological sections from Liver for the study and measurement the concentration of enzymatic liver GOT & GPT.

Keywords: flavonoids, alloxan, liver, GOT & GPT

Citation: Al-samarrai YHJ, Alsamarraie AMM, Fadhil MA, AL-badri BMA. Histopathological and Biochemical study on the effect of flavonoids isolated from the plant Curcuma longa effective in liver enzymes (GOT, GPT) to female rats infected eggs diabetes induced in alloxan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):795-801.

Pecularities of the influence of cyclophosphamide and imunophan on the processes of apoptosis and necrosis in Peyer’s patches of rats’ small intestine
Elena N. Morozova, Vitaliy N. Morozov, Alexey V. Tverskoi, Svetlana V. Zabolotnaya, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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Abstract

In this article, we studied the peculiarities of cyclophosphamide and imunofan effect on the processes of apoptosis and necrosis in Peyer’s patches of the rats’ small intestine. The study was conducted on 18 white mature rats, which were divided into three groups. Group I was administered imunofan according to the scheme on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 of the experiment at a dose of 0.7 µg/kg of body weight of the animal, Group II was administered cyclophosphamide once at a dose of 200 mg/kg (for 1 day), then imunofan according to scheme (on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th day of the experiment) at a dose of 0.7 µg/kg body weight of the animal, and Group III - intact animals served. Ultrathin sections of Peyer’s patches of the rats’ small intestine were prepared and studied under electron microscope with further photographing. Mostly one type of cell death - apoptosis is detected in group I animals on the 7th and 30th day of the experiment in Peyer’s patches. The number of cells with apoptosis is directly proportional to the observation period, which seems to indicate the ability of imunofan to influence this process, maintaining the constancy of Peyer’s patches cellular composition in small intestine. In animals of group II, on the 7th day of the experiment, both apoptosis and necrosis take place, and on the 30th day it is mainly apoptosis. Apparently, this is due to the immunosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide on the lymphocytes of Peyer’s patches of the small intestine, which manifests itself in the early period of the experiment after correction by the immunomodulator.

Keywords: peyers’ patches, cyclophosphamide, imunofan, apoptosis, necrosis

Citation: Morozova EN, Morozov VN, Tverskoi AV, Zabolotnaya SV, Kaliuzhnaya EV. Pecularities of the influence of cyclophosphamide and imunophan on the processes of apoptosis and necrosis in Peyer’s patches of rats’ small intestine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):803-6.

Effect of Mitomycin C on human tenon fibroblast proliferation in contracted socket tissue
Mirza Metita, Debby Shintiya Dewi, Hidayat Sujuti

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mitomycin C on human tenon fibroblast proliferation in contracted socket tissue.
Material and Methods: Human tenon fibroblasts from a patient who underwent socket reconstruction surgery were cultured in vitro. Cell cultures were exposed to 0.2, 0.4, and 1 mg/ml of mitomycin C solution for 5 min, and serum-free culture medium was used as a control. Proliferation was observed with the MTT cell proliferation assay 24 h after treatment.
Results: A 5 min exposure to mitomycin C at 0.2, 0.4, and 1 mg/ml caused inhibition of fibroblast proliferation (p < 0.05). The dose of mitomycin C was not significantly related to the rate of fibroblast proliferation inhibition. Mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml caused the greatest inhibition of fibroblast proliferation compared with doses of 0.2 and 1 mg/ml.
Conclusion: Mitomycin C can inhibit tenon fibroblast proliferation of contracted socket tissue. Dose escalation of mitomycin C is not related to the rate of fibroblast proliferation inhibition.

Keywords: contracted socket, mitomycin c, tenon fibroblast proliferation

Citation: Metita M, Dewi DS, Sujuti H. Effect of Mitomycin C on human tenon fibroblast proliferation in contracted socket tissue. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):807-10.

Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang
Nanda Wahyu Anandita, Nafitri Aulia, Anny Sulistiyowati, Lely Retno Wulandari

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Abstract

Refractive error and eye deviation are two common pediatric eye conditions. Ophthalmic screening in children is essential for protecting against vision loss. In 2010, the WHO estimated that refractive error causes 42% of vision disturbances globally. Uncorrected refractive error can cause eye deviation. In this study, we report the characteristics of refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation, as examined with the Hirschberg test, in children from elementary and junior schools in Lesanpuro, Malang. This study involved 606 children aged 6-17 years, from elementary and junior schools. This was a cross-sectional observational descriptive study. Data was obtained from refraction examinations and the Hirschberg test. Each subject underwent one refraction test and one test of eye position. The results showed emmetropia, myopia, astigmatism, and hyperopia in 450 (74.26%), 131 (21.62%), 56 (9.24%), and 5 (0.83%) children, respectively. Eye deviation was found in six children (1.65%), all of which showed extropia (100%). Eye deviation occurred together with myopia in one child (17%), and with astigmatism in three children (50%). Two further children (33%) had other conditions such as amblyopia and corneal scar. Eye deviation is most common in astigmatism. For refractive errors, myopia is the most common condition while hypermetropia is the least common.

Keywords: eye drop, normal tension glaucoma, therapeutic compliance

Citation: Anandita NW, Aulia N, Sulistiyowati A, Wulandari LR. Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):811-5.

The RASA1 and Mir182 expression is reliable predictor for detection Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Akram Sadat Seyed Sharifi Kakhki, Khadijeh Onsory

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Abstract

Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common type of acute leukemia in adults. The RAS pathway dysregulation is one of the most common routes of the cancers and RASA1 gene family plays a key role on RAS deactivation. The Mir182 is involved in cancer cells proliferation and survival. So, the aim of the current study was to determine the expression of RASA1 and Mir182 in patients with AML using Real time PCR and compare it with control group.
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the blood samples were collected from 60 AML patients and 30 healthy individuals as control. The RNA extracted, quality and quantity of the RNA determined, cDNA synthesized and primers were designed. Then genes expression investigated using Real time PCR and ∆∆CT computational techniques. Results analyzed using GraphPad Prism 6.0 software.
Results: According to the results, the RASA1 gene expression significantly decreased in the AML patients compared to the normal group (P<0.0001), while the expression of Mir182 increased in the AML compared to the healthy people (P<0.0001). No significant correlation was observed between age, sex, WBC, PLT, HGB, Blast and FAB subtype with the disease (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: These results suggested elevated expression of the Mir182 might suppress the RASA1 gene expression. So, determining of the RASA1 and Mir182 levels might be a useful indicator for prognosis of the AML.

Keywords: RASA1, Mir182, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Real time PCR

Citation: Seyed Sharifi Kakhki AS, Onsory K. The RASA1 and Mir182 expression is reliable predictor for detection Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):817-22.

Effect of Spirulina platensis extract on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression in corneal inflammation in rat (Rattus novergicus) strain wistar
Rosy Aldina, Shanti Widya Haryati

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Abstract

Background: Spirulina is a microalga known as has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial and radioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences in VEGF expression in response to various dosages of Spirulina platensis (SP) topical treatment in normal and corneal inflammation in the rat.
Material and Methods: This was an experimental study. SP powdered extract was obtained by maceration method using water as a solvent. Effect on VEGF expression was analyzed after SP aqueous extract topical treatment in corneal inflammation rat model for four times a day, over seven days. Corneal inflammation was induced by basic chemical trauma using 1N NaOH. VEGF expression was analyzed by histopathology: cornea samples were made into microscope slides and stained with immunofluorescent stain. Quantification was aided with confocal laser microscopy.
Results: Significant differences of VEGF expression were observed after topical treatment with 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, and 200 µg/mL dosages. A significant correlation was also observed between SP treatment dosages and VEGF expression.
Conclusion: Topical SP treatments at 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, and 200 µg/mL concentrations have anti-angiogenic effects by reducing VEGF expression in the cornea inflammation model in rats.

Keywords: cornea neovascularization, Spirulina platensis extract, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)

Citation: Aldina R, Haryati SW. Effect of Spirulina platensis extract on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression in corneal inflammation in rat (Rattus novergicus) strain wistar. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):823-9.

Evaluation of the raw stock of giant ferula roots in the natural populations of the Mangystau desert
M. S. Sagyndykova, A. A. Imanbayeva, M. Yu. Ishmuratova

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study of the distribution and raw material stocks of a medicinal plant - giant ferula in the natural populations of the Mangyshlak desert. This species grows in the East Mangyshlak and South Mangyshlak geobotanical districts, in the southern part of the desert of the Mangyshlak Peninsula, covering the Tuyesu sands, loamy massifs in the vicinity of the Tynymbay shoky highland, sandy massifs in the vicinity of the Karkol wintering ground. According to the results of a survey of 6 natural populations of giant ferula (Tuyesu sands, outskirts of Tynymbay shoky, sands in the vicinity of Karkol wintering ground), the area of identified vegetation is estimated at 35 hectares, the operational stock of underground organs is estimated at 1029.6 cwt, the annual possible collection of raw materials is 102.9 cwt. Rational methods of collecting raw materials and exploitation of thickets have been developed: the same thickets can operate no more than 1 time in 2-3 years; raw materials harvested must include only individual plants that have entered the generative phase; the total amount of recoverable raw materials cannot exceed 10% of the operational stock.

Keywords: giant ferula, Mangyshlak, Western Kazakhstan, raw stock, productiveness, underground organs

Citation: Sagyndykova MS, Imanbayeva AA, Ishmuratova MY. Evaluation of the raw stock of giant ferula roots in the natural populations of the Mangystau desert. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):831-8.

Protective effect of methanol extract of Kelor (Moringa oleifera) leaves on Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) levels in trabecular meshwork cell culture of primary congenital glaucoma patients
Lely Retno Wulandari, Sri Umiati, Hidayat Sujuti

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Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to determine differences in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after multiple doses of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in a trabecular meshwork cell culture from primary congenital glaucoma patients.
Material and Methods: This was an experimental laboratory study; cell line cultures were divided into four groups (negative control and three treatment groups). The treatment groups were exposed to methanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves at dosages of 15 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL, and 25 µg/mL. After four hours incubation, GPx activity was measured in all groups using a colorimetric microplate reader.
Results: ANOVA analysis found that there was a difference in GPx activity between treatment groups. Each Moringa oleifera extract dosage (15 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL, and 25 µg/mL) significantly differed from each other, with dosage 25 µg/mL having the highest GPx activity. The correlation analysis showed there was a significant association between exposure to Moringa oleifera extract and GPx activity with a positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.962, p < 0.005), which means higher dosages of Moringa oleifera extract will increase GPx activity. Linear regression analysis found thet every 1 mg/mL dosage of Moringa oleifera extract will increase GPx activity by 1.217 mU/mL.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that there were differences in GPx activity between treatment groups and there was an influence of dosage of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on GPx activity, such that increasing doses of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves will further increase GPx activity.

Keywords: Gluthathione Peroxidase (GPx), methanol extract, Moringa oleifera leaves, primary congenital glaucoma

Citation: Wulandari LR, Umiati S, Sujuti H. Protective effect of methanol extract of Kelor (Moringa oleifera) leaves on Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) levels in trabecular meshwork cell culture of primary congenital glaucoma patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):839-44.

Biological resources of natural forage grassland of the cretaceous south of the European Russia
Vladimir I. Cherniavskih, Nicolay I. Sidelnikov, Elena V. Dumacheva, Zhanna A. Borodaeva, Tatyana N. Glubsheva, Anzhelika A. Gorbacheva, Oksana V. Vorobyova, Svetlana Korolkova

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Abstract

Problems of climatic changes and questions of the use of the natural resources for creation of a food security system are discussed. It demands an involvement in the agrarian production of the cretaceous South of the European part of Russia of local vegetable biological resources and of use for this potential of natural forage grasslands of the territory. The main objective of the made researches was assessment of territorial confinedness of economic and valuable plant species and also a status and productivity of a natural forage grassland within agrolandscapes of the cretaceous South of the European Russia (the territory of the Belgorod region). Biological and vegetable resources of the natural forage grasslands of the East part of the Belgorod region in a subband of the southern forest-steppe were studied. Field geobotanical inspections of large arrays of ravine and frame complexes and meadows, of the most perspective for the organization of haymaking and pasturable economy, were realized in 2012-2018. Research stations are located in Alexeyevsky district of the Belgorod region (tab time – 2002). The climate of the studied territory is moderately continental with a big annual amplitude of temperatures, a rather soft winter with a frequent thaw and snowfalls; with the solar and long summer; moderate unstable moistening with dominance of summer rainfall. It is established that in the steppe calciphilous communities long-term herbs prevail, and bushes and trees play the subordinated role. At decrease in degree of a pasture, intensity of mowing and recreational loading. The share of wood and shrubby vegetation increases. The overground phytomass of natural forage grasslands increases in process of remoteness from settlements and decreases in economic loading. The biggest value for the livestock production has communities with dominance of Bromopsis inermis, mixed herbs and the content of bean herbs of 15-25%. The received data about productivity and biological capacity of natural forage grasslands, allows to plan their share in the haying and pasturable line during cultivation of cattle. The oveground phytomass of communities slightly changed by years of a research. Communities with dominance of Bromopsis inermis and mixed herbs – on 50-68 g/m2 are higher than the others, have the largest phytoweight. The main phytomass of hay crops consists by the types having high growth rate: Bromopsis inermis, Diplotaxis cretacea, Festuca orundinacea, Lotus corniculatus, Matthiola fragrans, Medicago falcata. Perspective forage grasslands are located in the lower slope clots. Distribution of the types by the economic value showed that cereals make 10.8-47.2%, beans – 15.1-25.1% on weight of an absolute dry material. The correlation between productivity of the overground phytomass of communities and a projective covering (r=0.736) is discovered. The use of the studied territories as forage grasslands will allow to use rationally an arable land and to reduce the price of livestock production in the Belgorod region for 15-20%.

Keywords: biological resources, carbonate soils, natural forage grasslands, productivity of communities, economic and valuable plant species, cereal herbs, bean herbs

Citation: Cherniavskih VI, Sidelnikov NI, Dumacheva EV, Borodaeva ZA, Glubsheva TN, Gorbacheva AA, et al. Biological resources of natural forage grassland of the cretaceous south of the European Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):845-9.

Benign eyelid and conjunctival tumor profile in polyclinic RSSA July period 2012 - September 2015
Elfina Gatot Sadono, Yasmin Sani, Rosy Aldina

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Abstract

Tumors of the eye and adnexa tissue occur in 50% of all eye biopsies. This study aim to To determine the profile of benign primary tumors of the eye and characteristics of benign primary tumor patients at the Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang. Data were obtained from the medial records of patients at the eye polyclinic, section of reconstruction, oculoplasty, and oncology, over a three-year period (July 2012 to September 2015). Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were diagnosed with benign eyelid or conjunctival tumors. Within three years (July 2012 to September 2015), a total of 307 patients were diagnosed with palpebral or conjunctival benign tumors. In total, 194 patients (63%) were female and 113 (36.8%) were male. The age of patients diagnosed with benign tumors ranged from two months to 80 years, with patients most commonly aged 10-30 years. The types of benign conjunctival tumors included: papilloma, nevus, lipoma, cyst, and granuloma. The types of benign palpebral tumors included; hemangioma cavernosa, hemangioma kapilare, cyst, nevus, xanthelasma, millia, granuloma, atheroma, lipoma, lithiasis, papilloma, hordeolum, and khalazion. Patients who attended the eye and tumor reconstruction section of the Saiful Anwar Hospital between July 2012 and September 2015 were mostly women, aged 10-29 years. Most benign tumors were located in the patient’s right eye. The most common palpebral tumor diagnosis was khalazion (133 patients), whereas the most common conjunctival tumor was a cyst (14 patients).

Keywords: benign conjunctival tumor, benign palpebral tumor

Citation: Sadono EG, Sani Y, Aldina R. Benign eyelid and conjunctival tumor profile in polyclinic RSSA July period 2012 - September 2015. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):851-3.

Some of the features of the viscoplastic media
Marina Y. Nazarova, Vladimir V. Krasilnikov, Vitaly B. Nikulichev, Olga I. Matvienko, Nikolay V. Kamyshanchenko

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Abstract

The article considers the influence of the structure and the chemical composition of ground blast furnace slag on rheological properties of slag suspensions. Different composition and structure of blast furnace slags were studied. The features of structural and mechanical properties of suspensions are revealed at shear rate 1÷50c-1. The theoretical model of the flow in a flat endless channel at a final external pressure difference is presented on the basis of experimental data. The exact solution of the system of equations describing the considered flow is obtained.

Keywords: blast furnace slag, structure, chemical composition, rheological properties, quasi Bingham medium

Citation: Nazarova MY, Krasilnikov VV, Nikulichev VB, Matvienko OI, Kamyshanchenko NV. Some of the features of the viscoplastic media. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):855-9.

Adoption of agricultural innovations in the context of zero waste: The case of dairy cattle biogas waste
Endang Yektiningsih, Penta Suryaminarsih, Ramdan Hidayat

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Abstract

The success of a sustainable agriculture program is determined by the farmers, who are the main actors. Zero waste technology started to be used a few years ago, but there is still little awareness among farmers about how to use it. A large number of animal husbandry households have used biogas energy sources for cooking through the utilization of dairy cattle manure. The use of these technologies still causes problems, because there is a great deal of liquid and solid waste every day. The waste from biogas processing can be converted into liquid and solid fertilizers. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the adoption of biogas waste technological innovations by farmer groups. The variables that are assumed to affect the adoption of the technology are age, level of education, the managerial skills of the farmer group, level of confidence in the success of the technology, the technological needs, interest in product sales, and the amount of guidance from extension officers. The research sample consists of the members of farmer groups who were chosen using a random sampling method from two farmer groups in different locations. The research results showed that the factors affecting the adoption of innovations in biogas waste technology are the level of education, the level of confidence in the success of the technology, interest in the product sales, and amount of guidance from extension officers.

Keywords: adoption innovation, biogas waste technology, farmer groups

Citation: Yektiningsih E, Suryaminarsih P, Hidayat R. Adoption of agricultural innovations in the context of zero waste: The case of dairy cattle biogas waste. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):861-4.

Current hydroecological situation of the Starooskolsko-Gubkinsky mining region on the example of the Oskolets River
Andrei G. Kornilov, Sergey N. Kolmykov, Alexander V. Prisny, Maria G. Lebedeva, Eugeniya A. Kornilova, Alexander A. Oskin

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Abstract

The results of the hydroecological study of the small Oskolets river in the area of influence of mining enterprises are presented. It is shown that the residential industrial flow of Gubkin city has a leading influence on the hydrochemical situation. Discharges of drainage waters made by the Lebedinsky mining and processing plant have a definite impact on the hydro-ecological situation with respect to the content of fluorine and lead compounds, and occasionally with respect to nitrogen compounds. The dynamics of hydrochemical indicators makes it possible to note trends related both to the production activities of the mining complex and the development of agricultural and industrial-urban infrastructure. In particular, there is an increase in the contribution of nitrogen, nickel, and sulphate compounds from the industrial and urban sector of Gubkin city, a slight increase in the supply of copper from residential and agricultural areas with periodic peak values of copper concentrations from the urban sector.

Keywords: hydrochemical indicators, hydroecological situation, ecology of the mining region, water pollution indicators

Citation: Kornilov AG, Kolmykov SN, Prisny AV, Lebedeva MG, Kornilova EA, Oskin AA. Current hydroecological situation of the Starooskolsko-Gubkinsky mining region on the example of the Oskolets River. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):865-70.

Relationship between anthropometric parameters and dietary factors in refractive error in Indonesia
Nanda Wahyu Anandita, Nurul Aini

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Abstract

Background: Refractive error can be associated with nutrition status. This study aim to investigate the associations between anthropometric parameters and dietary factors in refractive error.
Material and Methods: Samples utilized were 252 eyes from 127 students between 13-17 years of age (mean 15 ± 0.67 y.o.). Seventy-five subjects were males and 52 were females. Subjects underwent visual acuity examination, noncycloplegic refraction, measurement of height and weight and each student was interviewed and filled out the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) to obtain daily nutrient intake.
Results: There was no significant association between age, weight, height, BMI and nutrient intake from SQ-FFQ (energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibers, PUFA, cholesterol, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E, vitamins B1, B2 and B6, folate, vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc) with SE (r < 0.2, p > 0.005).
Conclusion: In this study, there were no significant associations between anthropometric parameters and dietary factors with refractive error.

Keywords: anthropometric parameters, body mass index, dietary factors, food frequency questionnaire, height, NutriSurvey, refractive error, weight

Citation: Anandita NW, Aini N. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and dietary factors in refractive error in Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):871-5.

Monitoring of the content of manganese in soils and agricultural plants of the central Chernozem Region of Russia
Sergey V. Lukin, Denis V. Zhuykov, Ilya G. Kostin, Ekaterina A. Prazina, Aleksey A. Zavalin, Vladimir A. Chernikov

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Abstract

The paper deals with the analysis of long-term observations of the manganese distribution in the soils of the south-western part of the Central Chernozem region of Russia in the Belgorod region. The soil mantle of the survey area is represented mainly by typical chernozem soil, leached chernozem soil and common chernozem soil. It has been found according to the results of a continuous agrochemical survey that 56.4% of cultivated soils belongs to the category with moderate supply of movable manganese, and 38.7% - to the category with low supply. It has been noted that among the main legumes white lupine has a very high ability to absorb manganese. The average content of this metal in its grain is 1065 mg / kg, which is 44 times more than in soybeans and 120 times more than in peas. Among man-made sources of manganese in agrocenoses, organic fertilizers are the main ones.

Keywords: manganese, soil, chernozem, soybean, pea, white lupine

Citation: Lukin SV, Zhuykov DV, Kostin IG, Prazina EA, Zavalin AA, Chernikov VA. Monitoring of the content of manganese in soils and agricultural plants of the central Chernozem Region of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):877-81.

Preparation of sodium-meta borate with series reactor and laboratory conditions
Masoud Shafiei, Piruz Derakhshi, Kambiz Tahvildari, Fereshteh Motiei

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Abstract

Sodium per-borate is obtained from the reaction between sodium-meta borate and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of magnesium sulfate or magnesium chloride as a stabilizer. Sodium-meta borate is obtained from reaction between sodium hydroxide and borax in the presence of sodium silicate. Typically this reaction is performed in a batch reactor. In this study, first, the reaction rate constant between sodium hydroxide and borax is obtained 4.94*10 (dm3/mole)2.12(sec)-1 , the reaction degree for sodium hydroxide was 2.47 and the reaction degree for borax was 0.65. Then continue using the obtained data in three series reactors with a volume of 1000ml for each operating conditions, respectively conversion percentage were in first reactor 41.6, second reactor 48.78 and the third reactor 50.96 while the percentage of computational conversion was respectively 84.79, 88.34 and 94.08. For obtaining the percentage of conversion in larger reactors respectively 1000, 1042 and 1110.

Keywords: sodium per-borate, sodium-meta borate, borax, sodium hydroxide, series reactors

Citation: Shafiei M, Derakhshi P, Tahvildari K, Motiei F. Preparation of sodium-meta borate with series reactor and laboratory conditions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):883-6.

The role of an angiopoietin-2 inhibitor in decreasing pericyte loss in diabetic rats
Nadia Artha Dewi, Dian Hapsari, Safaruddin Refa, Hidayat Sujuti

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Abstract

Background: The ratio of pericytes:endothelial cells in normal retinal vasculature is 1:1. Pericyte loss is the earliest morphological change in the diabetic retina and predominant characteristic in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2). The aim of this study is to determine the role of an Ang-2 inhibitor in decreasing pericyte loss in diabetic rats.
Material and Methods: True experimental using rat model. Diabetic rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The samples were divided into 5 groups, injected intravitreally with vehicle (DMSO) or Ang-2 inhibitor with variation dose (10,20, and 30 μg). After one month the rat eyes were enucleated. Retinal digest preparation and HE staining was done to examine the retinal vasculature and count pericyte : endothel ratio.
Results: The number of pericytes reduced by 40% (1:2.5) after five weeks of diabetes induction in the diabetic rat model. The group receiving 10 μg Ang-2 inhibitor showed the best results in terms of reducing pericyte loss (1:1.8).The group receiving 20 μg Ang-2 inhibitor had a pericyte:endothelial ratio of 1:2.1. The pericyte loss was not decreased in the group receiving 30 μg Ang-2 inhibitor (1:2.8). Linear regression analysis revealed that there was a positive relationship between administration of the Ang-2 inhibitor and a reduction in pericyte loss in diabetic rats (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Intravitreal administration of an Ang-2 inhibitor, at certain doses, reduced pericyte loss in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Angiopoietin2, pericyte loss, diabetic retinopathy

Citation: Dewi NA, Hapsari D, Refa S, Sujuti H. The role of an angiopoietin-2 inhibitor in decreasing pericyte loss in diabetic rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):887-91.

Influence of palm oil enriched diet on the morpho-functional condition of rat’s mandibular condylar cartilage
Evgeniy N. Krikun, Kamilya R. Ismailova, Vladyslav I. Luzin, Vitaliy N. Morozov, Elena N. Morozova

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Abstract

Currently, it is known that saturated fatty acids in palm oil have a negative effect on the body: they activate the thrombus formation process, increase blood cholesterol levels and develop other metabolic disorders, which leads to the development of cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and also to dysfunction of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the study was to establish the morpho-functional condition of mandibular condylar cartilage in white rats of different ages under conditions of excessive use of palm oil and to assess the possibility of correcting the identified changes using the Garcinia Cambogia extract. The study was conducted on 216 white rats of three age groups: immature, mature and senile, divided into 3 groups. 1st group - control; 2nd group - animals treated with palm oil at the rate of 30 g / day / kg; Group 3 - rats, which after 6 weeks of administering palm oil began to receive Garcinia Cambogia extract at a rate of 0.25 g / kg body weight. The periods of observation were 1, 10, 30 and 60 days after the end of 6 weeks from the start of palm oil use. The histologic slides of mandibular condylar cartilage were made according to standard methods. The total width of the condylar cartilage of the lower jaw, the width of its individual zones, the volume content of primary spongiosa, and the number of cells in the zone of subchondral osteogenesis were measured on the sections obtained. The use of palm oil for 6 weeks at the rate of 30 g / day / kg is accompanied by inhibition of the osteogenic function of the condylar cartilage of the lower jaw of experimental animals, which increases with the duration of addition of palm oil to the diet. On day 1 of observation, the maximum in amplitude deviations are observed in immature animals, the minimum - in senile animals. In the future, the rate of increase of changes are maximum in senile animals. The introduction of the Garcinia Cambogia extract at the rate of 0.25 mg / day / kg starting from the 7th week of using palm oil is accompanied by smoothing the negative influence of the experimental conditions on the osteogenic function of the condylar cartilage from 10 to 60 days of observation in immature and mature rats and from 30 to 60 days in senile rats.

Keywords: rat, mandible, condylar cartilage, palm oil, Garcinia Cambogia extract

Citation: Krikun EN, Ismailova KR, Luzin VI, Morozov VN, Morozova EN. Influence of palm oil enriched diet on the morpho-functional condition of rat’s mandibular condylar cartilage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):893-7.

Inhibitory effect and preliminary phytochemical screening of some ornamental plants against some bacteria pathogens
Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi, Oke-Oghene Onyinnoyi Odiedi, Jonathan Abidemi Johnson, Funmilayo Stella Oluwafemi

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Abstract

Background: Bacterial resistance to the drugs known for their treatment is on the increase, therefore suggesting the need to search for dependable natural products as alternative for cure and prevention. Efforts in this regard have focused on plants because of their use historically and the large portions of the world’s population relying on plants for the treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases.
Methods: Some ornamental plants’ extracts in compares with commercial antibiotics were tested in vitro on Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis for medicinal values. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemicals; free radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant property and hydroxyl radical scavenging of the plants’ extracts were determined by chemical methods.
Results: Varied degrees of inhibition and in some cases resistance were observed with the extracts on the four bacteria species. However, highest inhibition of 30.33±0.35 mm was recorded on Salmonella typhimurium, followed by S. epidermidis with zone of 30.00±0.00 mm both with H. crepitans extract. Cotrimozazole most inhibited Salmonella typhimurium with a zone of 29 mm and followed by ofloxacin with a zone of 27.33 mm on S. epidermidis. MIC activity of the extract was between 12.5 – 50 mg/ml and MBC activity from 25 – 100 mg/ml.
Conclusions: Valuable antibacterial effect of the plants’ extracts correlating with the phytochemicals and antioxidants potentials, suggest the plants acceptability for folklore and could be of universal recognition for handling diseases that plaque around us mostly in some urban and rural communities where modern medicine are not affordable and accessible by the poor.

Keywords: antibacterial, MIC, ornamental plants, chemicals, disease

Citation: Akharaiyi FC, Odiedi OO, Johnson JA, Oluwafemi FS. Inhibitory effect and preliminary phytochemical screening of some ornamental plants against some bacteria pathogens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):899-08.

Survival of medical leeches after partial cannibalism
Ruslan Aminov

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Abstract

In the experiment, 500 medical leeches, three types: H. verbаna, H. medicinalis, H. orientalis. The experiment was carried out for half a year, on leeches of middle and mother age. The leeches were set aside by 8-10 pieces in a tank with water after blood feeding, the survival rate after the manifestation of partial cannibalism was investigated. As a result, we found that the survival after all wounds in all three types was about 35%. After the wounds had healed, survivors of leeches developed constrictions at the wound site, which remained with them for life. It should be noted that partial cannibalism was observed in all three types of medicinal leeches, as well as in one species, and between species.

Keywords: survivability of medical leeches, partial cannibalism, hematophagus, blood, ectoparasite

Citation: Aminov R. Survival of medical leeches after partial cannibalism. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):909-12.

Control of pests in the green mustard plant through papaya leaf extract
Yakobus Bustami, Florentina Rahayu Esti Wahyuni, Didin Syafruddin, Mulyono

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Abstract

A green mustard plant (Brassica juncea L) is often attacked by plant pests’ organisms, which often disturb farmers. This research aims to determine the types of pests and the effect of papaya leaf extract as a vegetable pesticide on pests in the green mustard plant. The research method used was an experiment with a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 5 replications with each concentration of papaya leaf extract as well as 0%, 25%, 50% 75% and 100%. The parameters observed were the types of pests and the impact of papaya leaf extract as vegetable pesticides on pests in the green mustard plant. The data collection was using observation sheets and documentation. The data analysis used descriptive and inferential analysis. The inferential analysis used the ANOVA test and continued with the Least Significance Different (LSD) test at a significant level of 0.05. The results show that there were several types of pests such as small snails, green grasshoppers (Atractomorpha crenulata), armyworms (Spodoptera litura), green caterpillars or leaf destroyers (Plutella xylostella). The results of statistical analysis showed that the administration of papaya leaf extract had a significant effect on pests that attack the green mustard plant. The results of the variance analysis showed a significant value of treatment (sig: 0.000) smaller than the alpha value (α: 0.05). Furthermore, the LSD test showed that the fifth treatment with 100% concentration was significantly different from other treatments in controlling pests in the green mustard plant.

Keywords: plant pests, green mustard plant, papaya leaf extract

Citation: Bustami Y, Esti Wahyuni FR, Syafruddin D, Mulyono. Control of pests in the green mustard plant through papaya leaf extract. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):913-9.

Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Morocco
Rahal El Kahkahi, Meryama Moustaine, Souhail Channaoui, Majida Hafidi, Rachid Zouhair, Mustapha Ait Chitt, Rafik Errakhi

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Abstract

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacterial that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. Seven isolates of bacteria were successfully isolated and phenotypically, biochemically, physiological and molecular characterized. Subsequently to investigate the effect of PGPR isolates on the growth of carob tree, a pot culture experiement was conducted as Centre for Innovation and Technology Transfer (CITT), Meknes, Morocco. All the isolates were gram negative, rods, motile, able to grow on YDC medium and citrate simmons positive, degrade glucose, fructose and mannitol, capable of hydrolyzing esculin and starch. All strains are able to produce (74-150µgml-1) of indole acetic acid, nitrogen fixatin and all isolate are unable to produce ammonia, chitinase and cellulase, the strains 2018-3, 2018-4 and 2018-5 showed protease activity. The pecentage of solibilization of phosphate varied between 15% to 45%, the maximum phosphate solubilization was identified by stain 2018-4. Sequencing of 16SrRNA genes led to the identification of two family of bacteria : Bacillaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. The species of bacteria are : Bacillus thuringiensis, two of Bacillus flexus, two of Pseudomonas gessardii, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thaonhiensis. The analysis the result showed that the highest vegetative growth was obtained from stain 2018-4 such as plant height (13.6cm), root length (13.65cm), fresh weight of the aerial part (1.09g) and fresh weight of the root part (0.42g) in comparison to untreated plant.

Keywords: carob tree, PGPR, IAA, P-solubilization, N2- fixation and plant inoculation

Citation: El Kahkahi R, Moustaine M, Channaoui S, Hafidi M, Zouhair R, Ait Chitt M, et al. Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Morocco. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):921-30.

Farmer’s behavior towards Lembah Palu shallot farm risks in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
Erny, Dwidjono Hadi Darwanto, Masyhuri, Lestari Rahayu Waluyati

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Abstract

The land in Central Sulawesi, particularly in Sigi Regency, is still quite large to cultivate shallots. With suitable rainfall and temperature as well as adequate facilities and infrastructure, the variety of shallots planted by farmers in Sigi Regency is Lembah Palu variety (local). Lembah Palu shallots are suitable to be processed as fried shallots because, in addition to having distinctive aroma and taste, they remain dry/crispy although stored for a long time. With such potential, it is necessary to make efforts to increase Lembah Palu shallot production. In fact, low production and quality of farm yields have made it difficult to gain maximum profits. In addition to considering the profits to gain, farmers also pay attention to any potential farm risks. (A high production risk will affect farmers’ behavior in decision making). This study aimed to reveal farmers’ behavior towards Lembah Palu shallot farm risks. The study was conducted in February to May 2018 at the center of Lembah Palu shallot production in Sigi Regency. The data analysis was done using a quantitative descriptive approach. Production risk was analyzed using multiple linear regressions with Cobb-Douglas production function as well as Just and Pope production function; Farmers’ behavior was analyzed using Khumbakar mathematical model. The results showed that 69.68% of the behavior of Lembah Palu shallot farmers in Sigi Regency was risk averse and 30.32% as risk takers. Recommendation. In order to gain higher yields, farmers should be risk takers.

Keywords: behavior, risk level, production, utility function

Citation: Erny, Darwanto DH, Masyhuri, Waluyati LR. Farmer’s behavior towards Lembah Palu shallot farm risks in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):931-6.

Agrotechnics of the soybean plant, which is sown as a secondary crop, effects of sowing period to the harvest and fertility characteristics of the seeds
Salavatova Khurshida

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Abstract

This article highlights the information on the importance of soybean plant as a secondary crop for soil fertility, agro technics of sowing soybean, the effects of soybean during sowing, and the growth of seeds when processing soybean with oxyhumate before sowing.

Keywords: soil, fertility, soybean, protein, humus, organic substances, oxyhumate, collection, spider worm, carcinoma, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, bundle bacteria

Citation: Khurshida S. Agrotechnics of the soybean plant, which is sown as a secondary crop, effects of sowing period to the harvest and fertility characteristics of the seeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):937-40.

Assessing genetic diversity for drought and heat stress tolerance of Nepalese wheat genotypes by SSR markers
Mukti Ram Poudel, Surya Kant Ghimire, Madhav Prasad Pandey, Krishna Hari Dhakal, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Deepak Kumar Khadka

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Abstract

The productivity of wheat in Nepal is low compared to the world average and very low compared to countries like New Zealand and Ireland, and it has remained nearly stagnant in the past ten years. Genetic factors, water and climate seem to be a limiting factor for wheat productivity in Nepal. Breeding for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress and study of their genetic stability under stress are important for improving the productivity of wheat. We assessed the genetic diversity of 20 genotypes of wheat released or in the pipeline in Nepal, by 12 SSR markers linked to drought tolerance and 4 SSR markers linked to heat stress tolerance. The first set clustered 20 genotypes into 4 clusters, 3 of which further sub clustered into 8 sub clusters. 2 of the genotypes, namely BL-4707 and NL-1325, are distantly related to the rest of the genotypes. The second set of SSR markers clustered 20 genotypes into 5 clusters, 2 of which further subclustered into 4 subclusters. 2 of the genotypes, namely NL-1247 and NL-1325, are distantly related to each other and the rest of the genotypes. This study identified both closely related genotypes and distantly related genotypes of wheat in alleles presumably linked to drought and heat stress tolerance. The finding of this study is expected to be useful for breeding for drought and heat stress tolerance and study of the interaction of genotypes and environment as well.

Keywords: heat stress, drought, SSR, wheat, breeding, productivity

Citation: Poudel MR, Ghimire SK, Pandey MP, Dhakal KH, Thapa DB, Khadka DK. Assessing genetic diversity for drought and heat stress tolerance of Nepalese wheat genotypes by SSR markers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):941-8.

Opportunities for the analysis of the spatial ecological structure of the mycobiota of macromycetes of a natural-territorial entity (the case of the Botanical Garden of Belgorod University, Belgorod, Russia)
Alexandr V. Dunaev, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Elena N. Dunaeva, Svetlana V. Kalugina, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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Abstract

Given piece of the research work was conducted in the seasons 2011-2018. The object of research was the mycobiota of macromycetes of the Botanical Garden of Belgorod State University (Belgorod, Russian Federation). The main subject of research was the spatial-ecological organization of the mycobiota of macromycetes. In the process of research, practical methods of direct observation from the mycocenological arsenal, theoretical-practical methods of analysis-synthesis, decomposition-composition and theoretical methods of correlating the abstract and the specific, and idealization were used. Based on the generalization of experimental data obtained in the course of practical studies of the spatial ecological organization of mycobiota of macromycetes carried out in the territory of the Botanical Garden of Belgorod State University, the principles of decomposition analysis of the structure of mycobiota of macromycetes of individual natural territorial entities are substantiated. A scheme of compositional construction of mycobiota of macromycetes is proposed, as well as a scheme in the form of a linear sequence showing the spatial ecological organization of mycobiota of macromycetes in a “pure form”: mycobiota - mycochore (mycocenosis, mycoaggregation) - mycosynusia-3 - mycene cell - mycocell.

Keywords: spatial ecological structure (SES), mycobiota, macromycetes, natural-territorial formation (NTF), decomposition analysis, mycochore, mycosynusia

Citation: Dunaev AV, Tokhtar VK, Dunaeva EN, Kalugina SV, Kaliuzhnaya EV. Opportunities for the analysis of the spatial ecological structure of the mycobiota of macromycetes of a natural-territorial entity (the case of the Botanical Garden of Belgorod University, Belgorod, Russia). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):949-52.

Leukocytes phagocytic activity under moderate hypotension conditions in some representatives of bony fish, amphibians and reptiles
Svetlana D. Chernyavskikh, Valeria V. Adamova, Lyudmila N. Trikula, Lyudmila V. Krasovskaya, Maxim A. Velichko

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Abstract

The leukocytes phagocytic activity against Bacillus subtilis and agromerulated latex particles in representatives of bony fish, amphibians and reptiles under reduced medium osmolarity conditions was studied. It was found that in moderate hypotension compared with isotonia, the white blood cells absorption capacity of the fish was not changed, but it was reduced for amphibians and reptiles.

Keywords: leukocytes, phagocytosis, hypotension, lower vertebrates

Citation: Chernyavskikh SD, Adamova VV, Trikula LN, Krasovskaya LV, Velichko MA. Leukocytes phagocytic activity under moderate hypotension conditions in some representatives of bony fish, amphibians and reptiles. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):953-6.

Carbamylated darbepoetin in combination with ethoxydol attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats
Pavel D. Kolesnichenko, Irina A. Popova, Dmitriy V. Sheblykin, Alhamzah Muhi Aldeen Azeez, Vladislav O. Soldatov, Sergey V. Povetkin, Galina A. Lazareva, Alexandr A. Stepchenko

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Abstract

Introduction: Doxorubicin is the drug of choice in the treatment of many malignant neoplasms, but its use is limited due to the risk of developing severe cardiomyopathy. This problem necessitates the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of cardiomyopathy.
Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 80 male white Wistar rats, which were administered the following drugs during the experiment: doxorubicin (Teva) at a dose of 20 mg /kg, ethoxydol at a dose of 50 mg/kg, carbamylated darbepoetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The hearts of the rats were perfused in the installation of a Langendorf-isolated heart. All rats were recorded contractility indicators: maximum intraventricular pressure (IVP) (mm Hg), minimum IVP (mm Hg), average IVP (mm Hg), pulse IVP (mm. Hg), heart rate (HR, beats/min), maximum myocardial contraction rate (+ dP/dtmax, mm Hg/sec), maximum myocardial relaxation rate (-dP/dtmax, mm Hg/sec.), a test was performed with high-frequency stimulation. To assess the reserve capacity of the myocardium, we used the Tension-Time Index (tTTI) test of the “voltage over time” index.
Results: When used as a cardioprotector of ethoxydol at a dose of 50 mg/kg, a decrease in the toxic effect of DR and an improvement in performance by 14.8% compared with the group of DR. The degree of change in contractility indicators compared with the positive control group was 48.7%. As a result of CDEPO at a dose of 50 mg/kg, there is also a positive trend in the change in myocardial contractility, but to a lesser extent than in ethoxydol. The difference in performance compared with the DR group is 8.6%. The greatest cardioprotective effect was achieved by the introduction of a combination of DR and CDEPO. The increase in contractility compared with the doxorubicin group was 23.9%. The severity of changes in contractility indicators decreased to 38.5% compared with the positive control group. This trend in the dynamics of myocardial contractility indices can be traced both in the conditions of perfusion with norcalcium and hypercalcium solutions.
Conclusion: The most pronounced cardioprotective effect on the model of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is determined by using a combination of carbamylated darbepoetin at a dose of 50 mkg/kg with ethoxydol at a dose of 50 mg/kg.

Keywords: Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, carbamylated darbepoetin, ethoxydol, heart-isolated Langendorf

Citation: Kolesnichenko PD, Popova IA, Sheblykin DV, Aldeen Azeez AM, Soldatov VO, Povetkin SV, et al. Carbamylated darbepoetin in combination with ethoxydol attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):957-63.

New trophic classification of wood-destroying fungi the case of community of pathogenic polypore fungi types on Pedunculate oak
Alexandr V. Dunaev, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Elena N. Dunaeva, Alina S. Korotkikh, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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Abstract

Studies were conducted in the seasons 2011-2018. The object of research was the types of common pathogenic Polyporaceae s. l. on the English oak Quercus robur L. in the oak forests of the south-west of the Central Russian Upland (in the administrative boundaries of the Belgorod Region of the Russian Federation). The main subject of research was the trophic specialization of certain types of pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF) on Pedunculate oak. In the process of research, practical methods of direct mycocenologic observation, numerical methods of variation statistics and the method of analogies were used. Based on the generalization of experimental data obtained during the practical study of the trophic specialization of wood-destroying fungi from the commonness of PTH on oak in the oak forests of the south-west of the Central Russian Upland, a new ecotrophic classification has been developed, including the following groups of wood-destroying fungi: biotrophic pathogens, saprotrophic pathogens, pathogenic saprotrophs, non-pathogenic saprotrophs.

Keywords: trophic classification, community of pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF) on Pedunculate oak, biotrophic pathogen, saprotrophic pathogen, pathogenic saprotroph, index biotrophicity

Citation: Dunaev AV, Tokhtar VK, Dunaeva EN, Korotkikh AS, Kaliuzhnaya EV. New trophic classification of wood-destroying fungi the case of community of pathogenic polypore fungi types on Pedunculate oak. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):965-8.

Study of antimicrobial activity and technology optimization of Calendulae flos galenicals
Nikolay N. Boyko, Elena T. Zhilyakova, Alexander V. Bondarev, Valentina S. Kazakova, Dmitriy I. Pisarev, Oleg O. Novikov, Tatyana P. Osolodchenko, Rita V. Sahaidak-Nikitiuk, Lilia V. Nefedova

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Abstract

The article presents materials on optimization of manufacture technology for Calendulae flos galenicals with medium level of antibacterial activity. For antibacterial study of extracts, we used agar well diffusion method. In our research, we utilized six test-strain microorganisms: E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. vulgaris ATCC 4636, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, C. albicans ATCC 885/653, and B. subtilis ATCC 6633. We have found that the maximum level of extracts’ antimicrobial activity is achieved in the range of ethanol content in the extractant from 70 to 97 % v/v. Basing on these results, we have suggested a highly effective filtration technology of extraction for manufacture of liquid extract and tincture with medium level of antimicrobial activity from Calendulae flos. Based on HPLC analysis of extracts we detected the following main groups of compounds: quercetin and caffeic acid of derivatives. We have found that the antimicrobial activity of galenicals have good correlation with dry residue concentration but not with the rutin and chlorogenic acid concentration.

Keywords: Calendulae flos, antimicrobial activity, galenicals, technology

Citation: Boyko NN, Zhilyakova ET, Bondarev AV, Kazakova VS, Pisarev DI, Novikov OO, et al. Study of antimicrobial activity and technology optimization of Calendulae flos galenicals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):969-74.

Trans-species relation in communities of pathogenic Polyporaceae on pedunculate oak Quercus robur L.
Alexandr V. Dunaev, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Elena N. Dunaeva, Svetlana V. Kalugina, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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Abstract

Studies were conducted in the seasons 2011-2018. The object of the research was the communities of pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF) on Pedunculate oak in the oak forests of the south-west of the Central Russian Upland (in the administrative boundaries of Belgorod Region of the Russian Federation). The subject of research was trans-species relation in PPF communities on Pedunculate oak. The aim of the work was to identify and describe trans-species relation in PPF communities on oak. Tasks were set as follows. 1. Identify the species composition of the PPF communities on oak associated with the upland and small oak forest in steppe ravines of the study region. 2. Assess the prevalence of individual species in PPF communities. 3. Investigate trans-species relation in PPF communities. In the process of research phytopathological and mycocenological methods were used As a result of the research, real trans-species relation were revealed in the most common and frequently occurring types of PPF on oak within various communities: Mutually positive type relationships based on the proto-operation were found between Laetiporus sulphureus and Fistulina hepatica. Neutral type relationships were found in between Fistulina hepatica and Fomitiporia robusta, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomitiporia robusta.

Keywords: pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF), Pedunculate oak, community, trans-species relation, coefficient of ecological similarity (CES)

Citation: Dunaev AV, Tokhtar VK, Dunaeva EN, Kalugina SV, Kaliuzhnaya EV. Trans-species relation in communities of pathogenic Polyporaceae on pedunculate oak Quercus robur L.. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):975-8.

Blood protein spectrum in representatives of the fish superclass
Svetlana D. Chernyavskikh, Zhanna A. Borodaeva, Ivan P. Borisovskiy, Svetlana I. Ostapenko, Oksana A. Galtseva

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Abstract

Blood protein spectrum of representatives of the Fish superclass was studied, indicators were compared and evaluated.
The highest rates of total protein, albumins and α-globulins, as well as the lowest values of β- and γ-globulins in Cyprinus carpio compared with Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Carassius were established. The obtained parameters are directly dependent on the type of the studied fish species nutrition.
Ctenopharyngodon idella has a higher level of γ-globulins than other fish species, indicating better immune responses in fish of this species.
The detected blood protein spectrum of in representatives of the Fish superclass can be used in aquaculture to assess their functional state, health and degree of adaptation to environmental conditions.

Keywords: blood proteins, protein fractions, representatives of the Fish superclass

Citation: Chernyavskikh SD, Borodaeva ZA, Borisovskiy IP, Ostapenko SI, Galtseva OA. Blood protein spectrum in representatives of the fish superclass. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):979-81.

Introduction of Maclura Pomifera (RAF.) C. K. Schneid, Moraceae Link families under the conditions of the botanical graden of the NRU “Belsu” (Belgorod, Russia)
Natalia A. Martynova, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Liudmila A. Tokhtar, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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Abstract

The data of long-term studies of the biological features of growth and development of Maclurapomifera (Raf.) C. K. Schneid in the Botanical Garden of the National Research University “BelSU” is given. The phenological type of development of this species, the beginning and end of its growing season is determined. Winter hardiness, drought resistance, resistance to diseases and pests are assessed to determine the degree of adaptation of the species to local conditions. For the first time, flowering and fruiting of Maclurapomifera were noted in the conditions of the Belgorod region. A seed test for germination was carried out. The timing of seed germination was also determined, and the dynamics of seedling formation, growth and seedling formation, up to and including readiness to transplant them to a permanent place, were traced. High germination of seeds without the use of special treatment before sowing, the speed of growth indicates the prospects of reproduction and distribution of Maclurapomifera in the Belgorod region. Based on the adaptation coefficient, recommendations are given on the use of Maclurapomifera in gardening in the Belgorod Region.

Keywords: Maclurapomifera, introduction, rate adaptation, phenophase, winter hardiness, drought tolerance

Citation: Martynova NA, Tokhtar VK, Tokhtar LA, Kaliuzhnaya EV. Introduction of Maclura Pomifera (RAF.) C. K. Schneid, Moraceae Link families under the conditions of the botanical graden of the NRU “Belsu” (Belgorod, Russia). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):983-6.

Prospects for the use of “protected fats” in cattle feed additives
Irina I. Oleynikova, Ulyana A. Krut, Mariya A. Tomilova, Galina M. Shaidorova

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Abstract

The article reviews the use and physiological effects of fats protected from decay in the rumen of ruminants, as well as types of feed additives containing “protected fats”, presents their comparative characteristics of fatty acid composition, indicators of exchange and pure lactation energy. Summarized data indicate the prospects of the technology of “protected fats” and their use in animal husbandry.

Keywords: feed additives, “protected fat”, energy additive, cattle, energy, energy ratio

Citation: Oleynikova II, Krut UA, Tomilova MA, Shaidorova GM. Prospects for the use of “protected fats” in cattle feed additives. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):987-91.

Collection of cover-ground plants and plants for Alpinarians and Rocarians in botanical garden of Belgorod University (Belgorod, Russia)
Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Natalia A. Martynova, Nadezda G. Patsukova, Liudmila A. Tokhtar

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They provided the data on plants from the collection fund of ground cover and other ornamental herbaceous plants suitable for gardening in Belgorod Region (Russia). They determined the life forms by Raunkier and the periods of species flowering. The studied plants are distributed in relation to light and moisture content. They performed the observations of plant state in the process of cultivation. The authors studied the introduced herbaceous perennials, that were not used previously for landscaping of the region. According to the data presented in the article, recommendations can be given for gardening in various landscape areas, proceeding from the decorative and ecological properties of plants. They identified the perennial ground cover plants unpretentious to the conditions of the urban environment, which can be used in sunny areas, in shades and half-shades.

Keywords: stunted and groundcover herbaceous perennials, botanical garden, life forms, decorative effect

Citation: Tokhtar VK, Martynova NA, Patsukova NG, Tokhtar LA. Collection of cover-ground plants and plants for Alpinarians and Rocarians in botanical garden of Belgorod University (Belgorod, Russia). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):993-6.

Macrofauna of hydrobionts in the Gubkinsko-Starooskolsky mining area: the case of the Oskolets River
Alexander V. Prisny, Andrei G. Kornilov, Yuri A. Prisniy, Sergey N. Kolmykov

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The areas of iron ore mining and processing are characterized by a high level of anthropogenic load. Among them is the Starooskolsko-Gubkinsky mining area of the Belgorod region. A certain indicator of the influence caused by mining enterprises on the adjacent territories is the state of hydrobiocenoses in surface watercourses located in the zone of their direct influence. The Oskolets River was adopted as a model; its middle reach is located in close proximity to the Lebedinsky mining and processing plant (LMPP), from where the drainage waters of the quarry are discharged. The aim of the work was to differentiate the contribution of this enterprise to the general pollution of the river using bioindication methods. According to Roshydromet (Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of Russia), analysis of the channel water in the river sections higher than the LMPP and in the Stary Oskol town of shows that among pollutants, MAC is exceeded for sulphates, ammonium, nitrites, copper, petroleum products, phosphates and iron. The more detailed analyzes we have carried out at the sampling works confirm this data in general. At the same time, the LMPP increasing the content of certain pollutants in river water dilutes them with drainage waters. The total water flow somewhat changes the river channel characteristics, locally reduces the accumulation of bottom sediments, the content of suspended and dissolved organics, which is expressly determined by the presence and ratio of indicator species of macrofauna.

Keywords: Lebedinsky mining and processing plant, Oskolets River, macrofauna of hydrobionts, pollution, channel data

Citation: Prisny AV, Kornilov AG, Prisniy YA, Kolmykov SN. Macrofauna of hydrobionts in the Gubkinsko-Starooskolsky mining area: the case of the Oskolets River. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):997-1001.

Analysis of rare type of plants from botanical graden collection at SRU “Belsu” (Belgorod, Russia)
Natalia A. Martynova, Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Irina A. Koniaeva, Liudmila A. Tokhtar

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They presented the data on the collection fund of plants listed in the Red Book of Russia and Belgorod region. They performed taxonomic and typological analysis of 103 species of collection plants. They determined the largest number of species in the collection. Most of the plants came into the collection from the natural communities of the Belgorod region. Life forms were determined according to Raunkier’s and Serebryakov’s classification, the types of underground shoots were revealed. The studied plants were analyzed by ecological groups and area types.

Keywords: collection of rare species, анализ analysis, life forms, ecological groups

Citation: Martynova NA, Tokhtar VK, Koniaeva IA, Tokhtar LA. Analysis of rare type of plants from botanical graden collection at SRU “Belsu” (Belgorod, Russia). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1003-5.

Some ways of filling of the vascular bed of domestic animals
Anzhelika A. Gorbacheva, Oksana V. Vorobyova, Elena V. Dumacheva, Vladimir I. Cherniavskih, Tatyana N. Glubsheva, Svetlana V. Korolkova, Elena N. Khorolskaya

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Studying of the vascular bed of mammals by means of classical methods of vessels filling is used generally in the conditions of classrooms. In this work the assessment of some methods of filling of the mammals blood channels is presented. As injection masses there were used the gelatine solution of 5%, painted with the ink by Borisevich V.B. technique and the solution consisting of Bustilat-M glue and the water in a proportion of 2:1. The conducted researches showed that the most successful, in terms of simplicity of execution, is filling of vessels with the solution consisting of Bustilat-M glue and water, as it allows with the little effort and with the smallest expenses to fill in both large and average vessels. To fill in the smaller vessels it is more preferable to use the methods with the injection solution with the ink and gelatin mass, as the contrast substance hardens practically at once that excludes the effluence of the filling mass from the damaged vessel.

Keywords: blood-vascular system, arterial bed, injections, vessels, veins, aorta, clamp, preparation, vein

Citation: Gorbacheva AA, Vorobyova OV, Dumacheva EV, Cherniavskih VI, Glubsheva TN, Korolkova SV, et al. Some ways of filling of the vascular bed of domestic animals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1007-11.

Analysis of the peculiarities of the expansion of invasive plant species in the south-west of the middle Russian Highland (Russia, The Belgorod Region)
Andrey Yu. Kurskoy, Valeriy K. Tokhtar

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The study of the characteristics of the expansion of groups of invasion species in various types of natural and anthropogenic habitats of the south-west of the Central Russian Highland (Russia, the Belgorod region) by traditional and statistical methods has allowed to expose the features of selective colonization by plants of different ecotopes. The application of cluster analysis of correlation matrices obtained on the basis of Jaccard’s coefficients provide the differentiation of three groups of species (clusters) that are characteristic of steppe, forest and anthropogenic areas. In the group of plants of steppe ecotopes, the group of invasive species that have intruded into communities that form in chalk habitat areas is somewhat separate. The groups of plants colonizing the steppe habitats turned out to be the most dispersed. The paper presents the data related to the structure of invasive species in various ecotopes and the analysis of plants by categories: mono-, oligo-, polychores.

Keywords: invasive species, distribution, analysis

Citation: Kurskoy AY, Tokhtar VK. Analysis of the peculiarities of the expansion of invasive plant species in the south-west of the middle Russian Highland (Russia, The Belgorod Region). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1013-6.

Study sedimentology and origin of fluvial modern sediment by using integrated methods, case study of Zagros foreland Basin
Morteza Mirzaei, Eisa Mataji, Mohammad Reza Noura, Kazem Shabani Goraji

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Zagros foreland Basin places along with Himalyas- Alp orogeny that it is created by collision Eurasia with Arabic plane and closing Neotethys. Two rivers Karkhe and Dez are the most important Iranian rivers in which this study has examined sedimentology and their sediment origin in Zagros foreland Basin in Khuzestan province (Shush region). The most important used data in this study include Granometry data and thin section from 30 samples from two rivers and Geochemical data XRD from 2 samples and 14 samples are main elements as well as 12 samples were studied from two rivers in order to analyzing heavy minerals. The most frequent seeds of our sample are in sand and gravel that they were sort from bad to very bad. Regarding to faces and architectural elements, two meander rivers model except that Dez river has less twist. Main minerals constituent gravel sediments (carbonate gravel with more frequency and Chert gravel with less frequency) and quartz. Constituent elements and also geochemistry analysis results in analytical graphs show the origin of collision orogeny and rock recycle and weathering dry to wet weather for origin rock. Regarding to the total results, it is considered more carbonate gravel from Mishan formations, more quartz seeds from Aghajari formations and older debris formations and more heavy minerals is originated from zone of Sanandaj-Sirjan.

Keywords: origins, Zagros, Karkhe River, Dez River, fluvial sediments

Citation: Mirzaei M, Mataji E, Noura MR, Goraji KS. Study sedimentology and origin of fluvial modern sediment by using integrated methods, case study of Zagros foreland Basin. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1017-36.

Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity in Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica under the effect of plant growth regulators
Esraa Almughraby, Marat Ildusovich Kalimullin, Olga Arnoldovna Timofeeva

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of natural hormones (gibberellic acid, brassinolide) and Commercial preparations of growth stimulants (ecopain, novosil) on the content of carotenoids, ascorbate, phenols, flavonoids, as well as antioxidant activity in kale Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica. Our results demonstrated the possibility of controlling the phytochemical composition of kale through treatment with growth regulators - natural phytohormones and commercial preparations. All the studied compounds increased the content of health-promoting compounds and the antioxidant activity of kale cabbage, but in different degrees. The content of carotenoids was largely influenced by gibberellic acid, ascorbate and flavonoids by brassinolide. While novosil had the greatest effect on increased antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brassica, brassinolide, gibberellic acid, carotenoids, ascorbate, flavonoids, antioxidant activity

Citation: Almughraby E, Kalimullin MI, Timofeeva OA. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity in Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica under the effect of plant growth regulators. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1037-43.

Isolation and identification of multi-drug resistant “pseudomonas aeruginosa” from burn wound infection in Kirkuk City, Iraq
Sarah Ahmed Hasan, Ali Mohamed Najati, Kasim Sakran Abass

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Abstract

Background:P. aeruginosa” is considered as ubiquitous bacteria that can rapidly obtain resistance against various wide spectrum antibiotics It can rapidly obtain resistance against various wide spectrum antibiotics which lead to problematic conditions. This study was proceeded with an aim to determine the antibacterial resistance pattern and prevalence of “MDR P. aeruginosa” infection among burns patients.
Material and Methods: This study was carried out on the Burn patients in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk city / IRAQ from January, 2016 to June, 2016. The clinical samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from 100 patients with burn wound infections. “P. aeruginosa” was identified by using standard microbial methods. The drug susceptibility pattern using 10 different antibiotics (Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin) was performed for all the isolates using Kirby Bauer’s Disc Diffusion Method.
Results: “P. aeruginosa” were isolated from 36clinical burn samples and88.88% of these isolates were Multidrug Resistance “P. aeruginosa” (MDRPa). Resistance rates to different antibiotics were as follows: 36 (100%) resistant to (Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime), 19 (53%) isolates showed resistance towards Ceftazidime, 33 (92%) isolates were resistant towards (Tetracycline, Gentamycin and Imipenem). Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin resistance were seen in 31 (89%) and 24 (67%) isolates respectively.
Conclusion: Wide prevalence of MDRPa and nosocomial infections submit continuous monitoring of burn infections and evolve new strategies for drug resistance control and treatment of infections.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, burn patients, multidrug resistance

Citation: Hasan SA, Najati AM, Abass KS. Isolation and identification of multi-drug resistant “pseudomonas aeruginosa” from burn wound infection in Kirkuk City, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1045-0.

Mathematical model of the drying process of Capillary-porous materials particles in the apparatus with a suspended-swirled flow of heat - carrying medium
S. T. Antipov, A. V. Drannikov, V. V. Poymanov, A. V. Pribytkov, I. S. Yurova

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Mathematical model of the drying process for particles of capillary-porous materials in the apparatus with a suspended-swirled flow of heat-carrying medium and its numerical solution with the help of Euler’s method was presented in this article. The sequence of the problem solution was developed by the authors. The movement path of the particle of the capillary-porous material in the vortex chamber during the drying process, the change in the mass and temperature of the particle on time, the change in the relative air velocity and the heat transfer coefficient on time are represented graphically in the paper.

Keywords: model, process, drying, heat-carrying medium

Citation: Antipov ST, Drannikov AV, Poymanov VV, Pribytkov AV, Yurova IS. Mathematical model of the drying process of Capillary-porous materials particles in the apparatus with a suspended-swirled flow of heat - carrying medium. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1051-6.

Container-modular equipment for the storage of soybeans with active ventilation for farms of Kazakhstan
Aibek Atykhanov, Sholpan Duisenova, Dimitar Karaivanov

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Abstract

Due to the increased world demand for soybean products, Kazakhstan farms sharply increased soybean production. At the same time, there were problems with the safety of products, the lack of special equipment for its storage due to the rather difficult weather conditions. When collected in such weather, it is impossible to wear even during the night, as this can lead to self-heating and, as a result, to a decrease in quality and losses. In addition, the newly harvested grain must ripen for 3-4 weeks. This process is characterized by the release of water and the absorption of heat. At this time, the grain must be well ventilated, otherwise it spoils from the accumulation of moisture. Finally, at high humidity and temperature, the grain may begin to germinate, which is associated with the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, fats. Along with this, rodents and birds cause great damage. The object of the study is the process of storing soybeans in containers with active ventilation. It is proposed to use widely used containers of various capacities.
The aim of the study is to provide scientific substantiation of main parameters of the container-modular equipment for the storage of soybeans with active ventilation in conditions of farms.
To substantiate the 20, 30, 40 ton container-modular equipment for the storage of soybeans with active ventilation in farm conditions, the method of calculating the intake units is adopted. This is a classic method of selecting a pneumatic transporter with nominal parameters, as well as the least squares method using the MATLAB program, which is necessary for obtaining optimal equipment parameters.
As a result of the research, proposed container-modular soybean storage technology with active ventilation in farm conditions in counting per standard 40, 20, 10 t containers.

Keywords: pneumatic transporter, soybean storage, soybean ventilation

Citation: Atykhanov A, Duisenova S, Karaivanov D. Container-modular equipment for the storage of soybeans with active ventilation for farms of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1057-65.

Impact of baking properties of wheat flour on change the parameters of kneading and rheological characteristics of the dough
Yury A. Boltenko, Nina I. Myachikova, Olga V. Binkovskaya, Alexey I. Remnev, Irina V. Semchenko

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Abstract

The most important task facing the baking industry is to ensure the production of high quality products and of diverse range.
Carrying out kneading has a great influence on the course of the technological process of preparation of wheat bread and its quality.
Kneading the dough is the most important initial stage of the production of wheat bread, which occurs, first, the formation of the dough as a single homogeneous system, and, secondly, giving this system certain rheological properties, ensuring the optimal flow of all technological processes in the next stages of production.

Keywords: farinograf E, strukturometr, wheaten flour, wheat bread

Citation: Boltenko YA, Myachikova NI, Binkovskaya OV, Remnev AI, Semchenko IV. Impact of baking properties of wheat flour on change the parameters of kneading and rheological characteristics of the dough. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1067-0.

In vitro clonal micropropagation of Aronia L. varieties from the collection of the botanic garden of the National Research University “BelSU” (Belgorod, Russia)
Inna Victorovna Petrova, Liudmila Anatolievna Tokhtar, Svetlana Vladimirovna Kulko, Zhanna Andreevna Borodayeva

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Studying the characteristics of in vitro cultivation of species and varieties of Aronia made it possible to determine the optimal conditions for sterilizing plants, the composition of the medium for propagation and rhizogenesis of explants. Adaptation plant varieties of Aronia obtained using the developed media and cultivation regimes is characterized by a high survival rate (97-99%) under unsterile conditions, which makes them potential objects for mass replication by clonal micropropagation.

Keywords: clonal micropropagation, species, varieties, Aronia L., in vitro

Citation: Petrova IV, Tokhtar LA, Kulko SV, Borodayeva ZA. In vitro clonal micropropagation of Aronia L. varieties from the collection of the botanic garden of the National Research University “BelSU” (Belgorod, Russia). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1071-3.

Investigating and comparing the effects of lead poisoning in the rate of Flt3 gene expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and the value of its proteins synthesis in adult male rats
Razieh Mottahedzadeh, Saeed Khatamsaz, Mohammad Javad Mokhtari

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Abstract

Nowadays, cancer is undoubtedly one of the main and most common causes of human mortality. Recent studies have proved the origin and genetic source of many types of cancers. One of the main causes of genetic changes leading to the prevalence of cancer is exposure to various environmental pollutants in the living environment. The present study aims to investigate the possible effects of poisoning with lead compounds on the expression of an important gene of flt3 involved in the development of Leukemia in healthy rats. A total of 48 male rats were used in this study. Animals were generally divided into 6 groups, including control group, 300 mg / kg.bw sodium sulfide poisoning group, 600 mg / kg.bw sodium sulfide poisoning group, 30 mg / kg.bw lead acetate poisoning group, 60 mg / kg.bw lead acetate poisoning group, 600 mg / kg.bw sodium sulfide plus 60 mg / kg.bw lead acetate poisoning group. In this study, gavage was performed on rats for four months and blood samples were taken after this time. Using protein measurement kits, the value of protein was measured and it was found that in the group that received 600 mg / kg.bw sodium sulfide plus 60 mg / kg.bw lead acetate, the value of protein and gene expression increased significantly compared to other groups.

Keywords: AML cancer, lead, Flt3 gene, adult male rat

Citation: Mottahedzadeh R, Khatamsaz S, Mokhtari MJ. Investigating and comparing the effects of lead poisoning in the rate of Flt3 gene expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and the value of its proteins synthesis in adult male rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1075-9.

Physical and chemical profile and food safety of gluten free bread
Botagoz Kulushtayeva, Gulnur Nurymkhan, Nina Burakovskaya, Maxim Shadrin, Tatyana Smirnova, Oksana Sagina, Marina Mirgorodskaya, Sergey Smirnov

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The article presents the physical and chemical profile of gluten free bread, comprising gluten free composite flour, eggs, dry yeast, salt and water. The composite flour consists of 50% wheat starch, 25% amaranth and 25% chickpea flour. The composite flour production scheme and gluten free bread process flow diagram are designed. The gluten free bread is characterized by its higher weight, volume and porosity values as compared with wheat bread. Developed gluten free bread does not contain toxic elements, mycotoxins. The concentration of cesium-137 and strontium-90 is in low quantity and far less than regulation standards.

Keywords: gluten, flour, bread, amaranth, chickpea, safety, toxic elements

Citation: Kulushtayeva B, Nurymkhan G, Burakovskaya N, Shadrin M, Smirnova T, Sagina O, et al. Physical and chemical profile and food safety of gluten free bread. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1081-7.

Food fortification – problems and solutions
I. R. Shegelman, A. S. Vasilev, A. S. Shtykov, Y. V. Sukhanov, O. N. Galaktionov, A. V. Kuznetsov

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Abstract

As part of the task of solving the problems of food security of the population of the northern territories of Russia, an important place is occupied by the task of providing the population with biologically valuable substances for the positive transformation of the nutrition system of a modern person is quite acute. A large part of the world’s population and especially there is a strong deficiency of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, which leads to oncological, cardiovascular, autoimmune and other diseases. The ability to maintain a long working state of the population (which is especially important in the light of pension reform) and a healthy old age depend on the correctness of the system and diets. The foregoing has led to the search for ways to improve the quality of existing and create promising food products, improving their quality. The most important direction in improving the quality of food throughout the world is the enrichment of food to provide the population with various nutrients in order to supplement the diet by consuming these nutrients, using basic foods as agents. The paper considers the state and trends in the development of food enrichment processes, and offers promising solutions for their production.

Keywords: vitamins, micronutrients, food fortification, nutrients, food, food security, North of Russia, nutrition system

Citation: Shegelman IR, Vasilev AS, Shtykov AS, Sukhanov YV, Galaktionov ON, Kuznetsov AV. Food fortification – problems and solutions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1089-100.

Growing of Miscantus Giganteus planting material in the conditions of unstable moistening
V. A. Doronin, V. V. Dryha, Yu. A. Kravchenko, V. P. Mykolaiko, L. M. Karpuk, I. V. Krasnoshtan

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The paper covers some specific aspects of the planting material formation of the introduced crop of giant miscanthus in Ukraine. It was found out that in the zone of unstable moistening, the use of MaxiMarin absorbent resulted in a reliable growth of rhizome mass and more buds were formed on it. When planted with rhizome (mass is 20-30 g) and with the use of absorbent at the first planting term the mass growth of rhizome was larger at the end of vegetation as compared with the control, and depending on an absorbent kind it ranged from 78.4 g (the application of absorbent granules into the soil) to 433.6 g (combined application of absorbent granules and gel), more buds were formed on the rhizome – by 14.6-42.6 at the first planting term and by 8.4-42.5 at the second planting term as compared with the control. The increase of rhizome mass and the number of buds on it ensured the output growth of planting material – rhizomes, which depended on both the application of absorbent (granules and gel) and the mass of planted rhizomes and their planting terms. When planted with rhizome (mass is 60-90g) and with combined application of absorbent granules and gel more planting materials (large rhizomes) was received – by 2.1 times at the first planting term, - by 2.2 times at the second planting term, as compared with the control. More rhizomes - by 1.3 times - were received when planted with rhizome with 60-90 g mass than when rhizome mass was 20-30 g at both planting terms.

Keywords: rhizome, rhizome mass, buds, absorbent, gel, granules, planting term

Citation: Doronin VA, Dryha VV, Kravchenko YA, Mykolaiko VP, Karpuk LM, Krasnoshtan IV. Growing of Miscantus Giganteus planting material in the conditions of unstable moistening. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1101-8.

Effect of Trifloralin herbicide on emergence, growth and seed production of wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) under different depth
Abdulmueen Shabeb Hamad Al-Mafrajy, Kasim Sakran Abass

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Abstract

The experiment was applied during the agricultural season 2016-2017 to evaluate the growth and production of seeds for wild oats (Avena fatua L.) under the influence of the difference in the depth of seed presence in the soil (2, 4 and 8 cm) when using the Trifloralin herbicide concentrate with a concentration of (1,248) cm3 a.i /h Compared to the comparison treatment, Plastic pots 30 cm in diameter and 30 cm in depth were used and filled with loamly soil , The seeds were planted at 10 seed / pot rate and the treatment was treated with a pesticide and a thin layer of soil was placed after spraying the herbicide to prevent evaporation and photolysis. The experiment was applied in a global experimental manner with complete random design and three replicates. The results showed that the superiority of the Trifloralin herbicide treatment in the depths (2, 8) The seeds did not appear, which was reflected in the rest of the studied traits as the degree of vulnerability to these depths (10) degrees, which is very affected compared to the comparison , The effect of the depth was the seeds located in the depth (4) cm, the lowest proportion of the emergence of 66.67% and the low degree of vulnerability (4,16) and increase in the other studied traits is the height of the plant and number of plants / plant and number of leaves / plant and dry weight and the number of seeds / Plant (38.66, 2,00, 8,83, 6,56 and 19.50), respectively.

Keywords: wild oat, Trifloralin herbicide, deep planting, Avena fatua L

Citation: Al-Mafrajy ASH, Abass KS. Effect of Trifloralin herbicide on emergence, growth and seed production of wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) under different depth. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1109-13.

The methodology of the analysis and synthesis of rational choice recipes of cooking dishes
Nina I. Myachikova, Alexey I. Remnev, Olga V. Binkovskaya, Irina Yu. Korotkikh, Yury A. Boltenko

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Abstract

To offer the food industry the main directions of rational choice of different dishes, the new scientifically-based methodology and development is needed, and to establish which of the main directions or ephemeral, it is impossible - you need a retrospective look at the history of cooking as a whole. 
In the development of the methodology of analysis and synthesis of rational choice of recipes used conventional and special methods of analysis and synthesis of recipes, technologies and modes of preparation of various dishes, technological equipment, special cutting tools. Executive bodies, tooling and other elements are related to the technology of food production.
In the analysis and synthesis, an assessment is conducted according to the criteria of rational choice of the layout solution from the arrays of the formed set of recipes for the preparation of recommended dishes.
From the array of new, well-known recipes and their technologies of preparation of various dishes by analysis and synthesis of layout solutions the methodology of rational choice of dishes, allowing for different criteria to establish the best possible choice is proposed.

Keywords: rational choice of dishes, technology of dishes, analysis, synthesis, layout solutions

Citation: Myachikova NI, Remnev AI, Binkovskaya OV, Korotkikh IY, Boltenko YA. The methodology of the analysis and synthesis of rational choice recipes of cooking dishes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1115-9.

Monosodium glutamate induced impairment in antioxidant defense system and genotoxicity in human neuronal cell line IMR-32
Naumita Shah, Ankit Nariya, Ambar Pathan, Priyal Desai, Jinehi Shah, Alpesh Patel, Shiva Shankaran Chettiar, Devendrasinh Jhala

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Abstract

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods despite its toxic effects described in many reports. There is paucity of data regarding the mechanism of MSG induced toxicity on human neuronal cells. The present study was designed to investigate the alteration in antioxidant defense system and genotoxic effects after MSG exposure on human neuroblastoma cells IMR-32. The treatment of MSG was given for 24 h and cytotoxicity study was carried out by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were observed using Propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst double staining method. Biochemical assays like total protein, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level were analyzed along with enzymatic activity of super oxide dismutase and catalase. Genotoxicity indices were measured by comet assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Result of cytotoxicity showed dose dependent decrease in percent viability and significant increase was observed in percent of apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, exposure of MSG significantly increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation along with the impairment in antioxidant defense mechanism. Comet assay and DNA fragmentation assay showed genotoxic effects of MSG on IMR-32 cells in dose dependent manner. Findings of these dose reliant toxicity study of MSG suggest that MSG might be responsible for oxidative stress as well as genotoxicity in human neuronal cells IMR-32 cells and consumption of MSG essential to be controlled.

Keywords: free radical toxicity, genotoxicity, IMR-32, monosodium glutamate, neurodegeneration

Citation: Shah N, Nariya A, Pathan A, Desai P, Shah J, Patel A, et al. Monosodium glutamate induced impairment in antioxidant defense system and genotoxicity in human neuronal cell line IMR-32. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1121-8.

Immediate cryopreservation of isolated Ghezel ram spermatogonial stem cells and subsequent co-culture with Sertoli cells preserve their survival and functional capacity
Moein Zargarzadeh, Parviz Tajik, Mansoureh Movahedin, Ghasem Akbari, Babak Qasemi-Panahi

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Abstract

Due to the limited number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), an efficient preservation protocol is one of the main criteria for successful application of these cells. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of cryopreservation of Ghezel ram spermatogonial stem cells co-cultured with Sertoli cells. After digestion of the testicular samples from two month old lambs, obtained cells were randomly divided into 5 groups (each with 4 replicates) as follow: 1) Co-cultured with fresh Sertoli cells for 10 days (Control group). 2,3) Immediately cryopreserved (for one month) and then co-culture with/without Sertoli cells for 10 days (F0S and F0NS, respectively). 4,5) Cultured for 14 days and then cryopreserved (for one month) and finally cultured with/without Sertoli cells for 10 days (F14S and F14NS, respectively). Viability and colonization of SSCs were evaluated. The survival rate of freeze-thawed testicular cells in different treatments were not significantly different. The number of colonies in F14S, F0NS and F14NS were significantly higher than those of the control in days 5 and 10 (P < 0.05). The highest diameters of the colonies were observed in the F0S and F14S groups (P < 0.05) and the lowest diameter belonged to F0NS and F14NS treatments (P < 0.05). This study indicated that freezing the sheep SSCs can be a suitable way for their long-term maintenance. The suitable method to freeze sheep SSCs is to culture them on the day of enzymatic digestion and it can be concluded that culturing them before freezing leads to decreased ability of colonization.

Keywords: spermatogonial cells, ghezel ram, co-culture, colonization, cryopreservation

Citation: Zargarzadeh M, Tajik P, Movahedin M, Akbari G, Qasemi-Panahi B. Immediate cryopreservation of isolated Ghezel ram spermatogonial stem cells and subsequent co-culture with Sertoli cells preserve their survival and functional capacity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1129-35.

A wild edible vegetable Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl.: its ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, nutritional importance and other uses
Oluwasesan Micheal Bello, Safiya Mohammed Jagaba, Oluwatoyin Eunice Bello

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Many edible and varieties of vegetables though neglected, are indigenous to developing nations like Nigeria, these underutilized vegetables are perceived to be health promoting beside their culinary endowment. However, these vegetables i.e. Anchomanes difformis are yet to attract much attention from larger populace and researchers. The leaves and tubers of A. difformis are employed in folk medicines and as food. Literatures have shown that its traditionally uses are not limited to these i.e. anuria, asthma, constipation, epilepsy, diabetes, diarrhea, jaundice, heartburns, hernia, rheumatism and tuberculosis. Its phytochemistry showed that only five compounds were reportedly isolated i.e. Anchominines A, Anchominines B, 12-heptadecenoic acid, hexa-decanoic acid and β-stigmasterol. Though there are presence of phenolic compounds like catechins, épicatechins and tannins. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the tubers and leaves reported by different authors is quite satisfying among many other biological activities. The reason for this article is to review evidences available in scientific literature on the observed biological (in vitro and vivo studies), medicinal importance, phytochemistry and many other uses of various parts of this uncultivated but eaten plant species, making obvious the hidden benefits that this plant species possesses. Most countries in the West Africa recognize A. difformis has a non-cultivated vegetable eaten by many especially the tubers but first-hand information about its origin, geographical distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, nutritional importance, as well as its phytochemistry is rare, more studies are needed to establish its importance. Modern metabolomics may be employed to help researchers know the compounds responsible for some of its activities.

Keywords: Anchomanes difformis, wild edible vegetable, nutritional importance, phytochemistry, metabolomics

Citation: Bello OM, Jagaba SM, Bello OE. A wild edible vegetable Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl.: its ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, nutritional importance and other uses. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1137-47.

Genetic diversity among local chicken breeds Egypt, using microsatellite DNA markers
Norezzine Abdelaziz, Nesrin Marey, F. Duksi, N. Y. Rebouh, B. I. Boli, A. Gadzhikurbanov, E. A. Gladyr, P. M. Klenovitsky, A. A. Nikishov, E. V. Kulikov, Yu. A. Vatnikov

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Abstract

Microsatellite markers offer great potential for genetic comparisons within and between populations. In order to assess and characterize genetic diversity of Egyptian native chickens, DNA profiles of selected samples of Egyptian chickens were performed in three repetitions, in which the complete coincidence of microsatellite profiles from each specific individual was shown. The resulting individual matrix served as the basis for the characterization of Egyptian chicken breeds. It was established that the average number of alleles per 11 mc in the studied breeds of Egyptian chickens is 5.64 alleles per locus or a total of 62 alleles for all loci. The maximum allelic diversity was found in the breed of the baladi, the minimum in the gimmizah breed, 3.82 ± 0.30 and 1.91 ± 0.25, respectively. The anshas breed was characterized by an intermediate number of alleles equal to 2.36 ± 0.24 alleles per locus. An excess of heterozygotes was found in the breed of baladi at the level of 12.8%. Breeds of gimmizah and anshas were characterized by a deficit of 8.6 and 10.6%, respectively. The deficit of heterozygotes is also indicated by positive values of the fixation index (fis) in the gimmizah and anshas breeds, 30.7 and 25.1%, respectively. Thus this penal of microsatellites markers provide good insight into the genetic diversity available across Egypt chickens of either close or distant genetic backgrounds. The resulting information can be used in dealing with the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of the local chicken breeds Egypt.

Keywords: domestic chickens, polymorphic alleles, Genetic diversity, microsatellite loci

Citation: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Marey N, Duksi F, Rebouh NY, Boli BI, Gadzhikurbanov A, et al. Genetic diversity among local chicken breeds Egypt, using microsatellite DNA markers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1149-54.

The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City
Neven Nihal Hana Istifo, Kasim Sakran Abass

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Abstract

Background: Local anesthetic injections are the most common drugs used during dental treatment to inhibit pain sensation. Although these drugs are generally safe; though side effects occurs. Many side effects of anesthesia and anxiety associated dental treatment have been reported, yet their incidence and factors that modulate them were not studies extensively.
Objectives: The objectives of the study was to: 1- Determine the incidence rate of dental local anesthetic complications. 2- Analyze the effect of different risk factors on the incidence of local anesthetic adverse effects, anxiety and nicotine withdrawal syndrome in smoker and non-smokers.
Methodology: Three hundred fifty five dental patients enrolled in this Cross-Sectional study, those patients attended a private clinic for different dental complaints. The patients were given -lidocaine –hamein 2% with 1:80,000 epinephrine- by either infiltration or inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection techniques to induce anesthesia, then underwent different dental procedures. Questionnaire was constructed to obtain patients information after formal consent. We focused on the sixteen well known signs and symptoms of local anesthesia side effect. The anxiety evaluated by using10-cm anxiety visual analog scale (VAS-A). Additionally, we searched for other dental complications and for nicotine withdrawal symptoms.
Statistical Analysis: Data analyzed by using SigmaPlot (11.0) program. One sample t-test, ANOVA Test and a linear regression analysis were used. The p value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The commonest side effect was Post-operative sensory paralysis (235/355, ~66%) followed by palpitation (215/355, ~60%). Most patients had more than one side effect concomitantly.
Gender, injection technique, dental procedure, age, BMI and smoking were significantly associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. The incidence rate of Post-operative sensory paralysis (66.2%) followed by palpitation (60.5%) and pallor (15.5%). Each of Tremor, confusion and hyperventilation were identified in less than 5% of the study population. The incidence rate of anxiety was high (340/355, ~95%). The level of anxiety was significantly affected by different dental procedure, smoking, age and BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly increased after local anesthetic injections with p<0.001.
Conclusions: The present study reports high incidence rate of local anesthetic adverse effects and anxiety which is associated with the some risk factors controlling these factors might minimize the side effects of the anesthesia.

Keywords: local anesthetics, anxiety, smoking

Citation: Hana Istifo NN, Abass KS. The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1155-62.

A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016
Ghafar-Ali Mahmoudi, Babak Khodadadi, Ali Farhadi, Parisa Moalemnia, Peyman Astaraki

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Background and Objective: One of the important principles of medicine is the ability to deliver bad news to the patient and caregivers. There are different views on how bad news are delivered. This study was conducted in 2016 to evaluate the viewpoints of hospitalized patients in Khorramabad hospitals on how to deliver bad news.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Non-probability convenient sampling was used. The studied population consisted of patients with incurable chronic diseases admitted to internal and oncology wards of Khorramabad hospitals. The questionnaire was given to patients after confirming validity and reliability. Then, data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis using SPSS version 23 software.
Results: The sample size was 200 patients, 92 men, and 108 women. Based on factor analysis, three factors, including physician notification, patient satisfaction with notification and people involved in delivering bad news, were obtained; 52.4% of patients were aware of their disease, 88.6% of patients agreed with full notification, 67% of patients were satisfied with the truth; for 90.5% and 46.5% of patients, the presence of a psychiatrist and religious advisor, respectively, was necessary when delivering bad news.
Conclusion: Patients’ wishes for how to deliver bad news are related to factors such as culture, news deliverer and news delivering skills and it is suggested that guidelines be tailored to the culture of each region.

Keywords: patient, bad news, chronic disease, the physician-patient relationship

Citation: Mahmoudi G, Khodadadi B, Farhadi A, Moalemnia P, Astaraki P. A review of experiences and views of hospitalized patients about how bad news was delivered to them in hospitals in Khorramabad, Western of Iran, in 2016. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1163-8.

Control model elements of production processes of mare’s milk
Amangeldy Turabayev, Dauren Nurmakhanbetov, Seilkhan Rakhmanov, Gabiden Baktybayev, Marat Aldabergenov

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The article presents the results of studies on the development of a model for the effective control of production processes in the production of mare’s milk on seasonal farms in Kazakhstan. The aim of the research is to develop a model of effective control of production processes in the production of mare’s milk in seasonal and stationary farms in various regions of Kazakhstan. According to our research the main elements that should be incorporated during changeover (R & D implementation) for such technology (simulation) of milk production, the elements are: formation of the lactating mares in productivity (milk yield), lactation period with preservation of their stability for a certain time; preservation of intervals between milkings and milking graphics are constant for the formed technological (experienced) groups; control feeding of mares and foals; reducing the time spent by the mares in the milking area and lengthening the grazing time between milkings; the use of milking machines and automatic (mechanized) equipment to the greatest extent, corresponding to the physiological requirements of milk production.

Keywords: model, management, production process, mare’s milk, farm, horse breeding

Citation: Turabayev A, Nurmakhanbetov D, Rakhmanov S, Baktybayev G, Aldabergenov M. Control model elements of production processes of mare’s milk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1169-76.

Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus
Laleh Naraghi, Maryam Negahban

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In this research, the efficiency of four different nanoformulations (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and a former formulation (F0) from the fungus Talaromyces flavus were investigated in reducing the incidence of cotton Verticillium wilt in greenhouse conditions. Nanoformulations were two types of nanocapsules, one nanoemulsion, and one nanopowder. The former formulation was formed based on rice bran. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The treatments included each of four nanoformulations with two methods of seed impregnation and soil application, soil application of the former formulation, intact control, and infected control. Each replicate consisted of a 3-L pot with three seeds of a sensitive cotton variety (Varamin). The germplasm of the disease agent was completely mixed with two-thirds of the upper part of the potted soil three days before cultivation. Formulation treatments were provided by soil application simultaneously with planting. Two months after planting, the treatments were evaluated by determining the disease severity (%). Then, mean percentages of disease severity in different treatments were grouped by Duncan’s multiple range test using the MS TAT C software. Results showed decreased percentages of disease severity in treatments of nanoformulations (85-97%) and the former formulation (95%) in comparison to the infected control. The most effective nanoformulations were not significantly different in the disease control efficiency compared with the former formulation. In addition to decreased disease severity, a ten-day earlier flowering and fruit production were also observed in treatments of nanoformulations and the former formulation than the infected control. In terms of decreasing the disease severity, the nanoformulations presented different results by using two methods of seed impregnation and soil application. No significant differences were found between the two application methods for F2 and F4 nanoformulations. F1 and F3 nanoformulations, however, had better efficiencies in both soil application and seed impregnation methods. The highest disease severity reduction (97%) was recorded in treatments with F2 and F3 nanoformulations in seed impregnation method (1.66) compared to the infected control (66.66). Statistically, disease severity significantly increased in only three F1 treatments with seed impregnation method, and F3 and F4 by soil application compared to the other treatments with no significant differences.

Keywords: Talaromyces flavus, nanotechnology, biological control

Citation: Naraghi L, Negahban M. Biological control of cotton Verticillium wilt by nanoformulations containing Talaromyces flavus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1177-85.

Variation and transgressive variability of the stem length in F1 and F2 soft spring wheat under conditions of forest-steppe of Ukraine
Serhii Vakhnyi, Valerii Khakhula, Tetiana Lozinska, Yriy Fedoruk, Mykola Lozinskyi, Serhii Obrazhyy, Nataliya Fedoruk, Oleksandr Panchenko, Oleksandr Yakovenko

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The paper highlights the question of the stem length variability in F1 and F2 soft spring wheat and the detection of transgressive forms in the second generation of hybrids.
The complicated character of stem length determination in F1 is defined, since in this process not only genes of additive type of action are involved, but also alleles of genes with stronger specific interaction. In the hybrid combinations Struna Myronivska/Elehiia Myronivska were at parental level, in the combination Struna Myronivska/Azhurnaia treated as inferior to the parental form on 10.9%, indicating the probability of maternal organism’s effect on the trait formation due to the content of short-stem genetic factors in cytoplasm.
It was established that the coefficient of variation of stem length in first-generation hybrids when reciprocal crosses was in the range from 6.8% (Simkoda Myronivska/Struna Myronivska) to 9.3% (Azhurnaia/Struna Myronivska), indicating a slight variation of this index. Only in combinations of crosses Lehuan/Struna Myronivska, Heroinia/Struna Myronivska and Kolektyvna 3/Struna Myronivska variation of stem length is average and account for 15.8, 11.3 and 11.1% respectively.
A significant reciprocal effect was also noted – shorter-stem hybrids F1 obtained in combinations when using low-growth varieties as a maternal form.
The smallest range of stem length was found in second-generation hybrids in the combination Struna Myronivska/Kolektyvna 3 – 16.1 cm with low variance 22.1 and the largest one – in the combination Heroinia/Struna Myronivska (34.1 cm) with variance 81.0.
The complex genetic nature of the stem length determination in the studied hybrids F1 and F2 was established. Starting from F2, a significant form-creating process in the stem length can be traced in hybrids. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, a significant reduction of the stem length in F2 hybrids is observed, when maternal form was a variety with shorter stem length. This indicates the influence of the maternal cytoplasm on this trait formation.
High-growth transgressions were found in the second generation of a third of soft spring wheat hybrids. In F2 hybrids, the degree of transgression was in the range 2.1-6.2% with a frequency 6.0-10.0% in the hybrid combinations Struna Myronivska/Simkoda Myronivska, Simkoda Myronivska/Struna Myronivska, Elehiia Myronivska/Struna Myronivska, Kolektyvna 3/Struna Myronivska.
Thus, it can be argued that the highest rates of transgressive variability based on the stem length were found in those hybrids which had heterosis in F2.

Keywords: soft spring wheat, reciprocal crosses, hybrids, stem length, variation, variability, transgression

Citation: Vakhnyi S, Khakhula V, Lozinska T, Fedoruk Y, Lozinskyi M, Obrazhyy S, et al. Variation and transgressive variability of the stem length in F1 and F2 soft spring wheat under conditions of forest-steppe of Ukraine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1187-93.

Analysis of protein, fiber content and amino acid profiles in Tempeh obtained by fermentation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) with Rhizopus oligosporus
Carlos Jácome Pilco, Darwin Núñez Torres, Riveliño Ramón, Nancy Jácome Guerrero, Katherin Beltrán Moso, Nelson Monar, Byron Herrera, Marx Iván García, Favian Bayas-Morejón

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The present study was carried out in the Molecular Biology and Biotechnology laboratory of the State University of Bolivar (Guaranda-Ecuador), whose objective was to evaluate the nutritional properties of Tempeh obtained by fermentation of beans and quinoa with Rhizopus oligosporus. Three formulations of bean and quinoa mixture were established, to ferment with two levels of Rhizopus oligosporus (R.O). For each formulation the parameters were evaluated: protein nitrogen, fiber and amino acid profile and the formulation that presented the best value of the parameters evaluated was selected. In the results, the highest percentages of protein were obtained in the treatments a0b1 and a0b0 that corresponded to the mixtures: 80% bean + 20% quinoa to 3% and 1% of R.O with 27.41% and 27.20% respectively. The highest percentages of fiber were obtained in the same treatments a0b1 and a0b0. In the identification of amino acids, the best percentages were obtained in the treatments a2b0 and a2b1, which corresponds to a mixture of 40% bean + 60% quinoa at 1% and 3% of Ro respectively. In the analysis of variance, it was determined that the level of Ro does not influence the tempeh parameters analyzed.

Keywords: tempeh, fermentation of beans and quinoa, Rhizopus oligosporus

Citation: Pilco CJ, Torres DN, Ramón R, Guerrero NJ, Moso KB, Monar N, et al. Analysis of protein, fiber content and amino acid profiles in Tempeh obtained by fermentation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) with Rhizopus oligosporus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1195-9.

Detection of LPXTG protein genes on food-borne listeria monocytogenes
Jian Ding, Xun Ma, Ridengcaicike Ai, Dan Zhang, Zhengkun Xu, Jihong Zhang, Weidong Chen, Linaer Gu, Tao Wang

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Abstract

Background: Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is well known as one of the most important foodborne pathogens, pose a great threat to the health of human and various livestock and poultry. Lm have a variety of virulence-associated proteins that closely involved in pathogenicity on the cell wall. One type of surface proteins which have a conserved LPXTG motif at COOH-terminal cell can be cleaved by sortase and anchored peptidoglycan to present on the cell surface to play a role in virulence.
Objective: To detect the LPXTG protein genes on Food-Borne Listeria monocytogenes strains that were isolated from the different foods.
Method: 41 of primers was designed and synthesized for putative LPXTG surface protein. It was detected by PCR amplify and gel electrophoresis imaging system.
Result: The results showed that the rate of carrying LPXTG protein genes in different LM isolates are different. 12.5% Lm isolates (3/24) carrying more than 85% LPXTG protein genes. The detection rate of LPXTG protein genes are different. Among the 41 LPXTG protein genes, only 7 genes were 100% detection; 3 genes were under 20%; the Lmo1115 gene was not detected. It is of importance for studying the pathogenicity of food-borne Lm to test the distribution of LPXTG motif surface proteins.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, LPXTG, protein genes, detection rate

Citation: Ding J, Ma X, Ai R, Zhang D, Xu Z, Zhang J, et al. Detection of LPXTG protein genes on food-borne listeria monocytogenes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1201-3.

Coenoflora and Spiraeanthus schrenkianus Maxim population structure in the mountains of Boraldaytau
O. A. Kupriyanov, A. N. Kupriyanov, A. A. Abduova, A. Yessengeldi, M. I. Sataev, B. M. Moshkalov, M. Tolegen

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The preservation of biological diversity, including plants, is the global task for the preservation of mankind habitat. The strategy for the preservation of rare and endangered plants should be based on species existence pattern identification in natural populations. Spiraeanthus schrenkianus Maxim. is an endemic genus and species for Central Asia with a shrinking range included in the Red Book of Kazakhstan. The purpose of the research was to study the coenoflora, the state of coenopopulations and the biological characteristics of S. schrenkianus in natural places of growth. The detail-route method was used to survey 9 cenopopulations of S. schrenkianus in the foothills and middle mountains of Boraldaytau, located in the territory of the Syrdarya-Turkestan natural park. Geobotanical descriptions were made, on the basis of which they revealed the common coenoflora S. schrenkianus. Using the methods adopted in population biology, they studied the morphology of plants in different age states, which allowed us to determine the structure of coenopopulations. The coenoflora S. schrenkianus, numbering 166 species, belongs to large-grass and low-grass savannoids. The main features characterizing the age states in the pregenerative period are the complications of lamina morphology and the formation of the primary shoot. The complication of shoot structure, the number of flowering shoots, and root system takes place during the generative period. It has been proven that the cenopopulations of S. Schrenkianus are capable of sustaining and restoring in the Boraldaytau mountains, which is facilitated by the protective regime of the territory. In order to preserve S. schrenkianus, it is necessary to preserve the protective regime of the territory and conduct constant monitoring of price populations.

Keywords: Spiraeanthus schrenkianus Maxim., coenoflora, coenopopulation, age conditions, population structure

Citation: Kupriyanov OA, Kupriyanov AN, Abduova AA, Yessengeldi A, Sataev MI, Moshkalov BM, et al. Coenoflora and Spiraeanthus schrenkianus Maxim population structure in the mountains of Boraldaytau. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1205-13.

Productivity of green cabbage varieties and hybrids in Piedmont area of the Republic of Dagestan
Z. M. Khasayeva, A. A. Magomedova, Z. M. Musaeva, Sh. Sh. Omariyev, E. V. Abdullaeva, A. M. Gadzhieva, R. A. Huseynov, T. V. Ramazanova

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The article reflects the main results of the studies on the adaptive potential of green cabbage varieties and hybrids in the Piedmont subprovince of the Republic of Dagestan, against the background of processing by growth regulators, as well as the data on the irrigation regime. In the first experiment they determined that the greatest indicators of photosynthetic potential and yield were formed by the hybrid Hope. Higher data were obtained during the treatment with Novosil. The minimum data is marked in the standard (Glory 1305). The data of the second experiment showed the following. The most economical use of water for the development of one ton of crop was observed in Hope hybrid, and the largest use was observed in the standard (Glory 1305). The maximum use of moisture by cabbage plants was observed during the interphase period, the beginning of the head curling - technical ripeness. In this experiment, the hybrid Hope also provided the highest productivity, with irrigation mode, providing for irrigation, while reducing the pre-irrigation threshold to 75-85-75% of MMC.

Keywords: Piedmont sub-province of the Republic of Dagestan, soil and climatic conditions, green cabbage, variety, hybrid, adaptation, yield, irrigation regime, total water consumption

Citation: Khasayeva ZM, Magomedova AA, Musaeva ZM, Omariyev SS, Abdullaeva EV, Gadzhieva AM, et al. Productivity of green cabbage varieties and hybrids in Piedmont area of the Republic of Dagestan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1215-20.

Sprinkler speed influence on soil substrate erosion
Gennady V. Olgarenko, Anatoly I. Ryazantsev, Alexander V. Kuznetsov, Dmitry M. Umaev, Roman V. Beznosyuk, Mikhail Yu. Kostenko

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Abstract

Considered work designed sprinkler with rotating wings in the conditions of growing seedlings in greenhouses, which eliminated the formation of erosion of the topsoil. The trajectory of the droplet flight during watering depending on the angular velocity of the wings of the sprinkler system is investigated. The relationship between the rotation frequency of the sprinkler, the angle of incidence and the kinetic energy of the droplets causing the destruction of the soil substrate of cassette seedlings is determined. Determined the rate of aretirement for soil substrate. In conclusion, recommendations are given to reduce the negative impact of drops on the soil substrate.

Keywords: irrigation, seedlings, irrigation radius, soil erosion

Citation: Olgarenko GV, Ryazantsev AI, Kuznetsov AV, Umaev DM, Beznosyuk RV, Kostenko MY. Sprinkler speed influence on soil substrate erosion. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1221-4.

Biochemical investigation of potential of plant growth- promoting bacteria and auxin treatments to alleviate drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Najmeh Bagheri, Omid Alizadeh, Shahram Sharaf Zadeh, Farshid Aref, Kourosh Ordookhani

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Abstract

Plants developed defensive mechanisms to detect and response to environmental stresses at cellular and molecular levels. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting bacteria and auxin treatments to alleviate drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as split plot randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress was considered as the main factor in three levels (25, 50 and 75% of field capacity). The application of PGPR treatment in subplots was included control (without bacteria), Azotobacter, pseudomonas and a combination of both bacteria and application of auxin in sub-sub-plots, at four levels (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg per liter). Was considered. Results indicated that malondialdehyde was affected by drought stress, drought stress × bacteria interaction and auxin at 1% probability level and the interaction of drought stress × bacteria × auxin at 5% probability level. In the second year, malondialdehyde showed significant difference in drought stress, the interaction of drought stress × bacteria at 1% probability level and drought stress × auxin interaction at 5% probability level. Relative water content of the flag leaf was affected by drought stress and bacteria in both years at probability level of 1% and 5% probability level. Proline content just effected by drought stress at probability level of 1% in two years. Results also indicated that leaf chlorophyll content was affected by drought stress and bacteria at 1% probability level and the interaction of drought stress × bacteria at 5% probability level. In the second year, chlorophyll was significantly affected by drought stress, bacteria and drought stress × bacteria at 1% probability level.

Keywords: bacteria, plant regulator, priming, yield, wheat

Citation: Bagheri N, Alizadeh O, Sharaf Zadeh S, Aref F, Ordookhani K. Biochemical investigation of potential of plant growth- promoting bacteria and auxin treatments to alleviate drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1225-30.

Current state of ecosystems and their recreational use of the Burabai National Park (Northern Kazakhstan)
Farida Akiyanova, Aksholpan Atalikhova, Zulfira Jussupova, Aliya Simbatova, Adlet Nazhbiev

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The subject of study is the area of the Burabai National Park (53°05’00”N 70°18’00”W) located in the north of Kazakhstan. The article considers the current state of the many natural features of unique park which is included in the national system of specially protected areas. The Park is characterized by atypical mountain-forest landscapes with, for a steppe zone, a high biological diversity, which is a direct result of the area’s geological and geomorphological structure. The central part of the Park is located within the Borovskoy granite massif which is of Middle-Paleozoic origin, with a ring system of faults with which the low-mountain, low-relief relief is associated. The low-mountain topography and rock lithology determine the area’s climate and forest growth. Thus, the geological and geomorphological diversity which is seen here and which is associated with the island’s low mountains and low hills is an important natural factor underlying the landscape diversity. The main objects of geodiversity are individual mountains and cliff rocks of unique and unusual formation, which are included in the national list of natural monuments. The lakes which are of tectonic origin and which are limited to the zones of ring faults are also unique. This made it possible to consider the leading and interrelated components of the natural environment: geological structure; relief; surface water; and soil and vegetation cover. Based on the research carried out, a number of recommendations have been developed which will assist in sustainable nature management with the priority of developing recreation and tourism.

Keywords: national park, geodiversity, tourism, ecosystems, rational nature management, biodiversity, North Kazakhstan

Citation: Akiyanova F, Atalikhova A, Jussupova Z, Simbatova A, Nazhbiev A. Current state of ecosystems and their recreational use of the Burabai National Park (Northern Kazakhstan). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1231-43.

Biological importance of milk oligosaccharides isolated from Gaddi sheep’s milk
Sanyogita Shahi, Shirish Kumar Singh

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Carbohydrate is a are the firewood of life Complex carbohydrates of glycoproteins, glycolipids and bacterial polysaccharides encode information relevant to cell interaction and that the information is decoded by binding to lectins and other proteins. Bioactive carbohydrates are crucial in mediating essential biological processes, and their biosynthesis is an essential aspect to develop for a global view of their biological functions. Recent scientific studies have demonstrated that sugars also play fundamental roles in the regulation of biological activity and consequently, in the cause and treatment of many diseases as well as in drug action. Oligosaccharides are essential constituents of all living beings i.e. bacteria, fungi, plants and placental mammals’ milk. The milk is a rich source of oligosaccharides and their composition depends on their origin in which mammals the milk belongs. Buffalo milk oligosaccharides have resistivity against parasitic infections. Donkey milk oligosaccharides have ability to stimulate non-specific and specific immunological resistance. Goat milk oligosaccharides is useful for intestinal protection and repair after a damage caused by DSS (Dextron sodium sulphate)-induced colitis and their implication in human intestinal inflammation. Goat milk oligosaccharides have anti-inflammatory effects. The cows’ milk oligosaccharides reduce the adhesion of enterotoxic Escherichia coli strains of the calf. Keeping in mind all bioactive properties of different origin, Gaddi sheep’s milk was collected and processed by Modified method of Kobata and Ginsburg and then it was purified by Sephadex G-25 Gel column. The homogeneity is confirmed by reverse phase high performance chromatography and supported by thin layer chromatography. The acetylation of oligosaccharides mixture followed by the silica gel chromatography led to isolation of a novel oligosaccharides. The biological activity of Gaddi sheep’s milk oligosaccharides was investigated by MTT assay, it is a type of colorimetric assay that measures the reduction of yellow 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. The MTT enters the cells and passes into the mitochondria where it is reduced to an insoluble, coloured (dark purple) formazan product. The cells are then solubilised with an organic solvent (e.g. isopropanol) and the released, solubilised formazan reagent is measured spectrophotometrically. Since reduction of MTT can only occur in metabolically active cells the level of activity is a measure of the viability of the cells.

Keywords: Oligosaccharide, HPLC, Splenocyte, MTT assay method

Citation: Shahi S, Singh SK. Biological importance of milk oligosaccharides isolated from Gaddi sheep’s milk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1245-9.

Mechanization of removal of the mulching film and flexible irriation tape from the surface of the fields
M. Z. Khazimov, K. M. Khazimov, T. A. Bazarbayeva, A. A. Urymbayeva, G. C. Bora, A. K. Niyazbayev

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The article presents modern methods of vegetable production using polyethylene film for soil mulching and flexible tapes for drip irrigation. For this is presented a machine which includes a design for the removal of used mulch film and drip irrigation tapes. The main parameters of the developed machine for removing the mulch film are substantiated. The article describes the methods for calculating of the parameters of the unit, the results of the research are obtained theoretically and experimentally. The sample of the device and the results of its laboratory and production tests are presented.

Keywords: planting seedlings, flexible irrigation tapes, drip irrigation, microclimatic conditions, mulch film, removal of polymer residues, infographics

Citation: Khazimov MZ, Khazimov KM, Bazarbayeva TA, Urymbayeva AA, Bora GC, Niyazbayev AK. Mechanization of removal of the mulching film and flexible irriation tape from the surface of the fields. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1251-61.

The effect of automatic thoughts on personality traits of rural women in Iran
Khatoon Vakili, Roghayeh Maleknejad

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The aim this study was to determine the effect of automatic thoughts on personality traits of rural women in Iran. Using random sampling, 30 rural women were selected as samples. In this research, the post-event approach was used. Data were collected using automatic thoughts questionnaire and personality traits questionnaire. For descriptive statistics, descriptive statistics tables including mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum skewness and kurtosis coefficients were used. For inferential analysis and testing of research hypotheses, two-tailed t-test was used for independent groups. The findings showed that automatic thoughts, as a predictive variable, can affect the personality traits of rural women. Automatic thoughts, as a predictive variable, also can affect the adaptability of rural women. They can also affect the sensation seeking of rural women. Automatic thoughts affect the personality traits of rural women.

Keywords: thoughts, automatic thoughts, traits, personality traits

Citation: Vakili K, Maleknejad R. The effect of automatic thoughts on personality traits of rural women in Iran. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1263-7.

Comprehensive Assessment of the Energy Efficiency of Mass Transfer Apparatus (Placing Unit Type)
O. G. Dudarovskaya

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The article is devoted to the assessment of the energy efficiency of mass transfer devices filled with chaotic placing units using an approach based on the use of the energy coefficient Е (V.M. Antufyeva). Using the Owen model of the turbulent boundary layer, taking into account the attenuation of turbulence in the boundary layer, an expression is presented for calculating the average mass transfer coefficient from the chaotic packed layer in the channel. An algorithm for calculating the energy efficiency of the channel filled with placing units for carrying out the mass transfer process is presented. In order to select the most energy efficient intensifier of the mass transfer process, several types of irregular packings have been considered. The energy coefficient E was calculated for a channel filled with placing units of various shapes, sizes, and also made of various materials. According to the data obtained, graphs of the dependence of the energy coefficient E on the Reynolds number (mode of motion) have been plotted. The advantage of the considered approach is that the process of mass transfer requires the least amount of empirical parameters about the object of modeling being studied to evaluate the efficiency from an energetic point of view.

Keywords: mass transfer, intensifiers, packed elements, energy coefficient, efficiency

Citation: Dudarovskaya OG. Comprehensive Assessment of the Energy Efficiency of Mass Transfer Apparatus (Placing Unit Type). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1269-74.

Water resources and system of the River Yesil (ISHIM) under conditions of active anthropogenous transformation and climate change
Farida Zh. Akiyanova, Nataliya L. Frolova, Aiman A. Avezova, Altynay M. Shaimerdenova, Anton B. Oleshko

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This paper considers the features of the formation of the water resources and the system of the transboundary River Yesil/Ishim (the left tributary of the River Irtysh), the sources and the formation zone of most of the flow of which are located in Kazakhstan, the transit zone and the inflow into the Irtysh river in Russia. Initial hydrological information was taken from published data for the years 1932-2017; and for the period 2008-2017 monitoring data gathered from gauging stations controlled by the RSE Kazgidromet of the Ministry of Energy of Kazakhstan. 
Research confirms a pronounced irregularity in the flow of the Yesil River over the long-term, with sequences of high and low-water years. In terms of the volume of annual flow, the difference between these years can be as much as 200% to 300%. There is an uneven distribution of the runoff from the River Yesil during the year, during which the river system is characterized by a pronounced short flood and a very low low-water level.
The entire river is characterized by the almost simultaneous onset of flood; but from the data gathered downstream there is a temporary shift in the peak of the flood and a slight increase in its duration. At the same time, the analysis shows that over the past twenty-five years there has been a tendency for the flood to shift to earlier dates; a decrease in its duration; and an increase in runoff. In addition to the influence of climatic factors on the runoff and system of the River Yesil, qualitative and quantitative changes in the hydrological characteristics are shown, taking into account the regulatory activity of large reservoirs.
In general, an increase in the use of surface-water resources and unproductive losses exacerbate the situation with their lack in low-water years, with the greatest shortage of water resources in the upper part of the Yesil’s basin.

Keywords: transboundary river, river flow, flow system, flow regulation, River Yesil (Ishim), Kazakhstan, Russia

Citation: Akiyanova FZ, Frolova NL, Avezova AA, Shaimerdenova AM, Oleshko AB. Water resources and system of the River Yesil (ISHIM) under conditions of active anthropogenous transformation and climate change. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1275-89.

Problems of Creating A Three-way Cross Hybrid of Sugar Beet
Aleksei V. Logvinov, Ilya A. Shilov, Victor V. Moiseev, Arkadii V. Moiseev, Nikolai N. Neshchadim, Luidmila V. Tsatsenko

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This article deals with the problems and possible ways to increase the level of sugar beet heterosis. The modern scheme of hybrids seed production involves the crossing of monospermic, male-sterile lines with crop-bearing pollinator lines at the stage of obtaining hybrid seeds. The influence of simple (single-cross) hybrids as a maternal component of hybridization has not been studied enough. It was established that the indicators of sterility and individual fertility in individual single-crosses were at the level of MS lines. The seed productivity of simple MS hybrids was on average 12.4% higher than the seed productivity of MS lines.

Keywords: sugar beet, heterosis, sterility, mono-spermic, two- and three-way cross hybrids

Citation: Logvinov AV, Shilov IA, Moiseev VV, Moiseev AV, Neshchadim NN, Tsatsenko LV. Problems of Creating A Three-way Cross Hybrid of Sugar Beet. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1291-3.

Retraction Notice to: Evaluation of auxin priming and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress
Najmeh Bagheri, Omid Alizadeh, Shahram Sharaf Zadeh, Farshid Aref, Kourosh Ordookhani

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Original Article: Evaluation of auxin priming and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress
Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2019 - Volume 13 Issue 2, pp. 711-716.

The original version of the article can be found at: http://ejobios.org/article/evaluation-of-auxin-priming-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-yield-and-yield-components-7159

The authors have retracted this article. All authors agreed to this retraction.

Keywords:

Citation: Bagheri N, Alizadeh O, Sharaf Zadeh S, Aref F, Ordookhani K. Retraction Notice to: Evaluation of auxin priming and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of wheat under drought stress. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1295.

Bakery product technology for treatment and preventive nutrition
Svetlana U. Sergieva, Tatyana V. Bagaeva, Liliya Z. Gabdukaeva

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The concept of development of functional and specialized bakery in the Russian Federation is aimed at reducing micronutrient deficiency through the consumption of functional and specialized bread and bakery products, which determines the need for intended regulation of the chemical composition of bakery products in order to obtain a product with a higher micronutrient content and with a more balanced ratio (Alferov 2009, Nalubola 2005).
The feasibility of enriching bread with minor components of food is also determined by the fact that bread in Russia remains a mass product. The use of bakery products as a daily food product, additionally enriched with missing micronutrients, will make it possible to convey them to the widest groups of the population, including those most in need of improving nutritional status and health (Gabdukaeva and Sorokina 2017).
This article presents a functional food product intended for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The high sorption ability of the pectin substances of the selected ingredients reduces the content of heavy metal ions in the digestive tract, which is especially important for people working in industries with harmful working conditions in order to reduce the risk of occupational diseases. The developed product is intended for older people and for those living in ecologically disadvantaged regions of the country, in order to remove radionuclides and excess cholesterol from the body and improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords: therapeutic nutrition, functional product, nutritional value, mineral composition, quality indicators

Citation: Sergieva SU, Bagaeva TV, Gabdukaeva LZ. Bakery product technology for treatment and preventive nutrition. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1297-301.

Introduction of perspective varieties of tulips in Mangystau for wide implementation of green construction in practice
N. I. Duisenova, A. A. Imanbayeva, K. Zh. Temirbaeva, I. F. Belozerov

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Abstract

The article describes the results of tulip variety introduction study in the collection of the Mangyshlaksky Experimental Botanical Garden (MEBG). They also presented the development of a comprehensive scale to diagnose the prospects of tulip varieties under the arid conditions of Mangystau.
The aim of our study is to identify the promising varieties of tulips and replicate the most decorative of them for landscape design and green building of cities and settlements in Mangystau.
Tulips are almost never used in the gardening of Mangystau region settlements and cities. Many Dutch tulip varieties, introduced into other climatic conditions, do not fully demonstrate their decorative qualities. The conduct of studies on the assessment of varieties makes it possible to identify the most promising varieties that display their biological and decorative properties as much as possible under the new conditions of introduction. To determine the promising qualities of Tulipa hybrida hort. varieties they selected the scales most common in phytointroduction practice by V.N. Bylov, E.L. Tyshchenko and Yu.V. Timkina's method and a new regional evaluation scale of their prospects was developed on the basis of their approbation with regard of the variety belonging to a particular group.
At present, 152 varieties of tulips from 13 garden classes grow in MEBG collection of flower and ornamental plants. This paper presents the results of two-year observations of tulip varieties. Introduced tulips grow successfully in arid conditions of Mangyshlak under favorable terms, show a high decorative effect and the prospects for introduction into gardening.
Structurally developed regional scale for tulip varieties includes 11 diagnostic signs divided into three sections: biological stability; decorative and habitual properties; reproductive ability.
4 "medium", 24 "raised", 17 "highly promising" and 5 "very promising" tulip varieties were revealed after comprehensive assessment, which allow you to create decorative floral compositions of various types in the conditions of Mangystau arid zone.

Keywords: introduction, tulip varieties, complex scale, perspective, Mangystau conditions

Citation: Duisenova NI, Imanbayeva AA, Temirbaeva KZ, Belozerov IF. Introduction of perspective varieties of tulips in Mangystau for wide implementation of green construction in practice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1303-10.

Suneem oil inhibits physiological activity of Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Manal Mohamed Adel, Frantisek Sehnal, Samar Sayed Ibrahim, Nagwa Yosef Salem

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Abstract

Suneem oil (1000 ppm) was tested for their efficiency on the digestion and utilization of food against 4th and 5th instar larvae of S. littoralis (Boisd.). Larvae offered, after a period of starvation, a normal diet produced first excrements about 2 h later, whereas those receiving suneem oil only 4 h later. Analyses of the fresh and dry weight as well as of the energy contents of the treated larvae, their diets and excrements revealed that the metabolic costs were usually higher, the approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiencies of food conversion were lowered (ECD and ECI). The differences, however, were small and in some cases reversed, indicating that the processing of food stuffs that serve as a source of energy is either unaffected or only slightly affected. Suneem oil clearly suppressed the intake of nitrogen and phosphorus, suggesting that azadirachtin either hampers the hydrolysis of nutrients supplying these two elements, or impairs the resorption of hydrolysis products.

Keywords: S. littoralis, suneem oil, food consumption, utilization of food

Citation: Adel MM, Sehnal F, Ibrahim SS, Salem NY. Suneem oil inhibits physiological activity of Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1311-6.

Humus status of typical black soil under different intensity of arable land usage
A. P. Karabutov, S. I. Tyutyunov, V. D. Solovichenko

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Abstract

In the absence of perennial grasses in the structure of crop rotation and without manure usage, the humus content in the layer of 0-30 cm of typical black soil decreased by 0.19-0.33% over 25 years, and with their presence it increased by 0.10-0.61%. Mineral fertilizers, which are the main method of intensification of agriculture, contributed to the increase in humus content in the crop rotation with perennial grasses and the presence of 20% of row crops in its structure, led to a decrease in the rate of dehumification in the crop rotation with 40% of row crops and led to an increase in dehumification in the crop rotation with 60% of row and fallow in its structure. Methods of increasing humus content, such as the cultivation of perennial grasses and introduction of manure, created the preconditions for the strengthening of fulvic acid content in humus in half-meter layer of the soil and the presence of humin, however, the type of humus remained fulvic. With depth, these techniques caused a decrease in saturation of humus with nitrogen, and thus provided better conditions for humification in the layer 30-50 cm than in the layer 0-30 cm. Methods of soil treatment changed only the quantitative redistribution of humus on the soil profile, but did not affect its content and quality.

Keywords: humus, typical black soil, crop rotation, soil treatment, fertilizers

Citation: Karabutov AP, Tyutyunov SI, Solovichenko VD. Humus status of typical black soil under different intensity of arable land usage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1317-21.

Evaluation of dentin remineralization after application of bioactive glass 45S5, nano-tricalcium phosphate, and Biodentine
Farnoosh Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Atai, Sharareh Ghasemi

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Abstract

Objective: Dental caries is one of the causes of tooth loss, but it could be stopped by boosting the remineralization process. Bioactive glass 45S5, nano-tricalcium phosphate (nano-TCP), and Biodentine are mineralizing materials. This study aims to evaluate dentin remineralization after bioactive glass 45S5, nano-tricalcium phosphate, and Biodentine are applied.
Methods: Twenty-one dentinal disks (1×1×1 mm) were prepared from 21 extracted premolar teeth. SEM, and XRD tests were performed on dentin samples. The disks were kept in the demineralizing solution for five hours, and the aforementioned tests were carried out again. Then, the disks were divided into three groups (n = 7). The disks received bioactive glass 45S5, nano-TCP, or Biodentine and were covered with a photo-curable glass ionomer. The tests were performed again after 21 days.
Results: Bioactive glass 45S5 and nano-TCP remineralized the dentinal disks, but Biodentine could not.
Conclusion: Bioactive glass and nano-TCP are potentially promising materials for remineralization of tooth structure. It may aid in remineralizing the adjacent demineralized dentin, thus preventing further destruction of the tooth.

Keywords: bioactive glass, dentin, tooth remineralization

Citation: Fallahzadeh F, Atai M, Ghasemi S. Evaluation of dentin remineralization after application of bioactive glass 45S5, nano-tricalcium phosphate, and Biodentine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1323-7.

Study of the interaction of the Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalytic system with ammonia in the temperature range 293-773K
A. Brodskiy, V. Yaskevich, B. Khussain

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Abstract

The Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalytic system was studied in air and NH3 in the range of 293-773K. In the initial state, the system contains at least two forms of Fe3+ with similar values of isomeric shifts and different quadruple splittings. Iron in the system is reduced to the state of Fe2+ in the atmosphere of NH3, starting from 573К, which also exists in at least two forms. The processes occurring in the system and the nature of the detected forms of iron are discussed.

Keywords: interaction, catalytic system, ammonia, temperature range, isomeric shift, iron

Citation: Brodskiy A, Yaskevich V, Khussain B. Study of the interaction of the Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalytic system with ammonia in the temperature range 293-773K. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1329-34.

Research results to determine residual oil saturation under steam treatment of the high-viscosity oil pool
Nadezhda Rashitovna Krivova

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Abstract

The problem with the reserve development of high-viscosity oil is that the natural temperature conditions in the formation practically do not provide the necessary mobility of oil when it is filtered to the bottom hole of development wells.
Thermal recovery methods are based on reducing the viscosity of formation fluids due to their heating by the heat carriers. The mechanism of the processes occurring during the steam flooding into the bottom hole formation zone is rather complicated. The effectiveness of steam and heat treatments is determined by a number of factors.
Processes activation of the condensate capillary penetration into the pores of tight oil-saturated blocks also acquires particular importance while thermal steam treatments under conditions of a high degree reservoirs heterogeneity. 
The paper presents studies to determine the displacement efficiency of high-viscosity oil of Cenomanian sediments by thermal agents on the sand packed model of the PK1-2 formation in the Western Siberia oil field.
According to the results of the experiment, it was established that the increased content of clays in the composition of the PK1-2 reservoir formation has a significant impact on the process of the high-viscosity oil displacement by the thermal agents. High-viscosity oil displacement by a steam-water mixture is accompanied by heavy gradients pressure at relatively low filtration rates.

Keywords: Cenomanian sediments, high-viscosity oil, displacement efficiency

Citation: Krivova NR. Research results to determine residual oil saturation under steam treatment of the high-viscosity oil pool. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1335-42.

Water quality modification by land use types in watershed ecosystems of Southwestern Nigeria
I. O. Asinwa, S. O. Olajuyigbe

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Abstract

The availability of quality water from natural sources such as rivers, largely depend on the land use systems around the watershed ecosystem of the water body. Ogun River watershed has experienced serious anthropogenic activities in which have influenced the Land Use Types (LUTs) and as had implications on habitat structure and water quality. This study evaluated the effect of different land use types on the status of the water from Ogun River.
The stretch of Ogun River was stratified into three ecological zones (guinea savannah, rain forest and swamp forests). Within in zone, three land use types were identified along the river course: Natural Forest (NF), Disturbed Forest (DF) and Farm land (FL).Water samples were collected at upper, middle and lower sections of the river course adjoining each land use type once in two months for 24 months. The Turbidity, Acidity, Electrical conductivity (EC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Total Coliform and Faecal Coliform of the water samples were determined using standard procedures. The seasonal variations in the water quality variables were assessed. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Physico-chemical parameters and microbial constituents were significantly different (P>0.05) among land use types, ecological zones and between dry and rainy seasons. The Turbidity, Acidity, EC, BOD and TDS ranged from 0.69±0.07 NTU to 2.33±0.17 NTU, 0.14±0.08 mg/l to 0.44±0.04 mg/l. 135.33±0.35µs/cm to 120.15±0.12 µs/cm, 56.36±0.023 mg/ to 47.96±0.08 mg/l and 142.00±0.71 mg/l to 118.00±0.44 mg/l respectively with highest in the FL during rainy season and the lowest values during dry season in NF.
The significant differences between dry and rainy seasons show that runoff water contributes significantly to the contamination of water bodies with various sediments and higher proportion of chemical constituents. Generally, quality of water samples collected from NF was higher than those from DF and FL This inferred that vegetation plays a vital role in management of water qualities.

Keywords: anthropogenic, degradation, eutrophication, water quality

Citation: Asinwa IO, Olajuyigbe SO. Water quality modification by land use types in watershed ecosystems of Southwestern Nigeria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1343-51.

Ocular surface metastatic tumor: A case report
Mitra Akbari, Ramin Elmi

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Abstract

Purpose: Metastatic neoplasms to the ocular surface are extremely rare. Here we describe a case of initial metastasis from undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland to this area.
Methods: Case Report
Results: A 56-year-old man developed to a simultaneously limbal and parotid gland masses in his left side. He underwent an excisional biopsy of limbal mass and parotidectomy and systemic evaluation. Histopathologic examination, in multislice sections of the both limbal and parotid masses, disclosed an undifferentiated carcinoma of both sites. Further evaluation revealed no other site of involvement and metastasis. The patient underwent systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy for parotid gland tumor.
Conclusion: Distal metastasis from undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland to ocular surface is a very rare episode and to the best of our knowledge has not been previously reported. This is the first report of the manifestation of metastasis from undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland origin to the limbus. The ocular surface mass may be the initial manifestation of metastasis from this origin and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a metastatic limbal tumor.

Keywords: metastatic tumor, conjunctiva, ocular surface

Citation: Akbari M, Elmi R. Ocular surface metastatic tumor: A case report. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1353-6.

The situation of neglected dogs in the city of Tyumen using the example of the municipal detention center
J. A. Tkacheva, L. A. Glazunova, D. V. Dubrovin, Yu. V. Glazunov

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Abstract

Stray animals maintain the troubled foci of rabies, leptospirosis, demodicosis, toxoplasmosis and other zoonoses. The purpose of our research was to study the distribution of stray dogs in the city of Tyumen (in the context of administrative districts), to determine seasonal changes in the population of stray dogs and to analyze the fate of dogs caught in a municipal shelter. The work was performed during the period in the city of Tyumen and in the municipal shelter for neglected animals. During the observation period, 9623 dogs were caught from the streets of Tyumen, of which 48.75% were released back into the habitat, and 31.02% were given to new owners. Only 20.23% of captured dogs cannot be released on city streets after veterinary activities more often due to their non-curable disease or aggressiveness. Most of the stray dogs are caught in Leninsky and Central administrative districts of the city of Tyumen. The catch of animals during the year has no significant differences, so, 28.33% were caught during the autumn period, 25.57% and 24.02% of dogs during the spring and autumn respectively, and 22.08% of dogs during winter.

Keywords: dogs, stray dogs, municipal dog shelter, humane regulation of dog number

Citation: Tkacheva JA, Glazunova LA, Dubrovin DV, Glazunov YV. The situation of neglected dogs in the city of Tyumen using the example of the municipal detention center. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1357-61.

Nutritive value of meat cutlets made with horse meat and poultry by-products
Gulnara Zhumanova, Kumarbek Amirkhanov, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Irina Grigoryeva, Lubov Skripnikova, Vera Zhirova, Svetlana Zhukovskaya, Maria Babaeva

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Abstract

Meat semi-finished products, including cutlets, are rapidly growing branch of meat industry with strong consumer demand. The method of production and analysis of nutritional value of cutlet made with horse meat and poultry by-products are presented in this study. Chicken combs are used as a bio-supplement ingredient with a good source of minerals in production of protein-fat emulsion. The horse fat, wheat flour and water were replaced by protein-fat emulsion in developed cutlets. The chemical, amino acid and vitamin composition of developed cutlets are evaluated.

Keywords: chicken comb, cutlet, poultry by-products, nutrients, technology

Citation: Zhumanova G, Amirkhanov K, Okuskhanova E, Grigoryeva I, Skripnikova L, Zhirova V, et al. Nutritive value of meat cutlets made with horse meat and poultry by-products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1363-7.

Correlation between the phenotypic expression of dysfunction of the agr system and multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains
H. Berbaoui, A. Cheriti, A. Ould el Hadj-Khelil

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Abstract

This study is an exploration of the dysfunction of the agr system, expressed by the variability of expression of hemolysis on blood agar of nosocomial strains of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from hospital staff, in order to establish a correlation between the expressed phenotypes and their multidrug resistance as well as their ability to colonize biological membranes.
We obtained four distinct phenotypes after 48 hours of incubation on blood agar obtained from three phenotypes obtained after 24 h of incubation.
The polymorphism expressed is notably marked by a hemolysin deficiency represented by a rate of 64.06%. 18.18% of the strains tested expressed a delayed hemolysis while the rest of the strains expressed hemolysis after only 24 h.
The results obtained indicate that simultaneous consideration of the criteria, of the hemolysin deficiency and the reduced size of the S. aureus colonies obtained, can be used as a predictive marker of resistance to methicillin.
91.46% of the strains that showed resistance to the antibiotics tested belong to the phenotypes which expressed a simultaneous hemolysin deficiency as well as to the pigmentation capacity, these results announce a possible relationship between antibiotic resistance and suppression or alteration of the loci specific to the two criteria considered.

Keywords: hemolysin, S. aureus, resistance, nosocomial, Agr system, colonization

Citation: Berbaoui H, Cheriti A, Ould el Hadj-Khelil A. Correlation between the phenotypic expression of dysfunction of the agr system and multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1369-74.

Isolate rat heart: age features
Nafisa Ilgizovna Ziyatdinova, Anna Mihailovna Kuptsova, Alina Maratovna Galieva, Railya Irekovna Zaripova, Milyasha Ildoysovna Syngatullina, Timur Lvovich Zefirov

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Abstract

The autonomic nervous system is involved in the regulation and formation of the heart rhythm. Most experimental studies about the influence of the autonomic nervous system on heart activity in ontogenesis were carried out on a whole organism or isolated tissue. An isolated heart by Langendorff can study arrhythmia, coronary vascular function, and can also help to understand the pathophysiology of modern human diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, or ischemia / reperfusion injury. The work is devoted to the study of isolated heart operation parameters according to Langendorff in postnatal ontogenesis with different levels of adrenergic innervation development. The analysis of the results showed that the stabilization of the isolated heart rate located in a perfused solution occurs during the 16th minute on average. The minimum heart rate values were recorded among newborn animals, the maximum heart rate was detected among 21 day old rats. CP stabilization in the studied age groups was recorded at different time intervals. 7 and 21 day old rats demonstrated the stabilization during the 16th minute, and 42 - 100-day old rat demonstrated such stabilization during the 14th minute. The minimum CP values were recorded among 7 and 21 day old rats; the maximum CP indices were found in adult rats. The stabilization of the contraction force among 42 and 100 day old animals was recorded during the 16th minutes. The minimum values of LVP were recorded in adult rats, the maximum values of LVP were found among 42 day old rats.

Keywords: isolated heart, heart rate, coronary flow, sympathetic innervation of heart, rat, postnatal ontogenesis

Citation: Ziyatdinova NI, Kuptsova AM, Galieva AM, Zaripova RI, Syngatullina MI, Zefirov TL. Isolate rat heart: age features. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1375-81.

Evaluating the prevalence of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in postmenopausal women
Moslem Babouei, Mitra Farzin, Mahroo Vejdani, Arash Azadi, Ibrahim Moayedi

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Abstract

Introduction: Regarding the results from various and diverse reports on the relationship between sex hormones, especially estrogen, and the prevalence of TMD and its associated symptoms, it is quite clear that there are very contradictory and misleading results on the role of estrogen in the incidence of TMD and its associated symptoms in women before puberty, during puberty, before menopause, during and after menopause, which call for more quantitative and qualitative studies to be conducted. Therefore, we decided to conduct a study with the aim of evaluating the relationship between the presence of menopause and its absence with the prevalence of clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint problems in patients requiring prosthesis who visited the Dental Prosthetics Department of School of Dentistry of Shiraz University.
Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. In this study, 140 women aged 45-55 years were examined. Of these, 71 were postmenopausal women and 69 were non-menopausal. These subject had no history of trauma, jaw abnormalities and orthodontics. The Helkimo’s clinical index was used to measure the severity of TMJ dysfunction, and the data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests and the statistical software of SPSS.
Findings: The mean age for non-menopausal women was 46.87 and for postmenopausal women was 51.43. Among the symptoms examined, there was no significant relationship in the range of motion of mandible (P<0.187), however, the rest were significant. The most common symptom in postmenopausal women was dysfunction in TMJ function (33.3).
Discussion and Conclusion: This study showed that TMJ problems are one of the complications associated with menopause; therefore, this complication should be considered along with other problems such as joint arthritis and osteoporosis that are more prevalent during menopause phase and middle age, and appropriate dental treatments should be perform with respect to this issue.

Keywords: TMD, menopause, women, prevalence

Citation: Babouei M, Farzin M, Vejdani M, Azadi A, Moayedi I. Evaluating the prevalence of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in postmenopausal women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1383-90.

Modern state and tendencies of development of vibration separating machines structures
Valeriy V. Piven

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The vibration machines are widely used to separate the multicomponent mixtures. Such machines have a great variety of technological and structural schemes that must take into account the separated materials properties changing over wide range. The paper is aimed at analyzing and generalizing the accumulated experience of designing of the vibration machines, at developing the recommendations on their future improvement. Analytical research methods were used.
The vibration machines structures were analyzed, which are widely used in various branches of technology to separate the friable mixtures and the multiple fluids with mechanical impurities into fractions of different qualities. The vibration machines are used also to dose the friable materials, to mix, to compact and to transport them.
The technological schemes of the vibration separating machines are considered, which are applied in the building industry, the food industry, in making the drilling fluid in the oil and gas industry.
The requirements for quality of the separating technological process are analyzed. Influence of dynamic operation modes of the driving mechanisms on the process quality is considered. The methods of designing the vibration separating machines, the methods of determining the natural oscillation frequencies of parts and structural elements of the vibration machines are reviewed. The ways of static and dynamic balancing of the vibration machines parts are surveyed generally.
It is necessary to observe the operating devices’ kinematic mode in order to assure a stable separating process on the vibration machines. This factor acquires a paramount importance in the separating processes.
Vibration from the machines’ frame structures is transmitted to the separating surface, which leads to the separating quality impairment. The separating devices’ vibrational motion through the machine frames is transmitted to the building structures too. In the long run, the kinematic motion mode is characterized by a totality of the oscillating motions of the separating surface, the machine frame and the building structures.
On the basis of the analysis conducted, the conclusions about the main development areas of the technological and structural schemes of the vibration-driven separating machines are formulated. It is proposed, during the designing, to optimize the machines structures with account taken of stiffness of their frames and load-bearing foundations.

Keywords: vibration, separating machines, separating quality, dynamic characteristics, optimization, load-bearing structures

Citation: Piven VV. Modern state and tendencies of development of vibration separating machines structures. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1391-404.

Formation of the electronic database of the collection gene fund of the Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden
A. A. Imanbayeva, I. F. Belozerov

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The characteristic of a regional complex scale of determination of plants introduction value in Mangystau arid conditions is given. It is considered the special computer program “DInCeR” which except diagnostics of prospects of an introduction allows to enter various registration information on plants into the computer memory, to create lists by families and genus, to prepare the seed catalog “Index Semenium”, to select the assortment for the set bioecological, decorative, reproductive, greening and etc properties. Results of forming the collection database for 835 introduced species of native and foreign flora from 58 families and 146 genera are given. Results of forming of the collection database for 835 introduced species of native and foreign flora from 58 families and 146 genera are given.

Keywords: collection, woody plants, introduction value, scale, approbation, computer program, databases

Citation: Imanbayeva AA, Belozerov IF. Formation of the electronic database of the collection gene fund of the Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1405-12.

Water and coastal water vegetation of various types of waters in the Samarkand Region
Y. Sh. Tashpulatov, I. Kh. Khamdamov, A. A. Nurniyozov

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In the study of hydrobiology of water basins, a separate study of higher plants is required. Higher plants growing in water for aquatic organisms remain not only a habitat, a nutrient, a source of oxygen, but they are also important in the course of many biological processes in this environment. The vegetation of aquatic and coastal aquatic plants weakens the rate of flow of water, impedes the movement of silt and mineral particles, has anti-erosion significance and is used to strengthen the banks of water bodies. Among the higher aquatic and coastal aquatic plants, many species have diverse uses as a raw material for the pulp and paper, medical, perfume industries, building materials, fertilizers for the fields, food for people and pet food.

Keywords: aquatic plant, growth, formation, association, longline, herbage, flood plants, hydrophyte

Citation: Tashpulatov YS, Khamdamov IK, Nurniyozov AA. Water and coastal water vegetation of various types of waters in the Samarkand Region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1413-7.

Analysis of changes in the gastrointestinal mictoflora in normal and abnormal state and identification of individual strains of possible inflammatory disease agents
Bukuru Lyse Christa, Alsu Rus. Gizdataullina, Elena E. Zinurova, Tatyana V. Bagaeva

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The total content of anaerobic bacteria in the stool samples was determined in normal conditions and in inflammatory diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease). An increase in the total number of microorganisms in the inflammatory process has been established. The number of cells in the stool samples of patients with ulcerative colitis increased 1.2-1.4 times, and in Crohn’s disease - 1.7-1.9 times compared with the norm and amounted to 7.1 ± 2.1•10 10 CFU/g and 11.0 ± 2.8 •10 10 CFU/g respectively. Using mass spectrometric analysis with a Bruker Daltonik MALDI Biotyper mass spectrometer, a significant increase in the number of E. coli bacteria and other Escherichia bacteria was shown. An actively growing bacterial strain, identified by analysis of the 16 S rRNA nucleotide sequences as species Escherichia fergusonii G2, was isolated from stool samples from patients with Crohn’s disease.

Keywords: microorganisms, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), inflammatory diseases

Citation: Christa BL, Gizdataullina AR, Zinurova EE, Bagaeva TV. Analysis of changes in the gastrointestinal mictoflora in normal and abnormal state and identification of individual strains of possible inflammatory disease agents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1419-22.

Evaluation of volumetric changes of maxillary sinus after Lefort I osteotomy of maxilla in orthognathic patients based on spiral CT-scan
Hamidreza Arabiun, Arash Azadi, Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar, Moslem Babouei, Anita Kargarfard, Mohammad Mahdi Farahmand, Mehdi Changizi

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Introduction: The maxillary sinuses are the largest paranasal sinuses in the vicinity of the teeth. The aim of this study is to better understand the status of the maxillary sinus before and after LeFort I surgery.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the spiral CT scan images of 22 patients with Lefort I osteotomy and maxillary impaction were evaluated. The volume of maxillary sinuses was measured before and after surgery by spiral CT scan. Calculation and measurement of the maxillary sinus volume was done using Siemens medical solution and Somatom emotion 16 multi-slice spiral CT scanner. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. Independent and paired t-tests and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. The level of significance was considered as 0.05.
Results: This study was conducted on 22 patients aged 18 to 34 years with an average age of 22.5 ± 4.2 years.
Of these patients, 8 (36.4%) were male and 14 (63.6%) were female. The results showed that the maxillary sinus volume on both the left and the right sides has changed after impaction compared to pre-impaction, and this difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Also, the maxillary sinus volume in both the right and the left sides in men was greater than women, and this difference is statistically significant (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the volume of maxillary sinuses after surgery has increased compared to that of the pre-surgery. The volume of maxillary sinus in men is also greater than women.

Keywords: maxillary sinus, orthognathic, CT scan, maxillary impaction

Citation: Arabiun H, Azadi A, Haghnegahdar A, Babouei M, Kargarfard A, Farahmand MM, et al. Evaluation of volumetric changes of maxillary sinus after Lefort I osteotomy of maxilla in orthognathic patients based on spiral CT-scan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1423-6.

Biologization – strategic basis of the agriculture in the central black soil region of the Russian Federation
A. P. Karabutov, S. I. Tyutyunov, V. D. Solovichenko

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On the basis of long-term studies, the importance of methods of biologization and intensification of agriculture in increasing soil fertility, resource conservation and increasing the productivity of crop rotations in the CBSR is justified.
Five rotations of crop rotations grain fallow row crop rotation showed the highest productivity with 60% row crops in the structure, the lowest – grain grass row with 20% of the row crops, grain row with 40% row crops occupied an intermediate position. Mineral fertilizers (66%) and manure (19%) have the main share of influence on the productivity of crops, and the maximum productivity is formed with their joint application, it is higher when the dose of their application is also higher. The productivity of crop rotations decreases with a decrease in the intensity of mechanical soil treatment.
Crop rotation (63%) and manure (28%) had a dominant influence on the humus content in the soil. Saturation of crop rotation with row crops reduces the content of organic matter in the soil. Grain grass row crop rotation increased the content of humus in comparison with grain fallow row crop rotation by 0.42% absolute values. Manure increases the humus content as more intense as higher its dose is. Mineral fertilizers help to increase the content of humus in the grain grass row crop rotation, reduce the rate of dehumification in the grain row and increase the dehumification in the grain fallow row. However, the joint application of NPK with manure contributes to the increase of humus content.
The indicator of clean energy yield, which takes into account not only its production with the main and by-products, but also with organic residues and accumulation of organic matter in the soil, was maximal in the crop rotation with perennial grasses and minimal in the grain row crop rotation. More intensive moldboard soil treatment increases the energy consumption, but compensates it with the increase of the crop yield and vice versa. Fertilizers increase the energy efficiency of crop cultivation. The maximum efficiency coefficient was observed in the joint application of mineral fertilizers N42-62P62K62 and 16 t/ha of manure in crop rotations.

Keywords: biologization, productivity, fertility, crop rotations, soil treatment, fertilizers, bio-energetic efficiency

Citation: Karabutov AP, Tyutyunov SI, Solovichenko VD. Biologization – strategic basis of the agriculture in the central black soil region of the Russian Federation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1427-32.

Assessment of the hydro-geochemical situation in Alga region (Aktobe, Kazakhstan) based on component analysis
Liudmila Pavlichenko, Aina Rysmagambetova, Ainur Tanybayeva

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The article attempts to realize the informational capabilities of the multidimensional component analysis model, one of the purposes of which is to form hypotheses to test numerous hypotheses put forward to identify the sources and pathways of boron element entering into the underground and surface water of the Ilek River valley. Nowadays, the relevance of this problem is being stimulated by the development of the pollution process - a manifestation of the impact on the river of those sources that were not previously recorded in the state monitoring of the quality of the surface waters of this river. As a result of processing the monitoring data for different periods of time, the processes of formation of the chemical composition of groundwater of the Ilek River valley were revealed, which confirmed the presence of various sources of contamination with their boron, in addition, temporal and spatial aspects of the intensity of these processes were established.

Keywords: surface water, groundwater, boron pollution, quality monitoring of water, multidimensional component analysis

Citation: Pavlichenko L, Rysmagambetova A, Tanybayeva A. Assessment of the hydro-geochemical situation in Alga region (Aktobe, Kazakhstan) based on component analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1433-45.

The conventions of land owners of Kazan Province as a form of state-public partnership
Gulshat Mudarisovna Mustafina, Anton Vladimirovich Yermoshin, Dilyara Ramilevna Farkhutdinova

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Abstract

The article considers such a form of State-public partnership as the Conventions of Land Owners (using two Conventions as an example in Kazan Province in 1882 and 1893). The authors proceed from the fact that in the Russian realities of post-reform period, large-scale measures to overcome the stagnation in the economic development of the country and, above all, the intensification of agriculture were possible only with the support of the state authorities. Involvement in government projects of various sectors of society was carried out through the Zemstvo organizations that arose during the Great Reforms, as well as through Economic Associations. It was the Kazan Economic Association that the two Conventions of Land Owners were held, which examined a wide range of urgent measures in the field of agriculture and agricultural education.
The authors conclude that these events reflect the level of interaction of power and public structures, not without a certain inertia and shortcomings in the organization of work and the practical application of the decisions made.
The materials of the article can be claimed in the study of domestic politics, the history of state-public relations and social institutions, the regional history of the Russian province, in particular, the history of Tatarstan.

Keywords: conventions of land owners, post-reform Russia, Kazan Province, Ministry of State Property, Kazan Economic Association

Citation: Mustafina GM, Yermoshin AV, Farkhutdinova DR. The conventions of land owners of Kazan Province as a form of state-public partnership. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1447-51.

Application of new nano pesticide Geranium oil loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles for control the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hub.) (Lepi., Noctuidae)
Manal M. Adel, Nagwa Y. Salem, Nahid F. Abdel-Aziz, Samar S. Ibrahim

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Abstract

A new delivery system was used to control the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hub.) (Lepi., Noctuidae) based on incorporation of geranium essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in a controlled-release formulation using ultrasonic solvent emulsification technique. The morphology of geranium oil nanoparticles after loading (GO-SLNs) was characterized and visualized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abundance and percentage content of major components did not show any significant difference between free and nano-encapsulated oil when analyzed by (GC-MS). The results of geranium essential oil bulk form were compared with that of oil post loading solid nanoparticles and tested in the laboratory and field for their efficiency on larval development, pupal mortality and adult longevity. Laboratory bioassay indicated that (GO-SLNs) was more effective on both larval and pupal development as well as the adult longevity and female fecundity accordingly the percentage of hatchability. Field-laboratory experiments were conducted to show direct and residual effects of the tested oil free and post loading using two concentrations (5.0 and 2.5%), in terms of speed of mortality, toxicity and stability. (GO-SLNs) was more stable under field conditions and gave a high percentage of mortality at the two concentrations used.

Keywords: Geranium oil, nanoparticles, Agrotis ipsilon, pest management

Citation: Adel MM, Salem NY, Abdel-Aziz NF, Ibrahim SS. Application of new nano pesticide Geranium oil loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles for control the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hub.) (Lepi., Noctuidae). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1453-61.

Structural and semantic features of multicomponent terms in the field of biotechnology
Alsu Zakievna Gainutdinova, Anna Danifovna Mukhtarova

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This work is devoted to a comprehensive study of structural and semantic features of multicomponent terms (hereinafter MCT) in the English sublanguage of biotechnology. This sublanguage or language for special purposes began its formation relatively recently and includes the vocabulary of such subject areas as bionics, biopharmacology, nanomedicine, cloning and others. Studying features of MCTs most linguists reveal that multicomponent terms are so prevalent in the technology sector primarily at the expense of their integrity. The analysis of three-, four-, five- and six- component terms of biotechnologies sublanguage revealed the predominance of three-component terms with a tendency to increase the number of components in the term due to the constant complication of the conceptual field. Such a process is caused by the desire for the accuracy of meaning expression, since it is known that with the increase in the number of components in the MCT, the degree of its polysemy decreases, which is important in the presence of a rapidly growing number of terms in this sphere.

Keywords:

Citation: Gainutdinova AZ, Mukhtarova AD. Structural and semantic features of multicomponent terms in the field of biotechnology. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1463-6.

Potential of biological treatments for control of bacterial canker of tomato incited by Clavibacter michiganensis spp michiganensis in Morocco
Meryama Moustaine, Rahal El Kahkahi, Abdellatif Benbouazza, Rachid Benkirane, El Hassan Achbani

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The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis (Cmm), causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato producing regions. Three rhizobacteria strains Bacillus cereus, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia proteamaculans were screened for antagonistic activity against for Cmm of tomato in Morocco. The largest inhibition zones strain Cmm was most inhibited by Pantoea agglomerans with mean inhibition zone diameters of up to 22mm. All bacteria-based treatments were found to be more effective in suppressing the disease in cropping season. The results showed that Pantoea agglomerans reduced 70% of the onset of disease symptoms, Serratia proteamaculans 45% and Bacillus cereus 75%. Significant variations in reduction of disease incidence, enhancement in plant growth and yield were observed in tomato plants treated with these PGPR strains as compared to the control.

Keywords: Clavibacter michiganensis, rhizobacteria, antagonistic, tomato

Citation: Moustaine M, El Kahkahi R, Benbouazza A, Benkirane R, Achbani EH. Potential of biological treatments for control of bacterial canker of tomato incited by Clavibacter michiganensis spp michiganensis in Morocco. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1481-8.

Role of Beauveria tenella (Del) Siem BD-85 in the control of the populations of termites from the genus Anacanthotermes Jacobson
Ikram Abdullaev, Manzura Doschanova, Fakhriddin Abdikarimov, Abdulla Iskandarov

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The distribution and infestations of termites were investigated in historic town of city Khiva Aral Sea Basin in Central Asia (historic town of Khiva, now a UNESCO cultural heritage site). We investiated The fungus Beauveria tenella (Delacrox) Siemaschko was investigated as a microbial control agent against an insect pest species, the Anacanthotermes turkestanicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). B. tenella was found to cause 100% mortality of A. turkestanicus in 7 days as a wet preparation and 8 days as a dry preparation. The yield of viable fungal biomaterial was not significantly reduced when B. tenella was incubated for 15-20 days. It was established that the most effective method of the collection of fungus was its growth on PDA with the use of cellophane as a porous film, which enabled the exchange of nutrients from the agar surface and prevented growth of the fungus. After drying it is possible to obtain up to 20.7 % of the dry preparation from the crude biomass of the fungus. The tests showed that the biological effectiveness of propagules of B. tenella in experimental nests was 79.2, 78.5 and 96.5% at concentration of 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 g per nest respectively.

Keywords: Beauveria tenella entomopathogenic, сellophane, baits, mycobiota

Citation: Abdullaev I, Doschanova M, Abdikarimov F, Iskandarov A. Role of Beauveria tenella (Del) Siem BD-85 in the control of the populations of termites from the genus Anacanthotermes Jacobson. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1501-7.

Biosynthesis of cellulase with Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus awamori micromycetes in co-cultivation
Zhaksylyk Makhatov, Bakhytzhan Kedelbayev, Peter Lieberzeit, Madina Dzhakashyeva, Zhanar Elemanova, Roza Abildayeva, Rustem Altynbekov, Usen Akhanov, Bibigul Doltayeva, Azhar Omirbayeva, Zakhro Akhmedova

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Abstract

In this article the influence of co-cultivation of the micromycetes strains Tr. viride 121 and A. awamori F-RKM 0719 and on the biosynthesis of the cellulose complex enzymes released by them into the medium with a deep cultivation method. The choice of these microorganisms for the creation of micromycetes consortium is due to their biochemical and morphological characteristics: Tr. viride 121 is a highly active producer of cellulase, xylanases; A. awamori F-RKM 0719 is a highly active producer of a pectolytic enzymes complex as well as celluloses and β-gluconases. The dynamics of enzymes biosynthesis and the growth rate under conditions of co-cultivation is studied. The obtained data testify to the existence of an inverse relationship between the rate of cellulase synthesis and the growth rate of the studied micromycetes consortium cells. Activation of the enzyme synthesis complex was noted when a suspension of methylcellulose was injected into the medium and A.awamori strain F-RKM 0719 was seeded at the end of the exponential growth phase of strain Tr. viride 121. The advantage of mycelial mixed cultures deep cultivation microorganisms experimentally established, which provides an increase in the productivity of strains in 1.5-3.2 times due to more effective utilization of substrates and synergism of hydrolytic enzymes. In addition, the pH and thermostability of cellulolytic enzymes studied in the joint cultivation of microscopic fungi. The results of experiments indicate the stability of cellulases in the pH range of 4.0-5.0 at a temperature of 30-60°C which allows increasing the efficiency of processing plant material biotechnological processes. Preparation of a complete cellulase complex by co-culturing Tr. viride 121 and A. awamori F-RKM 0719 is more economically attractive for deep processing of plant raw materials.

Keywords: biosynthesis, mycelial fungus, cellulolytic enzymes, glucose, polysaccharides, cultivation, consortium

Citation: Makhatov Z, Kedelbayev B, Lieberzeit P, Dzhakashyeva M, Elemanova Z, Abildayeva R, et al. Biosynthesis of cellulase with Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus awamori micromycetes in co-cultivation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1521-6.

Momordica charantia induces structural and functional changes in the stomach of male wistar rats
Tolulope Oluyemisi Oyesola, Anuoluwapo Adenike Adegboye, Olusoji Adebusoye Oyesola, Boone Ibiyinka Kukoyi

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Abstract

Background: Medicinal plants are important as therapeutic and essential agents in health care programs, especially in developing countries. Momordica charantia known otherwise as bitter melon and also often described as food of medicine, is a herb with multiple medicinal uses. Momordica charantia has been known for a wide range of use in the treatment of various diseases as well as for preventive purposes but few studies have been reported on the stomach responsiveness to its administration The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous leaf of Momordica charantia on the integrity of the stomach by evaluating the effect on mucus concentration, acid secretion in the stomach, antioxidant enzymes activity and histomorphological changes.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen male rats weighing between 150 to 200g were placed into 3 groups of 6 rats each. Control group received water, and treated groups were given oral doses of 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the aqueous leaf extract of Momordica charantia for 30 days.
Results: There was a significant decrease in the gastric acid secretion, mucus concentration and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the two administered doses when compared with the control. From the histomorphological changes observed, there was an increase in mucosal degeneration and decrease in mucosa thickness.
Conclusion: A prolonged administration of aqueous leaf extract of Momordica charantia to rats induced gastric mucosal damage which could be related to decreased mucus concentration and acid production in the stomach via distortion caused to the cellular integrity of the gastric mucosa as well as reduced antioxidative enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, gastric acid, gastric mucus, histomorphological changes, Momordica charantia

Citation: Oyesola TO, Adegboye AA, Oyesola OA, Kukoyi BI. Momordica charantia induces structural and functional changes in the stomach of male wistar rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1541-7.

Lead phyto-toxicity induced by accumulation and uptake potentially inhibits morpho-physiological depression and alterations in an aquatic model plant, Eichhornia crassipes
R. K. Upadhyay, Philip Pame

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Abstract

We concentrated on elucidating the potential of the most widely grown aquatic model plant, Eichhornia crassipes, to remove lead (Pb), one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants. Plant biomass content as well as various morpho-physiological parameters, such as leaf area, relative water content, proline level, and relative growth rates, was determined upon Pb - treatments. Data from atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed an increase in Pb within root and leaf tissues, and Pb nitrate showed higher concentrations than Pb acetate in the plants. An observed trend toward increased cysteine content may lead to an increase in the bioavailability of Pb. Additionally, significant variations in pigment contents were observed along with an increase in lipid peroxidation. Accumulation and uptake, were both dependent on dose and duration in these potentially Pb absorbent plants. The concentration efficiency noticeably increased as a result of increases in the length as well the dose of treatment. Water hyacinth, via root uptake and accumulation mechanisms that influenced morphological and physiological adaptations, was found to be effective in reducing the concentrations of lead in both the acetate and nitrate forms.

Keywords: lead, lipid peroxidation, Eichhornia crassipes, accumulation, macrophyte, translocation factor, pigments, heavy metals

Citation: Upadhyay RK, Pame P. Lead phyto-toxicity induced by accumulation and uptake potentially inhibits morpho-physiological depression and alterations in an aquatic model plant, Eichhornia crassipes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1565-73.

Ex-situ characterization of fungi associated with Luffa aegyptiaca in Lagos State
Emmanuel Ani, Adedotun Adekunle, Chiamaka Ike, Lilian Nwafor

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Abstract

Background: Little attention has been paid to characterizing and documenting the mycoflora associated with plant of Nigerian origin. This study aims at characterizing fungi species associated with Luffa aegyptiaca in Lagos State using morphological and molecular methods.
Materials and Methods: Fungi were isolated from the phylloplane, rhizoplane, rhizosphere and distant soil (10m from the root) of L. aegyptiaca collected randomly from the twenty Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos State twice a year for three years and identified using morphological, microscopic and molecular characterization.
Results: Twenty fungal species including Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium solani, Penicillium citrinum, P. samsonii, Talaromyces marneffei, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were identified. From the result, species diversity is highest in the rhizosphere compared to other parts of the plant including the bulk soil. However, species abundant was highest in bulk soil for most of the sampled locations.
Conclusion: Fungi diversity within the rhizosphere of L. aegyptiaca plays major role in the survival and growth of the plant in polluted environment.

Keywords: Luffa aegyptiaca, fungi, characterization, phylloplane, rhizosphere

Citation: Ani E, Adekunle A, Ike C, Nwafor L. Ex-situ characterization of fungi associated with Luffa aegyptiaca in Lagos State. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1589-6.

Effect of brine and electrical stimulation on nutritive value of the cooked smoked mutton products
Ainara Iskineyeva, Ayaulym Mustafayeva, Mukhtarbek Kakimov, Nurbibi Mashanova, Serik Tokayev, Aleksandr Sviderskyi, Ainura Zhakupova

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Abstract

In this study the mechanical and electrical treatment of mutton with injecting multicomponent brine is used in order to improve the technological characteristics of mutton and the consumer properties of cooked smoked mutton products. The test samples had better organoleptic indicators and a greater yield of the product by (4.5-5.0)%. The chemical composition of the salty products from mutton is richer, which is explained by the introduction of protein-fat emulsion into the brine. The total amount of unsaturated acids is (16-18)% more than in the control ones. It should be noted that in the control samples of linoleic and linolenic acids were in insignificant quantities, and the content of arachidonic acid was up to 0.1%, and in the experimental batches their number reached 4.7%, 2.7% and 1.9%, which should favorably affect the prevention of diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, liver disease, gallstone disease.

Keywords: mutton, electrical simulation, brine, nutritive value, ham, fatty acids

Citation: Iskineyeva A, Mustafayeva A, Kakimov M, Mashanova N, Tokayev S, Sviderskyi A, et al. Effect of brine and electrical stimulation on nutritive value of the cooked smoked mutton products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1467-3.

Ecological relationships in real and virtual environments: contact points
Elena S. Putilina, Elena I. Cherdymova, Rashad A. Kurbanov, Asiya M. Belyalova, Irina I. Shatskaya, Ekaterina I. Kobzeva, Marina V. Zhuravleva, Georgy S. Meleshko

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Abstract

The article investigates the issues of the person ecological attitude to natural objects on the example of Pets; the reality developing in the process of mutual influence and the person’s interaction with the real and virtual pet is analyzed. The aim of the study is to analyze the features of the relationship and perception of real and virtual animals by modern man, to identify how in the modern world people relate to real and virtual animals. The leading method for the study of this problem is the questionnaire method, which allows to highlight the features of human interaction with real and virtual animals, and to establish the role of real and virtual Pets in the life of modern man. The article analyzes the changes in attitudes to Pets in connection with a specific cultural and historical situation, reflecting the different forms and types of attitudes to Pets. Intensity is considered as a parameter of a person’s ecological attitude to nature. The value of a pet for its owner is revealed. The relation of the modern person to real and virtual Pets is shown. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the analysis revealed the presence of views’ development on the behavior of animals, depending on the cultural and historical era. It is shown that the images of animals in human perception are social constructs. It is established that people really consider their pet a full member of the family, only a few believe that the animal cannot be considered as such. It is shown that half of the respondents have a pet for the soul and mood, which confirms the version that Pets, as a companion and friend, help to cope with life’s adversity and to feel good. Both the real and the virtual animal is perceived as an assistant in improving mood and wellbeing. It is established that the love of real Pets from their owners began to spread to the Internet. Respondents spread photos of their Pets not only on their pages in social networks, but also have such pages for their animals. Moreover, the survey participants themselves make their Pets’ memes, actively post videos with them in video hosting. It is revealed that pet owners almost every day read various articles on the Internet or watch videos with animals’ participation. The data obtained in this work can be used in environmental psychology, zoo psychology, age psychology, social psychology, pedagogy, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: real environment, virtual environment, real and virtual animals, environmental attitude, environmental practices

Citation: Putilina ES, Cherdymova EI, Kurbanov RA, Belyalova AM, Shatskaya II, Kobzeva EI, et al. Ecological relationships in real and virtual environments: contact points. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1475-80.

Comparative study of amino acid composition of raw and dry camel milk and shubat (Camelus dromedaries)
Nurbek Aralbayev, Fatima Dikhanbayeva, Assiya Serikbayeva, Yus Aniza Yusof, Yanty Noorzianna Abdul Manaf

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This article focuses on the comparative study of quantitative and qualitative content of amino acids of raw and dry camel milk and shubat. Dry samples of camel milk and shubat were obtained by freeze drying. The amino acid composition of the samples is determined by HPLC.
After drying camel milk and shubat, a significant change in the quantitative content of amino acids was observed. In dry camel milk and shubat, a low content of hydroxyproline is observed (0.91 ± 0.06 ng and 0.73 ± 0.06 ng). A relatively low cysteine content was also observed in dry shubat (1.71 ± 0.07 ng). After moisture removal, the percentage of phenylalanine increases slightly in camel milk and in shubat (4.94 ± 0.22%, 4.87 ± 0.12%, respectively). Powdered camel milk and shubat is characterized by a high content of branched-chain amino acids: valine (16.94 ± 0.47 ng and 22.88 ± 0.40 ng), isoleucine (16.79 ± 0.84 ng and 22.82 ± 0.55 ng) and leucine (25.08 ± 0.55 ng and 33.47 ± 0.60 ng).

Keywords: camel milk, shubat, camel milk powder, shubat powder, freeze drying, HPLC, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids

Citation: Aralbayev N, Dikhanbayeva F, Serikbayeva A, Yusof YA, Abdul Manaf YN. Comparative study of amino acid composition of raw and dry camel milk and shubat (Camelus dromedaries). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1489-3.

Development of commercial ecological tourism in the regions of the Russian Federation
Olga Y. Ermolovskaya, Raisa V. Kamaina, Olga A. Kosareva, Natalia Y. Kurganova, Galina N. Chernuhina

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The article discusses various aspects of the impact of regional tourist flows on the environmental status of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the study is due, on the one hand, to significant slowdowns in the development of the tourism industry in the Russian Federation and, as a result, to a decrease in the volume of financial revenues to budgets of various levels, and, on the other hand, to a widespread deterioration of the state of the environment due to increased pollution and a low level of ecological culture of the population. The purpose of the article is to determine and theoretically substantiate the problem of the inconsistency of the active receipt of funds from tourist flows in the regions and the negative impact of tourism on the environment in the Russian Federation and its regions. The authors have developed directions and solutions to this contradiction through the use of an alternative direction for the development of the tourism industry - ecological tourism. This type of tourism is based on the desire to minimize changes in the natural environment.

Keywords: ecological and tourism potential, commercial ecological tourism, natural balance, national parks, regional multiplier effect, ecological tours, environmental protection

Citation: Ermolovskaya OY, Kamaina RV, Kosareva OA, Kurganova NY, Chernuhina GN. Development of commercial ecological tourism in the regions of the Russian Federation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1495-00.

Bacterial pathogens from cave-dwelling bats that are a risk to human, animal and environmental health on Lombok Island, Indonesia
Kholik, Alfiana Laili Dwi Agustin, Candra Dwi Atma, Muhammad Munawaroh, Novarina Sulsia Ista’In Ningtyas, Agung Prasetyo Legowo, Mohammad Sukmanadi

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The aims of this study are to identify bacterial pathogens in cave-dwelling bats that are a risk to an animal, human and environmental health on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Descriptive studies were carried out in three bat caves in Lombok Island from January to March 2017. The 20 bats captured were identified as Hipposederos bicolor (n=3), Eonycteris speleae (n=12), and Taphozous achates (n=5). The samples were taken from the anal opening of live bats. Then it were dipped in sterile BHI, were incubated over the night, and then were inoculated in Blood Agar and McConkey agar under aerobic conditions. The colonies were purified and characterized by gram staining and biochemical methods. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria isolated were determined by standard biochemical procedures using Bergeyʼs Manual. The result of this study showed that four bacterial pathogens, including Proteus vulgaris, E. coli, Salmonella spp, and Klebsiella ozaenae were identified from the anal swabs of 20 cave-dwelling batson Lombok Island, Indonesia. These results suggest that cave-dwelling bats can transmit bacterial pathogens among cave-dwelling bats and human population on Lombok Island because of their feeding habit, long-distance travel, and aggregation colonies. So, this is a one health approach is needed to combat this problem.

Keywords: bacterial pathogens, cave-dwelling bats, healthy, Lombok Island

Citation: Kholik, Agustin ALD, Atma CD, Munawaroh M, Ningtyas NSI, Legowo AP, et al. Bacterial pathogens from cave-dwelling bats that are a risk to human, animal and environmental health on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1509-13.

Problems of compliance with environmental requirements for the fish cage rearing organization
Alexander V. Gorbunov, Larisa I. Bychkova, Andrey K. Ponomarev, Oksana S. Prantsuz, Alexey N. Zhavnerov, Anna A. Larionova, Natalia A. Zaitseva

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Industrial aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food sectors. At the same time, feed, fish production and waste and energy are the main components that have a negative environmental impact. Preventing or reducing the negative impact of industrial fish-breeding can only be achieved by using production systems with minimal impact on the environment, which leads to the relevance of the research. The purpose of this article is to summarize the organization of cage fish, particularly carp that contribute to ecological sustainability of this aquaculture sector. We implemented the research of theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of organization of commercial carp production in cages, in order to reduce eutrophication of reservoirs we presented feeding conditions for fish at different stages of the life cycle. The advantages and disadvantages of growing carps in cages are systematized. The authors showed that the cultivation of fish in cages solves the problem of compliance with environmental requirements, as it provides opportunities to reduce water use and improve waste management and nutrient processing, i.e., makes intensive fish production compatible with environmental sustainability. Article materials will be useful for producers and potential investors, environmentalists, as well as other participants in the Russian market of industrial aquaculture.

Keywords: aquaculture, carp, environmental problems, cages, eutrophication, feed

Citation: Gorbunov AV, Bychkova LI, Ponomarev AK, Prantsuz OS, Zhavnerov AN, Larionova AA, et al. Problems of compliance with environmental requirements for the fish cage rearing organization. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1515-20.

Effect of different fertilizers on nutrient regime of rice-marsh soil and productivity of rice
G. O. Beisenova, R. Ye. Eleshev, T. K. Vassilina, A. M. Shibikeeva, G. K. Vassilina

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The article presents the results of the research works conducted in 2016-2017 on the flooded soils of the farm “Serik” in Akdala irrigation area in the system of six-field rice-alfalfa crop rotation in its second rotation in the south-east of Kazakhstan. The effect of fertilizers on soil nutrient regime and productivity of Regul rice variety has been determined. A comparative study of the recommended norms of mineral and various types of organic fertilizers used for rice showed that the total positive effect from the use of organic-mineral fertilizers is higher than the sum of the effects from the use of organic and mineral fertilizers separately. In our experiments, the combined use of mineral and organic fertilizers (cow dung, 10t + N60P45 K22,5) provides the greatest yield - 48.7 q ha-1, which is 15.7 q ha-1 higher than the control treatment (without fertilizers).

Keywords: cow dung, mineral fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, rice, soil, yield

Citation: Beisenova GO, Eleshev RY, Vassilina TK, Shibikeeva AM, Vassilina GK. Effect of different fertilizers on nutrient regime of rice-marsh soil and productivity of rice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1527-34.

Internet space ecology: new communication practices
Lyudmila P. Illarionova, Rashad A. Kurbanov, Ramin A. Gurbanov, Asiya M. Belyalova, Yuliya N. Kashevarova, Sergey V. Illarionov, Stanislav E. Martynenko, Olga V. Zinnurova

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The article describes the ecological approach in the study of communication as an integral part of every person’s life, the formats of which, at present, are fundamentally tied to the technological level, regardless of whether it is interpersonal communication or mass. The aim of the study is to analyze the ecology of the Internet space by studying the features of communication in social networks. The main method to the study of this problem is the method of free interviewing using guide, which outlines the topic, ordered in a logical sequence that facilitates the efficient identification of features of communicative practices in media space. The article considers theoretical approaches to the analysis of communicative processes in the conditions of digital mediatization; the formats of new communicative practices in the Internet environment affecting its ecology are analyzed. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the media space is considered from the point of view of the ecological approach, perceived as a global habitat that permeates all spheres of human activity. Directions of behavior of network communication’s users are revealed: distrust of communicants to the second party of communication, in advance taking into account probable insincerity of the interlocutor or audience. It is established that the ability to be fully confident in the interest of the second party, is argued by the inability to perceive the second reaction. It is determined that these disturbances are not removed by technical achievements in the field of sound and video transmission. It is established that informants are willing to hide their true attitude to the second side of communication, to the message and to the feedback to create a positive impression about themselves. It is determined that the concealment of their emotions and opinions is normal for informants. This trend applies to both interpersonal communication and mass format (personal page, broadcasting to the audience, etc.). Devaluation of a virtual image is considered (any reaction or behavior of the person is subject to doubt on a question of sincerity. It is established that informants tend not to perceive a positive image of a person, his/her popularity in the network and the information of mass character displayed by him/her regardless of reliability. It is revealed that informants tend to separate the real person and his/her image in the network as two separate personalities. The data obtained in the work can be used in environmental psychology, communication psychology, labor psychology, age psychology, social psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology of Internet space, communication practices, social networks

Citation: Illarionova LP, Kurbanov RA, Gurbanov RA, Belyalova AM, Kashevarova YN, Illarionov SV, et al. Internet space ecology: new communication practices. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1535-40.

Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits
Soolmaz Ahmadian, Sttar Tahmasbi Enferadi, Abbas Alemzadeh, Hooman Razi, Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini

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Abstract

Sunflower wild populations contain useful genes that can be used to the breeding of crop cultivars. In the present study, the genetic variation of 107 wild accessions of Helianthus annuus L. species was studied for seed traits (seed length, seed diameter and 1000-grain weight), seed oil content and fatty acid composition based on continents. Gas chromatography was used to identify the fatty acid composition of the oil. The distribution of populations in continents are as follows: The Europe continent with 65 populations and South America with 7 populations had the highest and lowest populations, respectively. On the other hand, the continents of Asia, Africa and North America had 14, 9 and 12 populations, respectively. The results showed that the highest amount of seed oil belonged Asia and north America, respectively. The results of mean comparison among the continents in terms of PALM showed that the collected populations from South America had the highest amount of this fatty acid. On the other hand, the populations collected from North America and Asia had the lowest amount of PALM, respectively. The study of the continents in terms of OLE indicated that the populations collected from the African continent had the highest levels of this fatty acid, followed by Europe continent and South America in the next rank. As study showed, the collected populations of the continents of Asia and North America accounted for the largest amounts of LIN, while the Africa continent had the lowest amount of LIN. The results of correlation analysis between seed traits and oil percentages using Pearson coefficient indicated that there was not a significant correlation between the seed characteristics (seed length, seed diameter and 1000-grain weight) with oil percentage. While, there was a positive and significant correlation between seed traits, which showed the highest correlation between seed length and seed diameter.  As analysis showed, there were no significant differences among the continents in terms of seed length and seed diameter. On the other hand, the continents with 1000- seed weight had a significant difference at the probability level of 5%. Mean Comparison of different continents in terms of 1000-seed weight trait showed that the populations in Asia continent had an average of 1.70 g which was the highest in comparison with other continents. On the other hand, the South American populations with 0.78 grams had the least amount of 1000- seed weight The findings of this study showed that there is a significant genetic variation among the studied populations based on continents, which can be used in crossings programs and to maximizing the heterosis.

Keywords: gas chromatography, seed traits, fatty acids, oil content, sunflower, wild populations, continents

Citation: Ahmadian S, Enferadi ST, Alemzadeh A, Razi H, Kazemeini SA. Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1549-58.

Everyday life ecology: accessible environment for students with limited mobility
Elena A. Petrovicheva, Natalya A. Galchenko, Vitaly V. Tomin, Andrei L. Tretyakov, Tatyana B. Lisitzina, Sergey N. Rozhnov, Sergey V. Vorobiev

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The aim of the study is to analyze the features of the available environmental and architectural conditions for the life activity of the analyzed social community, allowing students with disabilities to be more independent in terms of learning, movement in space, visiting various institutions, work, and organization of life. The article analyzes the concept of accessible environment as an ecology component of disabled students’ everyday life, the level of accessibility for students with disabilities for priority facilities and services in priority areas of life (culture, social protection, physical culture and sports, education, labor and employment, health care, information and communication, transport), the level of disabled students’ satisfaction with rehabilitation services (rehabilitation courses in rehabilitation institutions, provision of technical means of rehabilitation, provision of consulting assistance on rehabilitation issues), provided within the framework of the State program. The study found that students with hearing disabilities assess the availability of a number of institutions lower than the average of all respondents with disabilities. It is determined that students with visual disabilities more often than people with other disabilities have trouble when visiting medical institutions, supermarkets and shops, social protection institutions. The study also revealed that respondents with impaired functions of the musculoskeletal system, including wheelchair students, highly appreciate the availability of authorities and public institutions. The study found that the least urban ground electric transport is available for students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is revealed that more than half of students noted the fact of existence of educational and upbringing work in the region with citizens on problems of students with disabilities; students with visual disabilities and students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system, including wheelchair students gave the highest rating, students with mental health disorders and students with General diseases gave the lowest rating to it.

Keywords: ecology of everyday life, accessible environment, student youth, social protection, disabled students, and students with disabilities

Citation: Petrovicheva EA, Galchenko NA, Tomin VV, Tretyakov AL, Lisitzina TB, Rozhnov SN, et al. Everyday life ecology: accessible environment for students with limited mobility. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1559-64.

Structural model of anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides) and red chili production in five production centers in East Java, Indonesia
Djuhari Djuhari, Catur Retnaningdyah, Bagyo Yanuawiadi, Endang Arisoesilaningsih

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This study sought to develop a structural model of anthracnosis disease attack and red chili production in five production centers in East Java, Indonesia, with the goal of controlling disease by way of manipulating cultivation techniques and environmental factors. This research was conducted using a field survey method in five areas of East Java red chili production during the rainy season from November 2017 to January 2018. In each area of red chili production, we surveyed 13 to 20 farmers’ gardens using purposive sampling. We analyzed the data by multivariate analysis using the SmartPLS 3.0 student version (S martPLS GmbH, Bönningstedt. Germany). The structural model showed a predictive relevance (Q2) value of 0.9809, meaning that 98.09% of the data were explained in the model and 1.91% of the data were defined as unobserved. Based on the structural model, anthracnose disease attacks are significantly affected by climate and soil variables, while cultivation techniques impose an indirect effect by way of soil variables. The harvest of red chili is also directly affected by the variable percentages of disease, soil, cultivation techniques, and geographical factors. In conclusion, our structural model of anthracnose disease attacking red chili production centers in East Java showed high predictive relevance.

Keywords: anthracnose, plant disease, red chili production, structural model

Citation: Djuhari D, Retnaningdyah C, Yanuawiadi B, Arisoesilaningsih E. Structural model of anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides) and red chili production in five production centers in East Java, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1575-82.

Social networks ecology: socio-psychological phenomena and new means in communication system
Rashad A. Kurbanov, Asiya M. Belyalova, Ramin A. Gurbanov, Yulia E. Ibragimova, Leonid L. Balanyuk, Valentin V. Matvienko, Mariya A. Kulkova, Bulat R. Vagapov

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The relevance of this article is to understand the ecology of the Internet space as a communication environment, which has many little-studied aspects, in which various processes are constantly taking place, new trends and phenomena are occurring that represent a rich field for research. Internet meme can be attributed to this new phenomenon. The aim of the study is to analyze the nature and communicative capabilities of the Internet meme, to determine the main approaches to the study of this phenomenon and its impact on the ecology of social networks; identifying the specifics of the Internet meme in different spheres of public life. The leading method for the study of this problem is the method of the questionnaire, which identifies units arranged in a logical sequence, which contributes to the effective identification of socio-psychological phenomena that affect the ecology of social networks. The article analyzes the concept of Internet meme. The influence of the Internet meme on the ecology of social networks is analyzed. The functions, language techniques and patterns of Internet memes are considered. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the phenomenon of the Internet meme is considered, which can be considered a multidimensional phenomenon of Internet culture that affects the ecology of social networks. It is revealed that it bears the imprint of personal experiences of the creators; reflects the events of reality; broadcasts the worldview of the authors to other users, thereby affecting the consciousness of the user and forms certain values in it. It is determined that the Internet meme plays an important role in the ecology of social networks through the production and reproduction of a certain Internet culture. It is established that the emotional response that memes cause is an important factor for memorizing a meme, as well as a stimulus for its dissemination. Emotions often carry a negative, provocative connotation. These emotions Express mockery, sarcasm. It is revealed that in the most positive way youth evaluates absurd memes and memes with high originality. It is determined that in everyday life memes perform the function of communication (connection of words in sentences). Young people allocate local memes that are distributed within small groups, respectively; so, there are those that can be called common ones. It is established that the use of memes in marketing communications should be very differentiated and competent, because the sincerity of the meme is extremely important for young people, and too popular meme causes irritation. The data obtained in the work can be used in environmental psychology, marketing psychology, labor psychology, age psychology, social psychology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology, social networks, communication, media environment, media space

Citation: Kurbanov RA, Belyalova AM, Gurbanov RA, Ibragimova YE, Balanyuk LL, Matvienko VV, et al. Social networks ecology: socio-psychological phenomena and new means in communication system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1583-7.

Alteration in antioxidant activity and phytochemical compound content of Solanum torvum fruit during curing process
Nunuk Helilusiatiningsih, Yunianta, Harijono, Simon Bambang Widjanarko

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Abstract

Background: The Solanum torvum fruit has been widely used as a food and traditional medicine source due to its bioactive properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in antioxidant activity and phytochemical compound content during the curing stage at room temperature.
Materials and Methods: Furthermore, a randomized block design was applied followed by curing as the only treatment. The Microsoft Minitab 16.0 program was used for statistical analysis. Quantitative parameters were the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) index, total phytochemistry and water content, and weight loss were identified using LCMS (Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry) methods.
Results: The results showed that the water content, vitamin C content, and weight loss decreased following curing treatment. Interestingly, the greatest antioxidant activity and phytochemical content in the fruit were found on day 3 of curing treatment. Moreover, LCMS analysis showed chemical content similarity between post-harvest and 3 day-cured fruit, namely chlorogenic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 3-O-feruloyl quinic acid, 5-O-feruloyl quinic acid, 3-O-dicaffe-oylquinic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3-5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloquinic acid, and putative dicaffeoylquinic acid.
Conclusion: In conclusion, curing treatment for 3 days gave the greatest DPPH index (89.42%), total phenolic content (40.41 mgGAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g), tannin content (0.64 mgTAE (tannic acid equivalent)/g), and flavonoid content (3.62 mgQAE (quercetin acid equivalent)/g). The vitamin C content, water content, and weight loss decreased during treatment. This phenomenon may be a result of aerobic respiration in Solanum torvum fruit, which converts complex compounds into simpler compounds to produce energy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, curing, phytochemical compounds, room temperature, Solanum torvum fruit

Citation: Helilusiatiningsih N, Yunianta, Harijono, Widjanarko SB. Alteration in antioxidant activity and phytochemical compound content of Solanum torvum fruit during curing process. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1597-606.

Voluntary childlessness as phenomenon of human ecology: is it social responsibility or personal interest?
Ida M. Ilina, Nataliya V. Osipova, Elena Yu. Mazhuga, Aleksei A. Terenichenko, Andrey V. Losyakov, Natalia V. Antonova, Vitaliy D. Melgunov

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Abstract

The article considers the direction of human ecology as a complex, studying the issues of population development and human interaction with the environment. The relevance of this article is the need to analyze the phenomenon of childfree, which appeared relatively recently, but quickly spreading across the planet. In less than half a century, this movement has managed to gain immense popularity and gain both staunch supporters and ardent opponents. The aim of the research is to study the process of formation of voluntary childlessness principles among students in modern society. The study is based on qualitative methodology. The leading method to the study of this problem is the method of interview, which allows you to identify the causes of childfree, going deep into childhood. The article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of the phenomenon of voluntary childlessness as a phenomenon of population ecology. Socio-psychological studies of reproductive behavior transformation in students through the prism of the phenomenon of voluntary childlessness are analyzed. The principles of voluntary childlessness among young people are studied. The analysis of interviews with representatives of childfree is carried out. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the human ecology is considered in a narrow sense of the term and it is shown that the position of voluntary childlessness among students has its roots deep in childhood. It is shown that the lack of attention, children’s psychological trauma-all this is reflected in the reluctance to have children. The main reasons for adopting childlessness are dislike for children, fear of pregnancy and childbirth, imaginary humanism, fear of responsibility, fear of being a bad parent. It is revealed that in interaction with the environment, informants - women are more likely to look for reasons within themselves, and informants - men talk about objective, usually external, reasons. It is revealed that the main reason for the spread of the phenomenon of childfree is a change in value orientations; psychological and economic failure; careerism; children’s psychological trauma. All informants accept foster parenthood, and do not exclude changing their views in the future. The data obtained in the work can be used in family psychology, human ecology, social psychology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: human ecology, student youth, childfree, voluntary childlessness

Citation: Ilina IM, Osipova NV, Mazhuga EY, Terenichenko AA, Losyakov AV, Antonova NV, et al. Voluntary childlessness as phenomenon of human ecology: is it social responsibility or personal interest?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1607-12.

Fostering coffee agroforestry for agrotourism development in degraded land in a buffer zone of a national park: A case study from Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia
Luchman Hakim, Dian Siswanto, Brian Rahardi, Hasan Zayadi

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Abstract

Landscapes of Poncokusumo district (Malang, East Java) to support biodiversity conservation in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park are under threat. Two threats have been identified, namely increase of sand mining in farmland and the rapid changes of sustainable agroforestry system in intensified farms. Coffee-based agroforestry as one of the important land use categories in biodiversity conservation still exists in limited numbers. This study identified some species of woody trees in the agroforestry system, in which it is important to build and restore the agroforestry in Poncokusumo district, especially for coffee-based agroforestry restoration programs. There are opportunities and possibilities to integrate coffee-based agroforestry and tourism-development programs. The area of Poncokusumo has been identified as containing numerous tourist attractions, in which it is important to stimulate tourism development in potential coffee-based agroforestry areas. The coffee-based agrotourism is located in the corridor system of tourism in the western area of the national park. Some fundamental aspects toward the success of the integration of coffee-based agroforestry and tourism should be highlighted, namely assessing the physical character of the area, evaluating tourist attractions and accessibility, promoting integrated spatial planning approach and implementing sustainable agriculture farming.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, coffee agroforestry, degraded uplands, tourism development

Citation: Hakim L, Siswanto D, Rahardi B, Zayadi H. Fostering coffee agroforestry for agrotourism development in degraded land in a buffer zone of a national park: A case study from Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1613-20.

Development of ecotourism in Russia in the context of the national project “ecology”
Elena A. Dzhandzhugazova, Elena L. Dracheva, Alexander B. Kosolapov, Larisa A. Savinkina, Yuriy A. Sukhanovskiy

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Abstract

The article is devoted to the problems and prospects of the ecotourism development in the context of the implementation of national projects, and in particular the “Ecology” project. Based on the main project’s provisions analysis, key guidelines for the development of ecotourism in Russia for the period 2018-2024 were identified. These guidelines are fully linked to the specific features of the development of nature-oriented types of tourism, requiring a harmonious combination of measures to preserve ecological systems and develop the economy of the regions. The research focuses on the study of the development of ecotourism in specially protected areas dynamics in the context of identified targets and indicators of their achievement, as well as on an audit of their compliance with the principles and measures that ensure sustainable development. To solve the set tasks, a method was used for a comparative analysis of the key indicators of the development of ecotourism in Russia dynamics allowed us to assess the validity of the proposed key areas, as well as to correlate them with the basic principles of sustainable tourism. According to the authors, the overall output of the National project “Ecology” implementation will be not only the achieved quantitative indicators, but also a completely different quality of the implementation of ecotourism programs.

Keywords: ecotourism, specially protected areas, national project, sustainable tourism

Citation: Dzhandzhugazova EA, Dracheva EL, Kosolapov AB, Savinkina LA, Sukhanovskiy YA. Development of ecotourism in Russia in the context of the national project “ecology”. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1621-4.

Research of technology of restructured combined meat products using a multicomponent brine
Madina Kaldarbekova, Yasin Uzakov, Irina Chernukha, Olga Kuznetsova

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The article presents the results of research on the technology of combined meat products, namely the results of a study of restructured meat product from horse meat and mutton. It has been established that the introduction of multicomponent syringe brine containing protein and carbohydrate components into the muscle tissue of horse meat and mutton, followed by massaging contributes to meat tenderization and improving the organoleptic characteristics of the finished product. Analysis of the data showed that the introduction of additives in the multicomponent brine contributes to the process of moisture retention in horse meat and mutton, well balanced in carbohydrate and vitamin composition, has a positive effect on the balance of the finished product and increases their biological value. Using intensive technology in the ripening of meat and the use of multi-component brine makes it possible to reduce the cost of finished products by 14% -15%. The data obtained are a promising direction in the improvement of meat technology.

Keywords: horse meat, mutton, multicomponent brine, organoleptic indicators, biological value

Citation: Kaldarbekova M, Uzakov Y, Chernukha I, Kuznetsova O. Research of technology of restructured combined meat products using a multicomponent brine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1625-32.

Student social activity in environmental communities
Oksana E. Savenko, Natalia N. Uvarova, Lyudmila V. Kolomiychenko, Lyudmila V. Moiseeva, Elena V. Krasnenkova, Irina G. Kartushina, Lilyana D. Roginskaya

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is the need to analyze the social activity of environmental communities’ members. Modern universities and institutes of higher education are the most important agents of socialization of young people in the period of education. Students acquire the necessary knowledge and skills for further employment and improve themselves as specialists in a particular field; in addition, an important part of students’ education is the development of their environmental consciousness and its structural components, which will find their application in environmentally oriented activities. The aim of the study is to describe the phenomenon of social activity and analyze the features of student social activity in environmental communities. The article describes the opinions of members of the ecological community on social activity; it reveals subjective assessment of personal social activity’s level of the ecological community members. Also reveals reasons for joining the environmental community. It is determined that the majority of students understand social activity as participation in the activities of non-profit youth organizations; the creation of social projects and their implementation; as well as participation in actions for the improvement of the city, Saturday-meetings. The data Obtained in this work can be used in environmental psychology, social psychology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: environmental communities, social activity, student youth

Citation: Savenko OE, Uvarova NN, Kolomiychenko LV, Moiseeva LV, Krasnenkova EV, Kartushina IG, et al. Student social activity in environmental communities. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1633-7.

The effect of bioorganic liquid fertilizer “BioEcoGum” on the productivity of grain maize in the conditions of Southeast Kazakhstan
Beibut Suleimenov, Abdulla Saparov, Vyacheslav Kan, Liudmila Kolesnikova, Aksaule Seitmenbetova, Kuanysh Karabayev

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Abstract

Background: The article discusses the use of domestic liquid bioorganic fertilizer («BioEcoGum») in the cultivation of corn in the south-east of Kazakhstan.
Objectives: The aim of the work is to study the effect of seed treatment and foliar feeding during the vegetation period on the growth, development and yield of grain maize.
Material and Methods: Field production experience was conducted on light chestnut soils according to the generally accepted methodology of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Soil samples were taken before sowing and after harvesting. The soil content of organic matter (humus), pH, gross and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were determined to study the dynamics of the nutritional regime. Hydride «Porumbeni 458» (Moldova) was cultivated for grain maize. Phenological observations and grain yield history were carried out.
Results: Presowing treatment of corn seeds with a solution of liquid bioorganic fertilizer «BioEcoGum» increases germination by 10-30%. Double-folded top dressing of corn plants enhances plant growth and development, increases grain yield up to 75%, contributes to an increase in root biomass by 50%.
«BioEcoGum» liquid bioorganic fertilizer is produced from biocompost by enriching macro- and microelements in a form accessible to plants, which increases stress resistance, stimulates plant growth, and increases the grain yield of corn.
Conclusion: According to the results of production tests, bioorganic liquid fertilizer «BioEcoGum» is recommended for widespread use in the southern regions of Kazakhstan when cultivating grain maize.

Keywords: light-chestnut soil, grain maize, humic biologies, foliage application, growth and development, crop productivity

Citation: Suleimenov B, Saparov A, Kan V, Kolesnikova L, Seitmenbetova A, Karabayev K. The effect of bioorganic liquid fertilizer “BioEcoGum” on the productivity of grain maize in the conditions of Southeast Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1639-44.

Student social representations of environmental tourism
Natalia T. Kolesnik, Marina A. Zhukova, Julia M. Korenko, Yulia V. Dementieva, Boris D. Loshkov, Jhanna I. Aytuganova, Olga V. Popova

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Abstract

Relevance of the research: the Relevance of this article is in the need to analyze student ideas about environmental tourism, as tourism acts as a form of open cultural exchange, borrowing patterns of behavior and changing cultural stereotypes, expanding the boundaries of socio-cultural interaction in all spheres of human activity. The values of modern students over the past decades are in a state of continuous transformation, so in these circumstances, it is important to form the values of the younger generation by all available means. One of the main means of forming environmental values can be ecotourism, which is currently the most developing industry. The aim of the study is to analyze the social representations of students about ecological tourism. Research methods: the Leading method for the study of this problem is the method of questioning, which allows you to highlight the features of eco-tourism and analyze the attitude of students to eco-tourism. Research results: the article considers environmental tourism as a nature-oriented tourism, associated with communication with nature, aimed at studying interesting natural objects and phenomena. Types of ecological tourism and their features are analyzed. Student ideas about environmental tourism are considered. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the types of ecological tourism are highlighted. It is revealed that most of the students have never participated in eco-tourism. It is shown that the majority of students are attracted by ecotourism, but only as recreation. The type of employment in environmental tourism is analyzed. It is revealed that the majority of students prefer adventure and cognitive activities; the least students are interested in sports, scientific activities. The attractive and repulsive sides of environmental tourism are shown. To attractive sides of it students refer: relaxation in nature, enjoying the beauty of natural objects, familiarization with the new. To negative aspects of ecotourism, students refer: poor organization, possible spontaneity, and discomfort from staying in nature for a long time. Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in environmental psychology, valeology, social psychology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecotourism, student youth, and social representations

Citation: Kolesnik NT, Zhukova MA, Korenko JM, Dementieva YV, Loshkov BD, Aytuganova JI, et al. Student social representations of environmental tourism. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1645-0.

Assessment of technical provision in agricultural sector of Russia
F. A. Kipriyanov, P. A. Savinykh

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Abstract

The country food security is mainly determined by the efficiency of the agricultural enterprises, which provide the processing industry with the necessary amount of high-quality raw materials for food production. The key to the stable functioning of agricultural enterprises is the availability of the required number of agricultural areas, both for the production of direct food products, such as vegetables and melons, and raw materials for further processing in the production of food products, for example, cereals for the baking industry, legumes for canning, etc. It is also important to provide a feed base for the livestock, dairy and meat, poultry, and other industries. Along with this, one of the problems in the agricultural sector in a globalized economy is the low level of technological development and the availability of production means.

Keywords: land area, arable land, crops, technical support, tractors, combines, leasing

Citation: Kipriyanov FA, Savinykh PA. Assessment of technical provision in agricultural sector of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1651-8.

The ecologization and humanization concept of a modern city in the transition of society from industrialism to humanism
Tatiana N. Meisner, Nikolay A. Kovalev, Nadezhda V. Lyashenko, Victoriya A. Lepikhova

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Abstract

This study presents a conceptual strategy for the Ecohumanization of a modern city that develops the processes of ecological and humanistic modeling, as well as modernization of modern cities in the context of global urbanization, which by the beginning of the 21st century has led to a significant change in a city that is seen as a field for human activity. Long-term industrialization, the primacy of the commodity-centered paradigm in the evolution of society caused the dehumanization and de-ecologization of life in a modern city. Ecological and humanistic indicators of life standard dictate the necessity in joint overcoming the existing existential disharmony between man and nature, man and urban environment, urban environment and nature. This determines the need for conceptualization of a single ecohumanistic strategy for the development of a modern city aimed at eliminating this disharmony by solving environmental and sociocultural problems and limiting the risks that exist in this sphere. The chapter proves the necessity of the transition of society from the industrialism to the humanism, provides a comparative analysis of the terms “ecohumanization” and “humane ecology”, as well as explains “ecohumanization” and the already existing concepts of “humane megacity”, “sustainable urban development”; practical-oriented solutions aimed at optimizing the process of designing and modernizing of urban area.

Keywords: ecohumanization, urbanization, ecological humanism, modern large city, urban ecology, humanization of urban area, environmental safety, human well-being, quality of life

Citation: Meisner TN, Kovalev NA, Lyashenko NV, Lepikhova VA. The ecologization and humanization concept of a modern city in the transition of society from industrialism to humanism. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1659-65.

Stakeholders’ awareness and initiatives to achieve sustainable watershed resources management: a brief cross sectional case report
Jomar L. Aban, Jaime I. Manuel, Jr.

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Abstract

Watersheds are natural sanctuaries with strong global consensus for protection and conservation due to the intrinsic services that they offer. A brief cross sectional case report in the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU), Philippines watershed was conducted. This study aimed to assess the DMMMSU stakeholders’ awareness and initiatives toward sustainable watershed resources management (SASWRM and SISWRM). This assessment became the basis in a proposed diagrammatic model to address resource management of DMMMSU watershed. A social-quantitative-descriptive approach was employed to study the 350 stakeholder respondents’ awareness and initiatives using a structured questionnaire. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results show that the respondents have a high level of awareness on the basic functional definition of watershed (SASWRM6 = 81%; SASWRM5 = 91%). They are also highly aware of the laws and Republic Acts in the Philippines that impose protection of watersheds (SASWRM3 = 98%). However, respondents appear to have low level of awareness that some anthropogenic activities such as siltation (SASWRM1 = 38%), infrastructure development and population growth (SASWRM 2 = 39%), and other environmental problems (SASWRM9 = 34%) may affect the quality of DMMMSU watershed. The respondents appear to be willing to participate in various initiatives to promote watershed resources management and sustainability. This includes joining clean-up drives (SISWRM5 = 97%), extension activities (SISWRM8 = 98%), willingness to become a watershed volunteer, (SISWRM10 = 98%), and reporting illegal environmental activities (SISWRM = 99%). Awareness and initiatives of respondents differ according to their social responsibilities. Local citizens appear to have low awareness (SASWRM1 = 42%; SASWRM2 = 36%) and initiative (SISWRM2 = 48%; SISWRM3 = 30%; SISWRM7 = 76%). In the proposed collaborative approach model, there must be close and collaborative relationship between and among the three actors: the stakeholders, the scientific community, and the local government to address the awareness and initiative issues that were exposed.

Keywords: awareness, collaborative approach, environmental protection, watershed management

Citation: Aban JL, Manuel, Jr. JI. Stakeholders’ awareness and initiatives to achieve sustainable watershed resources management: a brief cross sectional case report. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1667-4.

Global trends of digitalization of agriculture as the basis of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex of Russia
Olga A. Kosareva, Mikhail N. Eliseev, Vyacheslav P. Cheglov, Alla N. Stolyarova, Svetlana B. Aleksina

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Abstract

The article discusses the main trends of digitalization of agriculture in Russia, shows the features of digitalization of this sector of the economy and the scope of digital technologies in the process of transformation of the agricultural sector. The relevance of the study is due to the continually growing demand for agricultural products, as well as the formation of fundamentally new requirements for the conduct of the life cycle of agricultural products and increase the level of labor productivity in the agro-industrial complex. The study aims to analyze the current state of the digitalization of agriculture as a component of agriculture AIC. The author draws attention to the need for an integrated approach to the formation of the concept of digitalization of agriculture and the mechanism of its implementation.

Keywords: digital economy, digital technologies, digitalization, agro-industrial complex, agriculture, innovations

Citation: Kosareva OA, Eliseev MN, Cheglov VP, Stolyarova AN, Aleksina SB. Global trends of digitalization of agriculture as the basis of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1675-81.

The role of green marketing in the development of economic behavior of the population of Russia and the USA
Andrey V. Patsula, Valentina P. Leonova, Olga S. Kulyamina, Anastasia S. Ponyashova, Daniil V. Volkov, Sergey V. Babakaev, Viktoria A. Vishnjakova

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Abstract

A comparative approach to the identification and analysis of different causes of the genesis of green marketing in Russia and the United States is being developing. Argues the thesis that Russia is half a century behind in green marketing compared to the United States. Alternative methodological approaches to assessing the impact of green marketing on the development of economic behavior of the population are diagnosed. On basis of the original classification of types of economic behavior, specified by ten profiled criteria, such key components of the development of economic behavior of the population as rationalization, ecologization and humanization are represented and interpreted. Alternative barriers to the development of environmentally oriented economic behavior in Russia and the United States are revealing. Data of electronic mass media and communications, results of researches of marketing and consulting agencies are used. Based on the application of the methods of content analysis and retrospection, the problem of humanization of consumption in the USA, legislative confusion and turmoil in the field of regulation and control of the Russian market of eco-products are diagnosed. The conclusion is substantiated that the American model of population segmentation by different modes of environmentally-oriented economic behavior is inapplicable to Russian reality: active supporters of the consumption of eco-products, staunchly and consistently opposing pollution of the natural environment; proponents of a healthy lifestyle, aware of the value and importance of organic food; buyers who drifting towards the consumption of eco-products; pragmatists who accurately weigh on the scales the material and financial benefits of buying eco-products; consumers who refraining from buying organic products for reasons of ignorance or lack of necessary funds.

Keywords: green marketing, development, economic behavior, population

Citation: Patsula AV, Leonova VP, Kulyamina OS, Ponyashova AS, Volkov DV, Babakaev SV, et al. The role of green marketing in the development of economic behavior of the population of Russia and the USA. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1683-90.

Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems associated with grazing as an alternative to conventional farming systems in the Algerian steppes
Athmane Bendaoud, Ali Masmoudi

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Abstract

Our study focuses on comparing the effects of different technical itineraries - that are conventional tillage (CT), direct seeding on dead cover (DSDC), direct seeding on alive cover crop of Alfalfa with application of herbicide (DSAC+H) and direct seeding on alive cover crop of Alfalfa associated with sheep grazing (DSAC+G) - on the behavior of barley crop and on the evolution of soil fertility in a steppe region characterized by its dry climate, the brittleness of its soils and the large practice of ranching and cereal. Both soil and crop parameters were evaluated, and we made sure in which itinerary the best results are obtained, either for those linked to the soil (soil moisture and the storage of organic matter) or those related to the crop yield and the economic results.

Keywords: direct seeding, arid steppe, barely, alfalfa, grazing

Citation: Bendaoud A, Masmoudi A. Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems associated with grazing as an alternative to conventional farming systems in the Algerian steppes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1691-6.

New environmental reality in man-made risks context
Lyubov V. Kochneva, Aleksey V. Kurakin, Valery E. Belov, Svetlana G. Kashina, Lyubov N. Blinova, Natalia Y. Bashkirceva, Vasil N. Farrahov, Liana R. Khusainova

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Abstract

The relevance of the study is due to trends in the field of research interests to the dangers of man-made risks taking place in the environment. According to experts of the world Economic Forum (Davos, 2019) “man-made risks are concentrated in the field of environment and ecology and represent the dangers of chemical and biological pollution, nuclear accidents, forest fires, oil spills, etc.” In the study for the first time, as an independent scientific direction, an attempt was made of theoretical and methodical justification of approaches to countering man-made risks, which are dangerous for the sustainable development of the new environmental reality. In the course of implementation of environmental monitoring – the leading method of research, the theoretical and practical effectiveness of ethical values, principles and rules use of counteraction to man-made risks, which are dangerous for the sustainable development of the new environmental reality is proved. In this regard, this article reveals the prerequisites and patterns of sustainable development of the new environmental reality. The typology of man-made risks that are dangerous for sustainable development of the new environmental reality is established. Based on the results of the study, the model of ethical values, principles and rules of counteraction to man-made risks, which are dangerous for the sustainable development of the new environmental reality is substantiated and experimentally proved. The materials of the article have practical application and are aimed at assisting specialists who develop and implement into environmental practice the methods for analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of technologies to counteract man-made risks in the field of environmental protection. The results of the study will also be useful in the practice of teaching courses of social ecology, social philosophy, political science, sociology and special disciplines of the Ministry of emergencies.

Keywords: new environmental reality, environment, man-made risk, risk fluctuations, risk hazards, risk typology, model of counteraction to man-made risks, sustainable development, environmental monitoring

Citation: Kochneva LV, Kurakin AV, Belov VE, Kashina SG, Blinova LN, Bashkirceva NY, et al. New environmental reality in man-made risks context. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1697-03.

Effects of climate change on fisheries biodiversity of the Meghna, Laukhati and Galachipa River in Bangladesh
Md. Jiaur Rahaman, Noore Safa Ema, Md. Saddam Hossain, Mohammad Matiur Rahman, Zakir Hossain

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Abstract

Climate change is a contemporary global threat to the world especially for Bangladesh, because of its geographical location. The study was conducted to assess the effects of climate change on fisheries resources in the Meghna, Laukhati and Galachipa rivers near Chandpur and Patuakhali districts in Bangladesh. The data on fisheries resources was collected by using a well-developed questionnaire from the fishers and selected fish landing centers. The water quality parameters and primary productivity were measured by using appropriate apparatus and plankton nets. Sixty fish species belonging to 13 orders and 29 families were documented in the Meghna river and 73 species belonging 11 orders and 33 families were documented simultaneously from the Laukhati and Galachipa rivers. Forty one, 14 and 34 genera of phytoplankton and 24, 12 and 23 genera of zooplankton were identified in the Meghna, Laukhati and Galachipa rivers, respectively. The average temperature was recorded 27.5 ± 0.90°C, 27.1 ± 1.05°C and 27.4 ± 0.60°C and the dissolved oxygen was 6.37 ± 1.11 mg/L, 5.63 ± 0.33 mg/L and 6.33 ± 0.51 mg/L in the Meghna, Laukhati and Galachipa rivers, respectively. The pH was 8.3 ± 0.59, 8.03 ± 0.50 and 7.8 ± 0.50 and the salinity was 0.10 ± 0.10 ppt, 0.23 ± 0.13 ppt and 1.2 ± 0.15 ppt in the Meghna, Galachipa and Laukhati rivers, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that the fish species are decreasing day by day in these rivers due to the effects of climate changes.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, fisheries resources, plankton, river

Citation: Rahaman MJ, Ema NS, Hossain MS, Rahman MM, Hossain Z. Effects of climate change on fisheries biodiversity of the Meghna, Laukhati and Galachipa River in Bangladesh. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1705-17.

The role of the system of values in harmonizing the personal ecology of young people prone to suicidal behavior
Svetlana M. Nizamutdinova, Irina A. Larionova, Maria A. Erofeeva, Irina E. Sokolovskaya, Liudmila A. Gegel, Svetlana O. Larionova, Aleksey A. Oshchepkov

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Abstract

The authors of the article consider a serious problem of the suicide phenomenon from the standpoint of the ecological approach. When considering suicide as an underlying act that brings man closer to comprehending the fundamental worldviews of being, there is a need to consider risk factors and preventive factors in the suicide manifestation. In this context, the value-motivational sphere of the personality is discussed as a factor harmonizing the personal ecology of man and thereby preventing the risk of suicide. In this aspect, the value-motivational sphere acts as a strong personal resource to overcome the negative impact of stressful situations in a system of unfavorable social ecology, and, thus, the risk prevention of suicidal behavior. An experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the features of the relationship between the structure of the value-motivational sphere of young people’s personality and the level of propensity for suicidal behavior. Interpretation of the results of this study allowed us to draw the main conclusions regarding the characteristics of the sphere of values and motivation in young people’s personality who are prone to suicidal behavior, namely that blocking the ecologically-determined orientation to self-determination of young people leads to an increase in the risk level of manifestation of suicidal behavior, and, conversely, unlocking their internal potential leads to the positive behavior orientation, harmonizing the personal ecology of young people.

Keywords: suicide, suicidal behavior, ecology of suicidal behavior, value-motivational sphere of personality, suicide prevention, youth

Citation: Nizamutdinova SM, Larionova IA, Erofeeva MA, Sokolovskaya IE, Gegel LA, Larionova SO, et al. The role of the system of values in harmonizing the personal ecology of young people prone to suicidal behavior. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1719-25.

Perception of climate change and barriers to adaptation among organic vegetable farmers in Central Java, Indonesia
Irma Audiah Fachrista, Irham, Masyhuri, Any Suryantini

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Abstract

The effectiveness of adaptation strategies adopted by farmers depends on farmers’ perceptions about climate change. Understanding of the perceptions and adaptations of farmers in farming activities in response to climate change will provide insights to sustain vegetable production. On the other hand, there are various obstacles that challenge farmers’ adaptation to climate change. Hence, this study aims to determine the perceptions and adaptations carried out by organic vegetable farmers to reduce the negative impacts of climate change, and the obstacles they have to face. The survey was conducted from February to August 2018 by involving 90 organic vegetable farmers in Central Java, Indonesia. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between perception and adaptation of farmers in dealing with climate change. The analysis shows that most of organic vegetable farmers are aware of climate change and are trying to implement more strategies to reduce the negative impacts of climate change. Farmers’ perceptions about climate change correlate with the adaptations they implemented. Organic farmers are faced with constraints of limited funds to adapt to climate change. This study recommends that relevant stakeholders need to increase farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to reduce the negative impacts of climate change by increasing the accessibility of information and training on climate change and its impacts.

Keywords: adaptation, barrier, climate change, organic farmers, perception

Citation: Fachrista IA, Irham, Masyhuri, Suryantini A. Perception of climate change and barriers to adaptation among organic vegetable farmers in Central Java, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1727-35.

Effect of diverse layers of culture media and starch, antibiotic and salt on Trichomonas Gallinarum growth and comparing direct method sensitivity with the culture as a standard method
Ebrahim Badparva

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Abstract

Background: Trichomonas gallinarum is one of the protozoan and flagellate’s parasites whose pathogens cause human-health problems and economic losses in livestock. This study aimed at investigating the growth of Trichomonas gallinarium in different phases of the culture medium as a gold standard, the effects of compounds such as starch, antibiotics and salt on its growth and determining the sensitivity of direct method and its repetition.
Material and Methods: Gradually and in the warm seasons (late spring, summer and early fall) in 2017, 70 fresh stool samples were collected from poultry in Khorramabad city and immediately sent to the laboratory. Simultaneous with the direct method and repeat the experiment, the samples were cultured in an augmented culture of RPMI1640 to study the growth of parasite in different phases, including sediment, sediment mucus layer, transparent supernatant solution, and a mixture of the total culture medium and the effects of compounds such as starch, antibiotics and salt.
Results: In this study, the highest growth rate of the parasite was recorded in the mucus layer (49.5%) followed by sediment (25%) and the lowest growth in the transparent supernatant solution (12%). However, in the mixture of all parts of culture medium used as the gold standard, only 13.5% of the parasites were observed. Moreover, the sensitivity of direct method was 63.5%, which reached 77.3% at repetition, and starch had a positive and antibiotics had a negative effect on the growth of this parasite, and the salt in the physiologic serum was ineffective.
Discussion: The importance of examining the parasite growth in different layers of culture medium as a unique study is when cultivation is used as a gold standard, because, in this study, it was found that the growth of parasite in different layers was different with the culture medium mixture that determines the sensitivity of diagnostic methods. Moreover, addition of compounds such as starch that increases growth and thus increases standard sensitivity should be considered.

Keywords: Trichomonas gallinarum, culture medium, standard, sensitivity, methods, Lorestan, Poultry

Citation: Badparva E. Effect of diverse layers of culture media and starch, antibiotic and salt on Trichomonas Gallinarum growth and comparing direct method sensitivity with the culture as a standard method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1737-40.

Determination of abamectin pesticide residues in green pepper and courgette growing under greenhouse conditions (Eastern of Algeria –Setif–)
A. Belguet, S. Dahamna, A. Abdessemed, K. Ouffroukh, A. Guendouz

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Abstract

The objective of this study is to estimate the Abamectin residues pesticide in Green pepper and Courgette growing under Greenhouse conditions. The HPLC-UV instrument is used and the wavelength to determinate the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples is 210 nm. The results showed high values in the Abamectin pesticide residues quantity; is varied from 4.11 to 1.78 mg/kg for Courgettte and Green pepper, respectively. In addition, the results suggest that the estimated daily intake (EDI) is much higher than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level. Thus, the detected levels signify that the EDI of the Abamectin residues in the both vegetable samples may lead to serious public health problems for the consumers and the values of the Health risk index (HRI) confirmed these results. Abamectin is a highly toxic material, however most formulated products containing Abamectin are of low toxicity to mammals. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations may cause moderate eye irritation and mild skin irritation. Symptoms of poisoning observed in laboratory animals include pupil dilation, vomiting, convulsions and/or tremors, and coma. Overall, the results of this study proved high human health risk for the consumers of these vegetables samples contaminated by Abamectin pesticides residues.

Keywords: abamectin, green pepper, courgette, health risk index, greenhouse, Algeria

Citation: Belguet A, Dahamna S, Abdessemed A, Ouffroukh K, Guendouz A. Determination of abamectin pesticide residues in green pepper and courgette growing under greenhouse conditions (Eastern of Algeria –Setif–). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1741-5.

Dispersal and development of beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) in Ukraine
Svetlana Hornovska, Y. Fedoruk, N. Prisjazhnjuk, L. Pravdyva, T. Lozinska, Vladyslav Masalskyi

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Abstract

Introduction: The beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) is a dangerous agricultural pest with high migratory and outbreak capacities. Its taxonomy at the generic level has been changed several times, the two most acknowledged genera being Loxostege and Pyrausta.
The beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.), (Pyraloidea, Crambidae) is a dangerous outbreak pest, causing serious damage to the crops such as soybean, sugar beet, alfalfa and sunflower in Eurasia, including Northern China and steppe zones of European and Asian parts of Russia (Chen et al. 2008, Frolov et al. 2008). It was initially described as Pyralis sticticalis (Linnaeus 1761), later it was attributed by the different authors to the genera of Botys Latreille, 1802, Loxostege Hübner, 1825, Margaritia Stephens, 1827 and Phlyctaenodes Hampson, 1899. The combination Loxostege sticticalis is the one most widely accepted by the modern taxonomic summaries (de Jong 2011, Goater et al. 2005, Heppner 1998, Karsholt and Razowski 1996).
Material and Methods: The field data was obtained in 2017 – 2018 at the research field in different regions of Ukraine.
Adult moths of beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) were caught by net at the meadows in Luhansk, Zaporizhia, Mykolaiv, Kherson regions.
Commonly accepted methods of faunal studies in entomology and calculation of insect numbers, field and laboratory studies, modeling the population dynamics of insects were used in the research. The analysis of Department of Forecasting reports, Phytosanitary Diagnostics and Risk Analysis of Ukraine were conducted.
Results: In 2018, the first spring generation had the most favorable conditions for development - enough moisture, moderate temperatures, presence of flowering vegetation, which led to a significant increase in the number of depredators, especially in the centers of the southeastern and sometimes central areas.
The beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) developed within three generation in most areas in the spreading zones, except Kharkiv, Poltava and Vinnytsia regions, where only two generations were noted.
Conclusion: Considering the degree of the beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) threat, it is necessary to observe the dynamics of their dispersal constantly, which would allow to avoid “unexpected” destruction of agricultural crops by caterpillars.
In 2019 it is necessary to strengthen the beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) appearing, to monitor the depredator’s development and to use pesticides in time.

Keywords: sunflower, beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.), insects

Citation: Hornovska S, Fedoruk Y, Prisjazhnjuk N, Pravdyva L, Lozinska T, Masalskyi V. Dispersal and development of beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis (L.) in Ukraine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1747-53.

Diversity and distribution pattern of Anaphalis sp. (Edelweis) in the Cemoro Sewu Climbing Track in Mount Lawu Magetan, East Java, Indonesia
Efri Roziaty, Nur Mela Wijaya

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Abstract

Mount Lawu is one of the many mountains in Java, Indonesia. Mount Lawu is located between Central Java and East Java, Indonesia. Cemoro Sewu is a part of Mount Lawu climbers track. Anaphalis sp. (Edelweis) is one of the most Asteraceae families, the largest family of flowering plants in the mountainous zone. The research analyzed the biodiversity and distribution of Anaphalis sp. (Edelweis) in the Cemoro Sewu climbing track. The research used the exploration method by purposive sampling technique of plot making (5x5 m2 plot/square). This study made of 21 plots. The results showed two species of Anaphalis namely Anaphalis javanica and Anaphalis longifolia. The Important Value Index (IVI) for Anaphalis javanica was 172.7% the highest and Anaphalis longifolia 27.3% was the lowest one. The diversity index of Anaphalis was 0.102, it was relatively low. The distribution patterns of Anaphalis sp. were aggregate, it also influenced by climate and humidity of habitat.

Keywords: Diversity, Distribution Patterns, Mount Lawu, Anaphalis, Cemoro Sewu

Citation: Roziaty E, Wijaya NM. Diversity and distribution pattern of Anaphalis sp. (Edelweis) in the Cemoro Sewu Climbing Track in Mount Lawu Magetan, East Java, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1755-62.

Bioactive components of Ficus exasperata, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha tanjorensis leaf extracts and evaluation of their antioxidant properties
Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro, Oghenetega J. Avwioroko, Oghenenyore A. Ohwokevwo, Beruoritse Pessu

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Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the phytochemistry and in vitro free radical scavenging activities of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata (FE), Moringa oleifera (MO) and Jatropha tanjorensis (JT).
Methods: Spectrophotometric evaluation was employed in the determination of the total phenols, total flavonoids, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition, nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC).
Results: Qualitative screening of bioactive compounds confirmed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids and phenols in all extracts amidst other phytochemicals. Total phenols and total flavonoids estimation were highest in Ficus exasperata (96.10 ± 2.70 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 and 28.45 ± 1.80 mg catechin equivalent g-1, respectively). Moringa oleifera leaf extract exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity against DPPH and NO radicals, while Jatropha tanjorensis exhibited the highest FRAP and TAOC. Nitric oxide radical inhibition by M. oleifera extract was significantly higher (p<0.05) at 7.0 mg mL-1 (64.7 ± 0.32%). The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the plant leaves for FRAP and TAOC were in the order JT < MO < FE, whereas for DPPH and NO scavenging activities the IC50 values were in the order MO < JT < FE.
Conclusions: The findings of this study clearly showed that the antioxidant properties of M. oleifera and J. tanjorensis leaves were higher than those of F. exasperata. The knowledge of the different bioactive components and antioxidant prowess of these medicinal plants could be used as a guide in making the choice of medicinal plant to use for treatment or prophylaxis against cellular aberrations in which oxidative stress is implicated.

Keywords: antioxidant, Ficus exasperata, free radicals, Jatropha tanjorensis, Moringa oleifera

Citation: Anigboro AA, Avwioroko OJ, Ohwokevwo OA, Pessu B. Bioactive components of Ficus exasperata, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha tanjorensis leaf extracts and evaluation of their antioxidant properties. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1763-9.

Nutritional status of Wonderful Pomegranate during the growing season
H. A. Hamouda, M. F. El-Dahshouri, S. H. A. Shaaban, A. M. El-Saady

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Abstract

This experiment was carried out during 2016 and 2017 seasons on pomegranate shrubs. The shrubs were grown at four years old in a private orchard under sandy soil conditions in the northwest of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Leaves samples were collecting monthly as well as flowers and fruits were also taken at flowering and harvest, respectively. The study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of the leaves during the growing season, moreover nutrient concentrations in flowers and fruits. The results showed that the mineral nutrient concentrations were varied according to mineral different, leaves sample time and plant parts. The results also referred that N, P and K concentrations in pomegranate leaves decline successively from each time to the next. This declination was much greater for N and K concentrations then for P. Meanwhile, Ca and Mg concentrations in leaf increased. Peak values for N, P, Mg, Zn and Cu concentrations in pomegranate leaves were noticed in March, but the peak of K was obtained at April, while the peak of Ca was observed in June. In addition, leaves micronutrients concentrations were sufficient except zinc. It was reduced in April to May also, October to November months. Nutrient concentrations of P, K, Fe, Zn and Cu in bisexual flowers were higher than male flowers. At the same time, N and Ca concentrations in male flowers were higher than bisexual flowers. Fruit peel and arils were rich content of nitrogen and potassium compared to other nutrients, followed by calcium and magnesium. Iron element was abundant in fruit peel but zinc element was plentiful in fruit arils.

Keywords: Pomegranate “Wonderful”, nutrient monthly changes, leaves, flowers, fruits

Citation: Hamouda HA, El-Dahshouri MF, Shaaban SHA, El-Saady AM. Nutritional status of Wonderful Pomegranate during the growing season. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1771-6.

Risk preference of farmers and production input allocation of potato farming in Tengger highland, Indonesia
Wenny Mamilianti, Nuhfil Hanani, Moch. Muslich Mustadjab, Rosihan Asmara

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Abstract

The risks in the farming sector commonly come from the climate changes and variation conditions of environment. Potatoes are the major commodity produced by famers in the high areas where high risks often occur due to the natural disasters such as erosion and volcanic eruptions. Farmers in the highland area of Tengger are hereditary farmers who have more than 20 years of potato farming experiences. However, these experiences do not ensure that they can manage the risks faced. This study aims to discover the risk preferences of potato farmers in the Tengger highland and the decision to allocate their production inputs based on the risk preferences. The analysis method employed in this study followed the risk function model developed by Just and Pope (1979). The observation area was divided into two including the highland at an altitude of more than 1900 masl and that at an altitude of 1000 masl - 1400 masl. Total respondents were 160 farmers selected by random sampling. The results indicate that the farmers of an altitude of more than 1900 masl are mostly risk takers and those in the lower level area (1000 masl - 1400 masl) are risk averse farmers. The use of seed inputs increases the risk even though farmers tend to dare to use seeds because of the thought to increase the productivity. The result of this study implies that government policies are needed in order that the risk averse farmers can increase productivity and profits.

Keywords: highland farming, input allocation, Just and Pope model, production risks

Citation: Mamilianti W, Hanani N, Mustadjab MM, Asmara R. Risk preference of farmers and production input allocation of potato farming in Tengger highland, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1777-83.

Study of plasma incineration processes in ecological waste recycling technologies
Sergey V. Anakhov, Anatoly V. Matushkin, Evgeny M. Dorozhkin, Anton I. Lyzhin, Yuri A. Pyckin

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Abstract

The processes of high temperature material heating for plasma recycling are investigated. The gas-dynamic parameters of the air-plasma flow in the plasma torch mixing chamber for ecology technologies are determined by methods of mathematical modeling. The characteristic temperatures, velocities and heating times of the utilized gas in different areas of the mixing chamber are determined. The directions of further research and development necessary to create a technology of plasma recycling with maximum efficiency are outlined. The issues of plasma recycling introduction at certain stages of high-temperature technologies are also considered.

Keywords: plasmatron, design, efficiency, environmental safety, recycling

Citation: Anakhov SV, Matushkin AV, Dorozhkin EM, Lyzhin AI, Pyckin YA. Study of plasma incineration processes in ecological waste recycling technologies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1785-9.

Morphometric studies of the cerebral cortex under exposure to lead acetate in albino rats
Olga S. Shubina, Marina V. Egorova, Olga I. Komusova, Natalya A. Dudenkova, Vladimir S. Bardin, Lyudmila Y. Labzina, Margarita V. Labzina, Olga V. Kirdyashkina

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Abstract

The broad review of anatomical studies allows stating that regulation of motions is associated with pyramidal neurons of stratum V of the cortex of cerebral hemispheres, with their axons forming the pyramidal tract. It is in the motor cortex that the extrapyramidal system originates which includes cerebellum, too. Certainly, this raises many questions, one of them being the action of heavy metals on neurons of various regions of the cortex of the cerebrum (the sensory, the motor ones) and various regions of the cerebellum. In order to perform the research, histological and morphometric analysis of neurons of the cerebellar cortex and somatosensory region of the neocortex of rats was applied using the Axio Imager.M2 (ZEISS, Japan) digital microscope with the AxioVision SE64 Rel. 4.8.3 and ZEN 2011 software. It has been shown that under the effect of lead acetate the thickness of the cerebellar cortex and the somatosensory region is reduced. A decrease in density of neurons per 0,001 mm3 of the brain matter has been registered in all strata of the cerebellar cortex and somatosensory cortex strata. The 31% increase (p <0,05) of the NCR of Purkinje cells of the cortex cerebellum as compared to the control group and their 3-fold reduction in the inner pyramidal stratum of the cortex somatosensory gives evidence about the opposite direction of compensatory responses of the brain regions under study. Intoxication of albino rats by lead acetate at the median toxic dose of 45 mg/kg/24 h causes marked histological changes in the cerebellar cortex and the somatosensory region confirmed by morphometric data.

Keywords: cerebellum, somatosensory cortex, lead acetate

Citation: Shubina OS, Egorova MV, Komusova OI, Dudenkova NA, Bardin VS, Labzina LY, et al. Morphometric studies of the cerebral cortex under exposure to lead acetate in albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1791-6.

Informational and psychological safety of the educational environment in forming a person’s personality: current challenges and risks (ecological and psychological approach)
Valentina B. Salakhova, Sofiya Sh. Umerkaeva, Sergey E. Ignatyev, Irina E. Sokolovskaya, Sofiya A. Nalichaeva, Anna K. Zebnitskaya

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Abstract

The importance of this paper is determined by the fact that present day society is characterized by crisis phenomena in many areas of socio-economic and social life, which entails a drastic change in habitual stereotypes and patterns of behavior, the reassessment of values and attitudes, and a change in worldviews. This tendency is acutely reflected in young people who study: children and teenagers, students of higher educational institutions. The paper presents the results of a study of the information-psychological safety of the educational environment in a context of the principle of ecological compatibility. The concept of “safety” is defined as the state of protection of the vital interests of an individual, society and the state from internal and external threats. Information and psychological safety is defined as: 1) a state of preservation of the human psyche; 2) maintaining the integrity of a person; 3) sustainable development and normal functioning of a person in interaction with the environment; 4) capabilities of the environment and the individual to prevent and eliminate threats; 5) the state of the environment, free from manifestations of psychological violence in interaction that contributes to the satisfaction of needs for personal and trustful communication, creating involvement in the environment and ensuring the mental health of participants included in it. It has been proved that the educational environment should be directed to: firstly creating educational conditions for unlocking the creative potential of different areas of the student’s psyche and his abilities (physical, emotional, cognitive, personal, spiritual and moral); secondly, to creating conditions that provide the opportunity to meet the needs of a given student in accordance with individual interests and characteristics, objectives of age-related socialization; thirdly, the use of such educational technologies that correspond to the natural physiological and psychological, as well as social characteristics and patterns of students’ development, i.e. meet the principle of ecological compatibility.

Keywords: personality development, ecological and psychological approach, educational space, current threats, global risks, psychology of the crisis

Citation: Salakhova VB, Umerkaeva SS, Ignatyev SE, Sokolovskaya IE, Nalichaeva SA, Zebnitskaya AK. Informational and psychological safety of the educational environment in forming a person’s personality: current challenges and risks (ecological and psychological approach). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1797-803.

Evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of trachyspermum and lemon balm essences and their combination on salmonella enteritidis bacteria and saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in mayonnaise sauce
Seyed Behzad Rouhipour, Morteza Khomeiri, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi

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Abstract

Introduction: Diseases caused by the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms have great importance in public health. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of trachyspermum and lemon balm essences and their composition against Salmonella enteritidis bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as corruption factor microorganisms in mayonnaise sauce.
Study Method: In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of trachyspermum and lemon balm essence against S. enteritidis and S. cerevisiae were determined by dilution method in Müller-Hinton tube and medium. Finally, the effect of trachyspermum essence (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 µg / ml) and lemon balm essence (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 µg / ml) and their composition on microbial growth, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in factorial form were evaluated as a completely randomized plan (P = 0.05).
Results: The results showed that different levels of trachyspermum significantly reduced the possibilityof microbial growth compared to lemon balm. S. cerevisiae yeast was more sensitive compared to S. enteritidis to treatment of essences with different concentrations. The most antioxidant activity was related to the composition of essences of trachyspermum and lemon balm at 0.75 µg / ml concentration. Also the lowest antioxidant activity was related to 0.25 µg / ml concentration of lemon balm. The total phenolic content increased significantly compared to the blank sample (lack of essence) by increasing concentration of trachyspermum and lemon balm and mixture of these two essences. Overall, sensory evaluation showed that mayonnaise with 0.50 µg / ml of trachyspermum essence had better quality for the consumer.
Conclusion: Economically, it can be said that a good combination of the used concentrations of trachyspermum and lemon balm in the sauce sample, can be advantageous in terms of creating an antimicrobial environment.

Keywords: antimicrobial effects, trachyspermum, lemon balm, mayonnaise, antioxidant activities, total phenolic

Citation: Rouhipour SB, Khomeiri M, Mahoonak AS, Sadeghi A. Evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of trachyspermum and lemon balm essences and their combination on salmonella enteritidis bacteria and saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in mayonnaise sauce. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1805-15.

Diversity and status of fish fauna in the Al-Kahlaa River, in Missan Province-Iraq, with notes on environmental variables
Sajad A. Abdullah, Abdul Hussein J. Abdullah, Yasser Wassfi Ouda

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Abstract

A various study has explained that river freshwater flow fluctuations and fish community structure relationships, with the aim of obtaining information for the crisis to enhance our understanding of main biological functions such as growth, reproduction, and nature of food. The hydrological system plays a vital role in the sustainable functions of the ecology in the riverine and flooding plain regimes, due to its reinforcement of habitats processes that influence species populations and aquatic communities. The present study was implemented the fish community structure, occurrence, and abundance in the Al-Kahlaa River which is one of the branch Tigris river, southeast of Missan province from July 2017 to June 2018 concerning some ecological factors; Temperature of water from 11.27˚C in January to 35.20˚C in July. The lowest rate value of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 6.40 mg/l in July and the highest was (8.44 mg/l) in December. Salinity showed a range of values from 1.1 g/l in April to 2 g/l in October. Hydrogen ion (pH) values within the alkaline direction. Total dissolved solids (TDS) extend from 1952 mg/l in September to 2603 mg/l in October. The range of electric conductivity between 2 mS/cm in January and 3.1 mS/cm in October. The fish population calculated for the 18 species analyzed in this study belonged to 18 genera and seven families. A total of 10873 individuals of fishes were collected from the study stations and they were ranged from 629 in February to 1109 in May. The relative abundance and dominance index (D3) of fish species of Al-Kahlaa River was dominated by C. zillii, P. Abu and A. mossulensis (27.59, 24.91, 14.12%) respectively from the total assemblage. The study indicated that the fish structure and number of fish species, individuals and dominance in the Al-Kahlaa River differed from the rivers of Iraq.

Keywords: fish structure, environmental factors, Al-Kahlaa River, fish species

Citation: Abdullah SA, Abdullah AHJ, Ouda YW. Diversity and status of fish fauna in the Al-Kahlaa River, in Missan Province-Iraq, with notes on environmental variables. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1817-24.

Biological and ecological aspects of hemipterans (heteroptera) pentatomomortha 1 on the area SNNP “Kolsay Koldery”
D. Sh. Akimzhanov, P. A. Esenbekova, I. I. Kabak, B. K. Yelikbaev

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Abstract

As a result of researchs of hemipterans’ biodiversity on the territory of “Kolsai Koldery”, 50 species from 31 genus and 5 families have been identified: Lygaeidae (39 species), Aradidae (5 species), Piesmatidae (2 species), Berytidae (3 species), Pyrrhocoridae (1 species). According to bybiological features and trophic connections, 5 species (10%) of mycetofage, 38 species (88%) of phytophage, 30 species (60%) of polyphythofagе, 6 species (12%) of large scale oligophythofagе, 6 species (12%) of narrow oligophythofagе, 2 species (4%) of monophage and 1 species (2%) of zoophythophage were identifid on the area of the SNNP “Kolsai Koldery”. According to environmental features the following groups of species were singled out: meso-xerophile -3 species (6%), mesophile -47 species (94%). As for inhabitation, the hemipterans on this territory fall into several categories: dendrobionts (8 species, 18%), dendro-thamnobionts (1 - 2%), hortobyonts (15 species, 30%), herpetobionts (14 species, 28%), herpeto- hortobyonts (11 species, 22%).

Keywords: hemipterans, Pentatomomorpha I, biodiversity, biology, ecology, Kolsai Koldery

Citation: Akimzhanov DS, Esenbekova PA, Kabak II, Yelikbaev BK. Biological and ecological aspects of hemipterans (heteroptera) pentatomomortha 1 on the area SNNP “Kolsay Koldery”. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1825-32.

Hardiness as a component for sustainable development of a person’s personality: ecological and psychological aspect
Anzhela V. Romanova, Valentina B. Salakhova, Tatiana V. Ganova, Sofiya A. Nalichaeva, Lina S. Nazarova, Alevtina I. Dolzhenko

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Abstract

The conditions under which the life of a contemporary person goes are often and justifiably called extreme ones which stimulate the development of stress. This is connected with many factors and threats, including socio-economic, environmental and natural ones. The author substantiates in the article the importance of the study of psychological aspects in the interdisciplinary problem of human interaction with the environment. The interest in this problem is determined by the exacerbation of global environmental problems of mankind, the need for psychological support for the implementation of the concept of “sustainable development”. The areas in Western psychology are analyzed, united by a common scientific problem that have areas of subject and methodological intersection: environmental psychology, ecopsychology, psychology of interaction with the environment and psychology of sustainable development. Many researchers consider the ambiguity of the concept of “ecology of mental development” which is widely used in modern psychological writing. Some authors assert that correlation of the context of foreign and Russian studies will contribute to more active involvement of psychologists in solving real problems of human interaction with the environment. Besides, the paper presents the results of an empirical study of the phenomenon of suicide from the perspective of an ecological approach. Suicidal behavior is considered as a disturbance of the “sustainable development” of an individual and as a destructive response to the “global challenges”. Considering suicide as a deep act that brings a person closer to comprehending the fundamental worldviews of being, there is a need to consider risk factors and preventive factors of the manifestation of suicide. In this context, the level of the person’s hardiness is discussed as a factor that harmonizes the personal ecology of a person and thereby prevents the risk of suicide. Conclusions have been drawn that hardiness is a strong personal resource to overcome the negative impact of stressful situations in a system of unfavorable social ecology, and thus, a resource to prevent the risk of suicidal behavior.

Keywords: hardiness, the concept of “sustainable development”, suicidal risk, ecological approach, ecology of mental development

Citation: Romanova AV, Salakhova VB, Ganova TV, Nalichaeva SA, Nazarova LS, Dolzhenko AI. Hardiness as a component for sustainable development of a person’s personality: ecological and psychological aspect. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1833-40.

Efficiency of using probiotic preparation “Chrisal” for mastitis prevention
Aigerim Zhubatkanova, Gulstan Kurmanova, Rakhymtai Tleulesov, Sairan Dyusenov, Gadyl Bexultanov, Assel Paritova, Dinara Zeynettinova

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Abstract

The incidence of mastitis in dairy herds is closely related to the implementation of the anti-mastitis program, as one of the important aspects of the prevention of udder diseases in lactating cows is the treatment of teats after milking with antiseptic preparations. However, despite their effectiveness with respect to pathogens and emollients available in the composition, such as lanolin, glycerin, they cause irritation of tissues in the area of the opening of the teat canal, since after dipping the teat in a disinfectant in the upper area a drop of the preparation is left there, which leads to aggravation of the pathological process. In this regard, for the treatment of udder teats after milking there were proposed agents containing probiotic bacteria in their composition.

Keywords: mastitis, cow, probiotics, physiological reaction, udder treatment

Citation: Zhubatkanova A, Kurmanova G, Tleulesov R, Dyusenov S, Bexultanov G, Paritova A, et al. Efficiency of using probiotic preparation “Chrisal” for mastitis prevention. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1841-8.

Molecular study on Cytolysins, Adhesins, Siderophores and Efflux pump among Cervico-Vaginal Escherichia coli
Marwa M. Al-Khaqani, Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi, Mourouge S. Alwash

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Abstract

Background: Bacterial vaginosis is an important female reproductive tract infection. It push a threat of miscarriage or fertility-related problems if it untreated. Cervico-vaginal E. coli (CVEC) is the common cause agent of microbial vaginosis. It equipped by a set of adhesins, immune-disguise protein, cytolysins, siderophores and metal efflux pump that enable them from establishing and endure the infection.
Methodology: One hundred fifty seven (157) vaginal swabs were collected from female clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginitis. The swab was put in tubes of broth of Brain heart infusion (BHIB) to keep them vital and non-dry until being taken to the laboratory and the inoculated on MacConkey agar Eosin methylene blue agar. The only pinky colony with green-metallic shine, on MacConkey agar Eosin methylene blue agar respectively, were selected for study. Polymerase chain reaction using specific primer pairs was used to investigate the virulence factors at molecular level.
Results: The results revealed that, out of (157) clinical samples only 32 (20.38%) isolates were belonged to E. coli. Regarding the adhesins the results revealed that FimH adhesin was the most common virulence factor and was discovered in 25( 78.13%) of CVEC strains, followed by FocG 23(71.87% ), PapGII 22(68.75%), GafD 12(37.5%) and SfaS 8(21.87%) while PapGI and PapGIII not detected in the current study. Concern the cytolysins the results showed that 25(78.13%), 27(84.38%) of CVEC isolates possess hemolysin gene (hlyA) and phospholipase A gene (pldA). The investigation of both kpsMT-K1 and kpsMT-K5 genes. The results revealed that kpsMT-K1 were predominant and compile 10(31.25%), while kpsMT-K5 (which encodes for K5 capsule) were not detected. Aerobactin gene (iucD) were detected in 24(75%) of CVEC isolates. The presence of cusC gene (as a representative for cusCFBA operon responsible for copper/silver efflux) revealed that all CVEC have cusC 32(100%).
Conclusion: The current study conclude possession of CVEC for a sets of virulence effectors that enable them from establish the infection, dissemination, immune system evading and sustainability of infection.

Keywords: CVEC, pldA, fimH, papGII, sfaS, focG, kpsMT-K1, kpsMT-K5, cusCFBA

Citation: Al-Khaqani MM, Al-Dahmoshi HOM, Alwash MS. Molecular study on Cytolysins, Adhesins, Siderophores and Efflux pump among Cervico-Vaginal Escherichia coli. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1849-57.

Utilization of white oyster mushroom powder (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm.) in the making of biscuit as emergency food product
Melanie Cornelia, Jessica Chandra

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Abstract

Emergency situation caused people having difficulties in fulfilling their daily nutritional needs through ready-to-eat foods. The aim of this research was to utilize white oyster mushroom in the making of biscuit as emergency food product. White oyster mushroom powders were obtained by drying of fresh white oyster mushroom using cabinet dryer, sun drying, and oven. Cabinet dryer was chosen as the best drying method to produce white oyster mushroom powder based on yield and nutritional content. Biscuit emergency food products were formulated by using 25%, 30%, 35% of white oyster mushroom powder and using the different types of fat (palm oil, margarine, and shortening). Each formulation were analyzed for physical, chemical and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the higher white oyster mushroom powder’s added, the moisture, protein, fat, ash and hardness of biscuit increased, but the lightness decreased. The different type of fat used, gave the different characteristics of products. The best formulation chosen were 25% of white oyster mushroom powder added and palm oil as fat source. The chosen biscuit’s formulation had 241.58 kcal which was 10.86% of energy given by protein, 42.14% from fat, and 47.00% from carbohydrate. The comparison analysis with the emergency food commercial product (NEO’s brand) showed that the chosen biscuit had higher energy from protein and lower energy from fat and carbohydrate. So, this biscuit product could be consumed as an emergency food product because it was ready to fulfill the daily nutritional needs.

Keywords: biscuit, cabinet dryer, emergency food product, palm oil, white oyster mushroom

Citation: Cornelia M, Chandra J. Utilization of white oyster mushroom powder (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm.) in the making of biscuit as emergency food product. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1859-66.

Information and educational environment of higher school as a factor of the formation of coping strategies in the structure of students’ personality (ecological and psychological aspect)
Galina S. Goloshumova, Olga V. Ershova, Valentina B. Salakhova, Alexey V. Kidinov, Sofiya A. Nalichaeva, Vera A. Yanysheva

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Abstract

The conditions in which the life of a contemporary person is passing can be called extreme ones that stimulate the development of stress. Therefore, at present it is particularly relevant to talk about adaptation, which is one of the key problems of modern psychology. The problem of adaptation originated in biology, where attempts to study the relationship of organisms with the environment appeared rather early. Today this problem has outgrown the scope of natural science and has been enriched by the ideas of modern social and human sciences, where it acquired a new content. The increased interest in this problem is determined by the intensive changes taking place in contemporary society. The importance of the study is due to the fact that under the conditions of crisis development of contemporary Russian society, the number of people who are unable to overcome difficulties of life is increasing. The article presents the results of an empirical study of the styles of defense and coping behavior of students in difficult life situations, overcoming which either passive psychological defense mechanisms or active coping mechanisms are used. The leading research methods are diagnostic and static methods, allowing one to identify the presence of significant differences in copying strategies and defense mechanisms in students. The results of the empirical study led to the conclusion that the styles of defense and coping behavior are a reflection of the close interaction of many mental characteristics, including intellectual development. These characteristics, acting integrally, are the psychological support for opposing deviant behavior and, in its turn, contribute to a sense of psychological well-being. In addition, a comprehensive study of specific features of the use of psychological defense mechanisms, coping mechanisms, and frustration reactions made it possible to describe the structure of the regulation methods used by a person to adapt in the environment. The results obtained in the study give a better insight into understanding of the structure of adaptive mechanisms and reveal the regulation features of a person’s behavior. The authors of the study found that the use of non-constructive coping mechanisms in frustration and stressful situations and the excessive use of psychological defense mechanisms is a cause of maladaptation, which prevents the sensation of psychological well-being and personal development. The revealed features and interconnections of coping mechanisms, psychological defense mechanisms, frustration reactions, practical thinking and psychological well-being give a more complete picture of adaptive capabilities of a person’s personality and their connection with psychological well-being. The results obtained can help in predicting possible risks in the process of overcoming and experiencing stress. The obtained data can be used in personality psychotherapy and in the setting of university learning.

Keywords: coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, stress, personal resources, students of higher educational institutions

Citation: Goloshumova GS, Ershova OV, Salakhova VB, Kidinov AV, Nalichaeva SA, Yanysheva VA. Information and educational environment of higher school as a factor of the formation of coping strategies in the structure of students’ personality (ecological and psychological aspect). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1867-4.

Mathematical modeling of the extracting process of vegetable oil on auger equipment
Ye. Z. Mateyev, D. B. Shalginbayev, S. Z. Mateyeva, M. V. Kopylov, A. N. Ostrikov, V. N. Vasilenko

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Abstract

In recent years, in the Republic of Kazakhstan the interest in the use of new types of cultivated plants that differ from the traditional ones in terms of a range of useful properties and attributes has increased. Among the new plant nutritional resources used by mankind, safflower occupies a special place - a promising oilseed for cultivation and processing in the conditions of farms in the south of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Safflower oil in its composition and taste is practically not inferior to olive, but the technology for its production has not yet been worked out. Most modern presses are made for the extraction of oil from certain crops; it is difficult to transfer such presses to another oilseed crop, and even if possible, the extraction of oil is less effective. In order to preserve all useful substances in vegetable oils obtained by pressing, it is necessary to choose the optimal parameters for its extraction. Using mathematical modeling, the movement of oilseeds in the inter-turn space of the auger is shown. The working chamber of the oil press is conditionally divided into two consecutive sections. The task of section 1 is to increase the pressure in the raw material to a maximum while maintaining a constant temperature. The task of section 2 is the maximum oil extraction. Assumptions are made that the raw material in the auger channel is an incompressible medium; in section I, the seed meal flow in isothermal mode is laminar, in the form of a rotating working chamber around a fixed auger, and the movement is unidirectional throughout the entire inter-turn space of the auger. A mathematical model of the process of extracting vegetable oil has been developed, showing the movement of oilseeds in the inter-turn space of auger under the assumption that the movement is unidirectional throughout the entire inter-turn space of the auger, and allows to determine the pressure at the end of the inter-turn space of auger directly in front of the filtration zone. Equations are derived that allow to determine the average speed of movement in inter-turn space. The pressure equation at the end of the auger channel immediately in front of the filtration zone is shown. The dimensionless mass concentration of oil at the exit from the filtration zone has been determined, which makes it possible to determine the amount of oil in the stream depending on the pressure at the end of the auger’s inter-turn space.

Keywords: extracting process, oil press, oil raw material, movement of raw materials in the auger channel

Citation: Mateyev YZ, Shalginbayev DB, Mateyeva SZ, Kopylov MV, Ostrikov AN, Vasilenko VN. Mathematical modeling of the extracting process of vegetable oil on auger equipment. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1875-80.

Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq
Miaad K. Al-Kudhairy, Majida M. Meteab Alshammari

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Abstract

Background and Objective: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) are the most common seen during pregnancy. Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in E. coli is an important mechanism for resistance to β-lactams especially third generation cephalosporins (TGC) and monobactams. This study aims to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli among pregnant women with ASB in Al-Najaf province, Iraq.
Methodology: A total of 214 randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant women were studied from September 1st 2017 to February 31st 2018 in Al-Najaf Province. Urine culture tests for the presence of an uropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were tested for susceptibility by using disk diffusion method. Phenotypic ESBL production were detected using four methods: modified Hodge test, CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test, double disc synergy test, and streaking on CHROMagarTM ESBL agar test. All phenotypic ESBL producing E. coli isolates were screened for blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M, genes by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Out of 574 asymptomatic pregnant females, 188(32.8%) women were positive for culture. The most common uropathogenic bacteria isolated was Escherichia coli 76(40.4%). ESBL producing E. coli were 18 (23.7%) determined by using four phenotypic methods. All ESBL producers were resistant 18 (100%) to most of β-lactam antibiotics under study, but still high sensitive 18(100%) to Fosfomycin, Levofloxacin and Carbapenem. 7(9.2%) isolates were found to be ESBL producer by using Multiplex PCR, and 5 (71.4%) isolates carried more than one type of ESBL genes. Two (28.6%) isolates carried only blaCTX-M gene. blaCTX-M gene was most dominant and present in all isolates. blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes were detected in 3(42.8%) isolates, blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes in 2 (28.6%) isolates.
Conclusion: The most common cause of ASB among pregnant women was E. coli. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were found in low percentage and resistant to most of β-lactam antibiotics, but no isolate produce carbapenemase. blaCTX-M gene was predominant in ESBL producers rather than other genes.

Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamase, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M

Citation: Al-Kudhairy MK, Alshammari MMM. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1881-9.

Reproductive practices in modern Russian society
M. Yu. Eflowа, E. R. Galieva

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Attention to reproductive behavior in this work is conditioned by the fact that such processes as the decrease of children born by a woman during her life, the increase of woman age giving birth to a first-born, and voluntary abandonment of a baby take place. Often this is due to socio-economic factors, but there is also the population health deterioration.
Over the past hundred years, the changes in the birth rate have occurred in Russia, reflecting the transition from the traditional to the new, modern type of reproductive behavior of a significant part of the population. In this regard, attention should be paid to reproductive scenarios and the ways they are implemented in our society.
This article discusses the main reproductive practices and the attitude of the Russian Federation residents to them on the basis of studies conducted by well-known centers for the study of public opinion in Russia. The overview of information is grouped into the following units: general information on reproductive behavior, reproductive attitudes, the methods of conception and ART, childbirth regulation.

Keywords: reproductive behavior, family, motherhood, fatherhood, birth planning, reproductive technology, infertility

Citation: Eflowа MY, Galieva ER. Reproductive practices in modern Russian society. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1891-5.

Improving the cultivation technology of Aport apple trees based on a complex of biological and agrotechnical innovations
Aigerim D. Abayeva, Gulshariya N. Kairova, Saule Zh. Kazybayeva, Marina V. Urazayeva, Kurmankul T. Abayeva

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The leading condition for increasing the intensification of fruit and berry production is the improvement of the assortment of fruit crops and the realization of the genetic potential of cultivars. The role of the cultivar in determining the productivity level in horticulture is especially significant, due to the fact that fruit crops are perennial plants, enter fruiting for 4-7 years, on seedling rootstocks for 6-7 years. Replacing a cultivar that does not meet modern requirements with a new more intensive one requires a significant investment of time and money. The existing assortment of fruits used in Kazakhstan today does not fully meet the requirements of intensification.
Improving the efficiency of production and gross harvests of Aport fruits based on the selection of selected forms, rootstocks, optimization of growing technology and determining the potential for laying port gardens in the region.
Field, laboratory methods were used.
The results of research on the study of zoned and promising apple varieties grown potentially ready for fruiting seedlings, optimization of planting density and improvement of the systems of formation, pruning of tree crowns, drip irrigation regimes in adaptive unsupported apple orchards on the Zhetysu-5 clonal rootstock are presented. The traditional cultivar Aport comes into fruiting for 8-10 years after laying the garden, while the varieties of modern selection (Golden Delishes, Sarkrimson, Zarya Alatau and others) provide full fruiting for 3-5 years. Moreover, Aport has a very pronounced fruiting frequency, i.e. after a good harvest the next year, Aport “rests.” Aport is not resistant to disease. The fruits of Aport in vaults of the usual type are characterized by unsatisfactory keeping quality. The complex of the listed objective and subjective reasons has led to the fact that commodity producers began to prefer intensive varieties that provide a faster return on investment.
Thus, our studies have shown that the fruits of the Aport cultivar from dwarf trees during the long-term storage period in fruit storages acquire higher palatability as compared to apples from trees on vigorous seedling rootstock. At the same time, in the first case, ascorbic acid is destroyed faster in fruits. The physiological disease “Jonathan spotting” and “tanning” are more susceptible to fruits from vigorous trees, browning of the pulp and the core of fruits, various fungal diseases - fruits from dwarf trees. Therefore, fruits for long-term storage must be laid separately, taking into account the growth power of trees depending on rootstocks, and earlier to realize fruits from dwarf trees.

Keywords: shoots ripening, generative organs, introduction, artificial pollination, berry growth, frost resistance, winter hardiness, graft seal, vegetation, air humidity, relative humidity

Citation: Abayeva AD, Kairova GN, Kazybayeva SZ, Urazayeva MV, Abayeva KT. Improving the cultivation technology of Aport apple trees based on a complex of biological and agrotechnical innovations. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1897-05.

A roadmap for rapid molecular differential characterisation of human pathogenic Candida species
Ayat Al-laaeiby, Ali Hadi Abbas

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The PCR technique is a promising technique used to establish accurate identification methods to gain precise results. The incidence of yeast infections has increased dramatically coinciding with the breakout of HIV infections. A quick and affordable diagnostic procedure is crutial in the quest to tackle such infections. In this study, a detailed diagnostic framework was designed to help in the rapid identification of pathogenic Candida species. A sum of 17 Candida species were involved in this analysis and a common conserved region of rRNA was detected to design primer pairs for in-silico PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was used for species identification. One universal primer was designed to amplify the conserved region in all species, while two others were specific to particular species. Results showed that the PCR-RFLP technique (by using the universal primer No.1) identified 10 species Clavispora lusitaniae, C. Cyberlindnera, C. asseri by unique restriction enzyme HinfI, C. carpophila and C. quercitrusa using HphI and, C. glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus using PhoI while P. kudriavzevii and C. viswanathii using BglI and BseGI respectively. Moreover, C. albicans PCR was identified by double restriction enzymes StuI and BspOI. The PCR-RFLP analysis has identified 7 species using primer pair No.2. These species are C. parapsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus by AatI and AcvI respectively. The Cleavage of PCR products using Bst4CI has identified four species (C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. tropicalis). C. dubliniensis was identified by double restriction enzymes (DraI+ ApoI). Meanwhile, C. orthopsilosis was identified through DraI digestion of virtual PCR product (primer pair No.3). All together, these results showed that PCR-RFLP technique is an efficient and rapid method used to scrutinise accurate results by computational based methods before being applied in the Lab. This study set up for a detailed guideline for an accurate, quick diagnostic procedure without any need for the sequencing step.

Keywords: Candida species, in-silico PCR, RFLP-PCR

Citation: Al-laaeiby A, Abbas AH. A roadmap for rapid molecular differential characterisation of human pathogenic Candida species. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1907-13.

Floral complexes with the involvement of Adonis Vernalis L. (fam. Ranunculaceae juss.) and environmental assessment of the conditions of their formation in the Southwest of Central-Russian Upland
Valeriу K. Tokhtar, Irina A. Kirilova, Liudmila A. Tokhtar, Elena V. Kaliuzhnaya

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The article presents the results of the study of structures of floral complexes with the involvement of Adonis vernalis L., the number of genera, families and species is indicated. Average points of severity of environmental factors were calculated, allowing assessing the environmental conditions in these ecotopes. Ecobiomorphs of species of the floral complexes in natural and quasi-natural ecotops are determined.

Keywords: Adonis vernalis L., south-west of the Central Russian Upland, Ellenberg scale, ecobiomorphs of plants

Citation: Tokhtar VK, Kirilova IA, Tokhtar LA, Kaliuzhnaya EV. Floral complexes with the involvement of Adonis Vernalis L. (fam. Ranunculaceae juss.) and environmental assessment of the conditions of their formation in the Southwest of Central-Russian Upland. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1915-8.

Effect of some priming methods on germination and vegetative parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton)
Maedeh Aghdaei, Seyyed Hossein Nemati, Leila Samiei, Ahmad Sharifi

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Priming is one of the basic solutions used for increasing seed germination percentage, speed and improving seedling establishment. One of the main problems in development of pepino planting- is its low seed germination percentage and speed. To investigate the effect of different priming methods (hydropriming with distilled water, hormonal priming with salicylic acid (1 and 2 mM) and halopriming with potassium nitrate (3 and 6%) and potassium sulfate (5 and 10%) solutions, and imbibition time of priming (12 and 24 hours) on germination of pepino seeds, two separate experiments were carried out in a factorial based on a completely randomized design. The pepino seeds in the first and second experiments were primed using different priming solutions and cultivated in petri dish with peat moss + perlite substrate. The results of the first experiment showed that the highest germination percentage (100%) and germination rate (26.4 percentage) were related to hydropriming treatment, whereas the lowest ones were related to salicylic acid treatment (with both priming times), which prevented seeds germination. Moreover, the lowest germination time was obtained in seeds primed using hydropriming and the highest ones were related to potassium sulfate (at 5 and 10%) and potassium nitrate (at 6%) treatments. Furthermore, the results of the second experiment showed that the seedling emergence percentage, shoot length, leaf number, leaf length without petiole and leaf length with petiole were significantly affected by priming treatments and priming time. In general, the best results were obtained using hydropriming for 12 h, whereas application of salicylic acid (at 1 and 2 mM) at both priming durations (12 and 24 h) had a negative effect on germination percentage and vegetative characteristics of pepino seedlings.

Keywords: seed, hydropriming, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, salicylic acid

Citation: Aghdaei M, Nemati SH, Samiei L, Sharifi A. Effect of some priming methods on germination and vegetative parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1919-29.

Morphogenetic characteristics of chernozem leached in mining enterprises pollution conditions
Zhadуrassyn Sarkulova, G. Lo Papa, Carmelo Dazzi, Farida Kozybaeva, Gulzhan Beiseyeva

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The article presents the results of comparative studies on the uncontaminated (virgin) leached chernozem soil in terms of heavy metal contamination due to zinc plant operations. Study object location is given. The territory under the influence of plant emissions is devoid of vegetation. Everywhere on the soil surface there are manifestations of deep erosion processes and continuous erosion of the topsoil. Soil cuts with morphogenetic descriptions, physical, physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soil were laid at the objects. The soil cover under the influence of pollution has undergone degradation and led to transformational processes of particle size distribution, humus content, absorbed bases, the elemental composition of the food regime of the soil, as well as on the vital activity of the soil biota.

Keywords: soil, heavy metals, humus, soil - ecological functions, soil biota, plants, granulometric composition of the soil

Citation: Sarkulova Z, Lo Papa G, Dazzi C, Kozybaeva F, Beiseyeva G. Morphogenetic characteristics of chernozem leached in mining enterprises pollution conditions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1931-41.

Comparative analysis of types of plants-transformers in various regions of Central Russia
Valeriy K. Tokhtar, Andrey Yu. Kurskoy, Dmitriy V. Velikikh, Liudmila A. Tokhtar, Tatiana V. Petrunova

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In this study the results of a comparative analysis of transformer species in nine different regions of Central Russia by life forms of I.G. Serebryakov (1962) and geographical origin of species are presented. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species of the compared regions, there are no common species that are transformers in all 9 regions simultaneously. However, there is a group of plants-transformers, which are represented in 8 of 9 areas.
Analyzing the ratio of life forms of transformer species in 9 regions of Central Russia, it is noted that herbaceous polycarpous plants predominate in 6 of 9 regions (except Lipetsk Oblast, Voronezh Oblast and Belgorod Oblast). Their number gradually decreases in various regions of Central Russia in the direction from the North to the South. Annual species, classified as the transformers, are consistently represented in a significant number of plants in all studied regions, while a group of herbaceous monocarpous plants is often missing among the plants-transformers in different regions. By geographical origin, the North American species predominate among the transformer species in all areas.

Keywords: alien component of the flora, transformer species

Citation: Tokhtar VK, Kurskoy AY, Velikikh DV, Tokhtar LA, Petrunova TV. Comparative analysis of types of plants-transformers in various regions of Central Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1943-6.

Nutritive and biological value of the germinated wheat grain
Bahytkul Assenova, Farida Smolnikova, Almagul Nurgazezova, Samat Kassymov, Zhibek Atambayeva, Nazira Kuderinova, Aidyn Igenbayev, Ayaulym Mustafayeva

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Abstract

Wheat grain germination is necessary for higher solubilization of nutrients, making nutrients more available. During the germination process of the grain the amount of vitamins, such as B1, B6, B9, vitamin C decreases, whereas the content of vitamins B5, B2, E. increases. Among the minerals, calcium concentration increases from 52.0 mg/100g before germinating up to 100 mg/100 g after germinating. Such tendency also observed for sodium, phosphorous, iron, and magnesium. After germination the amount of five essential amino acids, such as valine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan increases. At the same time, the amount of three essential amino acids is reduced: leucine, lysine, phenylalanine.

Keywords: wheat, grain, germinating, vitamin, mineral, amino acid

Citation: Assenova B, Smolnikova F, Nurgazezova A, Kassymov S, Atambayeva Z, Kuderinova N, et al. Nutritive and biological value of the germinated wheat grain. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1947-51.

Microbial and resistance profile among diabetic foot-infections
Mohammed H. Al-Allak, Noor S. K. Al-Khafaji, Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi

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Abstract

Diabetic foot-associated infections (DFAIs) is a complication of diabetes resulted from poor hygiene and infection. It may be monomicrobial or polymicrobial of different bacterial genera or species. DFAIs may lead to gangrene and amputation. The current study aims to investigate microbial profile and antibiogram of DFAIs agents. Thirty specimens were gathered from 22 male and 8 female diabetic patients with foot ulcers from hospitals in Babylon. Total of 47 different bacterial isolates were recovered, 18 organisms (38.3%) were gram positive and 29 (61.7%) were gram negative. 16 ulcers show polymicrobial (more than two different species) while only 14 show unimicrobial infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the organism which records as most commonly isolated (34%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.2%), And followed by Escherichia coli (14.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6 %), Proteus sp. (8.5%), Streptococcus pyogenes (4.2%), Acinetobacter baumannii (4.2%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.1%). A good sensitivity was shown by all of the Gram-positive bacteria to most of the antibiotics, A good sensitivity was shown by Staphylococcus aureus to Augmentin, Amikacin, Cloxacillin, Vancomycin, erythromycin, Imipenem and Sulphamethoxazole \ Trimethoprim, also a good sensitivity was shown by Streptococcus pyogenes to most of the studied antibiotics, especially to Clindamycin where it showed a 100% resistance. The Gram negative bacteria, on the other hand showed good sensitivity to amikacin, Aztreonam, Gatifloxacin, Imipenem and Sulphamethoxazole \ Trimethoprim. A 100% resistance was shown by Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Cefotaxime. Another 100% resistance was shown by Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Clindamycin. Finally a 100% resistance was shown by Citrobacter freundii, E. coli and Proteus sp. to Augmentin. The current study conclude the possibility of monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections of diabetic foot for both Gram positive and negative bacteria with excellent sensitivity to amikacin and imipenem.

Keywords: diabetic foot, S. aureus, A. baumannii, Imipenem

Citation: Al-Allak MH, Al-Khafaji NSK, Al-Dahmoshi HOM. Microbial and resistance profile among diabetic foot-infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1953-9.

Protection of Sinapis alba seed crops from phytophages
Vasilieva Tatyana Viktorovna, Chukhina Olga Vasilievna, Demidova Anna Ivanovna, Ivanovskaya Veronika Yurievna, Schekutieva Natalya Aleksandrovna

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On seed crops of Sinapis alba on sod-weakly podzolic soil the main phytophages - wavy, black cruciferous fleas, blossom beetles, cabbage, grass, mustard bugs and cabbage aphids are revealed. The high efficiency of the insecticide Sumi-Alpha with a flow rate of 0.2 L/ha-93.5-99.3 % was established. The efficiency of the microbiological preparation of bitoxybacillin with the consumption rate of 4 kg/ha was 85.5-100.0 %.

Keywords: sinapis alba, testes, phytophages, number, protection, preparation, efficiency

Citation: Viktorovna VT, Vasilievna CO, Ivanovna DA, Yurievna IV, Aleksandrovna SN. Protection of Sinapis alba seed crops from phytophages. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1961-6.

Agroecological characteristics of soils disturbed by oil production and methods of their recultivation in dossor
V. K. Bekbaeva, G. P. Metaksa, A. T. Kanaev

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The article reflects the analysis of the current state of the environment in the region and the existing ways of reducing the harmful effects of oil-producing industries on the environment. The possibilities and properties of magnetic powder for the purification oil waste (sludge collectors, oil-contaminated soils, oil spills) were investigated. Rational methods of reducing the harmful effects of waste on the environment based on the magnetic properties of quartz powder and renewable energy sources have been developed. Assessments are given that reflect the effectiveness of developed ways to reduce the harmful impact of oil waste on the environment. The developed proposals in the current production environment were tested. Theoretical foundations for the purification of small-scale contaminants have been developed, namely, first, the catalytic activity of water in relation to magnetic quartz-containing powder linearly depends on its concentration. Secondly, the use of magnetic powder improves the ecological situation during the recultivation of oil-contaminated soil, the processing of oil barns, and the cleaning of reservoirs and tanks from oil pollution. Third, the concentration ratio of the magnetic adsorbent to the oil spill is established in the proportion 1: 10. The main idea of the article is to study the environmental situation in the region, analyze the existing ways of neutralizing and disposing of waste oil production and develop ways to reduce their harmful effects on environmental elements through the effective use of magnetic materials and non-traditional energy sources. It is shown for the first time that in the practical use of quartz-containing mechanically activated minerals, an environmental effect is achieved in the processes of eliminating oil pollution.

Keywords: reclamation, pollution, oil waste, technology, method of purification

Citation: Bekbaeva VK, Metaksa GP, Kanaev AT. Agroecological characteristics of soils disturbed by oil production and methods of their recultivation in dossor. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1967-2.

Affects of weeds control methods on yield and quality of fruit in apple tree
A. Gandomkar

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In order to determine different control methods of weeds in golden apple orchards on the yield and fruit quality, A randomized complete block (RCB) design with eight treatments and three replications was done. Each plot included two tree and one tree per plot was placed as a margin. A margin row was placed between each replication. Treatments were included: 1) control, 2) persian clover cultivation in the tree intervals, 3) mungbean cultivation in the tree interval, 4) soybean cultivation in the tree intervals, 5) using black plastic mulch + rotivator, 6) application of Rundop herbicide, 7) tree intervals cultivate by rotivator, 8) alfalfa plantation in tree the intervals. At the end of growing season, cultivated plants used as green manure and returned with tillage to soil. Application of alfalfa, soybean, clover and mungbean cause a significant increase in soil organic carbon. The most effective treatment for competing with weeds was black plastic mulch. Black plastic mulch caused significantly decrease in soil moisture losses via evaporation. Herbicides application was effective, but it didn’t suggest because of environmental protection, soil health and possible damage to fruit trees and high cost of herbicides is not recommended. Cultivator treatment was effective for controling annual weeds, but it needed to replicate during growth season and increased fruit falling because of physical contact with tree canopy, it wasn’t applicable. Soybean and alfalfa have good competition with weeds in case of high growth rate, high height and good shading. However clover and mungbean mulch were effective on improving soil properties, but in case of their low growth rate and low height have not ability to compete with weeds. Leaf analysis showed that treatments of alfalfa, soybean, clover and mungbean were increased leaf nitrogen concentrations. Mulch of alfa alfa, clover, vetch, soybeans and black nylon were also significantly increased the fruit yield and quality. In dry-year, the nylon mulch is suitable for weeds control, but if we have enough water for irrigation the soybeans mulch is good for weeds control and improve soil fertility.

Keywords: green mulch, non-living mulch, yield, weeds

Citation: Gandomkar A. Affects of weeds control methods on yield and quality of fruit in apple tree. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1973-7.

PCR-based investigation of enterotoxin profile among Staphylococcus Aureus isolated from women with vaginosis
Noor S. K. Al-Khafaji, Samah A. Kadhum, Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi

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Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the communal cause of foul-smelling vaginal secretions among females at sexual age. BV is called vaginosis and not vaginitis because it is associated with alteration in normal vaginal flora rather than due to specific infection. In particular, Staphylococcus spp. has been well-known as one of the causative agent of BV. Staphylococcal-related infections is supposed to part of causes in unreceptive pregnancy outcomes and female sterility. This study aimed to investigate some of enterotoxin profile among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from women with BV. All isolates inoculated on mannitol salt, blood and UTI chromogenic agar for primary screening of Staphylococcus aureus and then confirmed by amplification of species specific 16S rDNA gene. Sets of enterotoxins were investigated using specific primer pairs. Twenty five (29.09%) isolates were used in this study and recovered from 86 high vaginal swap during a period of 3 months. PCR results showed that (48%, 28%, 40%, 36% and 12%) of isolates have sea gene, seb gene, sec gene, sed gene and see gene respectively. The results revealed no difference in sensitivity could be found for the Staphylococcus aureus detection between culture and PCR and enterotoxins existence is varied.

Keywords: S. aureus, enterotoxin, bacterial vaginosis

Citation: Al-Khafaji NSK, Kadhum SA, Al-Dahmoshi HOM. PCR-based investigation of enterotoxin profile among Staphylococcus Aureus isolated from women with vaginosis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1979-84.

Reclamation of dusting surfaces of the tailings of the concentrating plants
A. A. Ismailova, N. Zhalgasuly, A. T. Kanaev

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The object of research is the technology of obtaining physiologically active humic preparations from brown coal, the effectiveness of their impact on the seeds of wild plants has been investigated, and tests have been carried out with the aim of dedusting at tailings of enrichment plants in the harsh soil and climatic conditions of the arid zone of Kazakhstan. Soil experiments were used for the transition from the use of plant growth preparations to agricultural land for the dedusting of objects during mining.
The combination of extremely adverse climatic and geological factors adversely affects the ecological situation in the region. The need to address the issue of reducing dust emissions from this man-made education is obvious. In this regard, in such areas it is necessary to develop measures to stabilize the surface of the dumps, to protect them from intense dusting.
Technological parameters and agricultural methods were optimized on the basis of data obtained in the study of aqueous solutions of humic preparations, biophysical monitoring and correction of the main technological parameters.
A technology has been developed for obtaining a humic preparation from brown coal, installation of an experimental unit for obtaining a humic preparation has been carried out, an experimental batch of the preparation has been produced in 500 kg, its chemical and toxicological properties have been studied; Certificate of Compliance KSS № 0049776.

Keywords: brown coal, sodium physiologically active humate, biotesting, salting, ecological stability, extreme environmental factors, tailing, half, alabota, pasternak

Citation: Ismailova AA, Zhalgasuly N, Kanaev AT. Reclamation of dusting surfaces of the tailings of the concentrating plants. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1985-90.

Cultivation of root crops on sandy soil in semi-arid environment west of the Caspian Sea
S. A. Kurbanov, D. S. Magomedova, N. M. Nimatulaev, Sh. Sh. Omariev

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The paper addresses the issue of desertification in Dagestan, Russia. The area of sandy soils in the Terek–Kuma Lowland has reached 450 thousand hectares, although these lands can still be used in agriculture. The study seeks to develop elements of a drip irrigation technology for cultivating root crops on sandy lands and to obtain economically viable yields. Three-year studies determined that the optimal arrangement of planting the crops and placing the drippers is 0.3 × 0.2 m for winter garlic and table carrots and 0.35 × 0.3 m for sugar beet. The developed drip irrigation regime at the watering rates of 43–54 m3/ha allowed obtaining economically viable yields of winter garlic and table carrots. The use of organic fertilizers for increasing the fertility of sandy soils was found feasible.

Keywords: sandy soil, drip irrigation, winter garlic, table carrots, sugar beet, crop yield

Citation: Kurbanov SA, Magomedova DS, Nimatulaev NM, Omariev SS. Cultivation of root crops on sandy soil in semi-arid environment west of the Caspian Sea. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1991-5.

Study of the composition and properties of sheep milk in Northern Kazakhstan
Aknur Kh. Muldasheva, Botagoz O. Toxanbayeva, Assan B. Ospanov, Gulmira N. Zhakupova, Saule K. Bostanova

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Market relations force dairy producers to expand the range and offer consumers new competitive products, more useful and original in taste. Also, given that sheep milk products were traditional for the indigenous population of Kazakhstan, but over time, many technologies have been lost, it seems relevant to explore the milk of sheep and offer new, adapted to modern requirements dairy products.
The article presents the data of experimental studies conducted on samples of sheep milk. For a deeper study, the milk of sheep from the Northern and southern regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan was taken for experiments. 
For more profitable use of sheep milk in the production of dairy products, the chemical composition of milk was studied and a comparative characteristic was carried out.

Keywords: milk, sheep breeding, sheep milk, cottage cheese, yogurt

Citation: Muldasheva AK, Toxanbayeva BO, Ospanov AB, Zhakupova GN, Bostanova SK. Study of the composition and properties of sheep milk in Northern Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1997-2000.

Propagation of pistachio Pistacia vera L. by air layering under the effects of IBA and GA3 treatments
Ibrahim Maaroof Noori, Faraidwn Karim Ahmad, Rasul Rafiq Aziz, Aram Akram Mohammed

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Abstract

This research was conducted in the College of Agricultural Sciences Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region/ Iraq, to study the possibility of propagation of pistachio Pistacia vera cv. Batoury by air layering through treating the girdling wounds with IBA, and spray of layered shoots with IBA and GA3. The experiment was laid out by RCBD design with three replications on six trees. 20000 ppm IBA applied to the girdling wounds of layered shoots gave values of rooting percentage (63%), root number (4.6), root length (5.7 cm) and survival percentage (80%), while control gave no rooting. The rooting percentage of (33.4%) was achieved from layered shoots without spray and from those sprayed by 25 and 50 ppm IBA. A survival percentage of (50%) was achieved from layered shoots sprayed by 25, 50 ppm IBA and 30 ppm GA3. Interaction of 20000 ppm IBA treatment of girdling wound with 25 and 50 ppm IBA spray of layered shoots and without spray gave (70%) rooting percentage. 20000 ppm IBA treatment of girdling wound with spray of layered shoots by 25, 50 ppm IBA and 30 ppm GA3 showed the highest (100%) survival percentage.

Keywords: propagation, pistachio, Pistacia vera, air layering, IBA, GA3 treatments

Citation: Noori IM, Ahmad FK, Aziz RR, Mohammed AA. Propagation of pistachio Pistacia vera L. by air layering under the effects of IBA and GA3 treatments. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2001-4.

Adaptive potential of T. monococcum on salt stress resistance
A. Z. Shikhmuradov, M. G. Muslimov, N. S. Taymazova, G. I. Arnautova, F. P. Tsakhueva, M. M. Magomedov

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Abstract

The creation and cultivation of intensive varieties leads to the need to pay special attention to the protection of crops from biotic and abiotic adverse environmental factors. Adaptation of plants to new environmental conditions is achieved due to modification and genotypic variability, that is, by restructuring the complex of physiological, biochemical and morphoanatomical characteristics of the plant itself in ontogenesis and the formation of new reaction standards in phylogenesis. A prerequisite for adaptation should be the presence of such a norm of reaction for the genotype to changing environmental factors, which would determine various phenotypic modifications of a body, ensuring its viability in new conditions. More stable varieties most often have reduced productivity because of their reduced metabolic rate. However, production needs sustainable, environmentally plastic and highly productive varieties. It is possible to solve this problem by adaptive variety development that combine high-productivity genetic structures with the systems that ensure minimal yield losses from the effects of negative environmental factors. The study of plant intraspecific diversity resistance of the T. monococcum world collection by salt tolerance showed that this species is characterized by a small spectrum of salinity resistance. The samples with a high degree of salt tolerance were not observed. The number of intermediate forms in this species is much less than the number of sensitive genotypes. Thus, the laboratory analysis of 86 samples of T. monococcum of various ecological and geographical groups showed that T. monococcum is characterized by a significant variety of hereditary variants in terms of resistance to salt stress. The presence of such a huge intraspecific diversity allows us to select the forms contrasting by salt tolerance that are of interest for genetic and selection studies.

Keywords: hereditary diversity, adaptive potential, wheat, salt stress

Citation: Shikhmuradov AZ, Muslimov MG, Taymazova NS, Arnautova GI, Tsakhueva FP, Magomedov MM. Adaptive potential of T. monococcum on salt stress resistance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2005-8.

Transamination enzymes and their role in the selection of Degeres sheep
Sh. R. Adylkanova, T. S. Sadykulov, G. L. Kim, A. M. Koishibayev, E. B. Baimazhi, S. Yu. Dolgopolova

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Abstract

The most important task in animal husbandry is the identification and use of the biological capabilities of the animal organism in the production of cost-effective types of products. One way to solve this problem in sheep breeding is to find ways to increase the wool and meat productivity of sheep using biochemical blood parameters. The study of interior indicators in conjunction with productivity, as one of the forms of indirect selection, can accelerate the rate of selection due to early prediction of the genetic potential of highly productive animals. The theoretical justification for this relationship is the pleiotropic effect of genes, the heterozygosity of the body and the law of correlation.

Keywords: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), transamination enzymes, genetic potential, correlation, protein metabolism, indirect selection, breeding work, hormones, live weight, shearing

Citation: Adylkanova SR, Sadykulov TS, Kim GL, Koishibayev AM, Baimazhi EB, Dolgopolova SY. Transamination enzymes and their role in the selection of Degeres sheep. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2009-13.

The effect of formulating supplements on the quality, nutritional value, safety and microbiological parameters of butter cookies
Meruyet P. Baiysbayeva, Saule T. Zhiyenbayeva, Ainash Zh. Rustemova, Nurgul B. Batyrbayeva, Asel K. Izembayeva, Zhyldyz K. Irmatova

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Abstract

This work is aimed at developing recipes and technologies for preparing high-quality shortbread cookies with high nutritional value. In this research, the effect of margarine of different fat content (60%, 72%, 82%) for the formation of quality and the effect of corn, pea flour to increase the nutritional value of butter cookies were studied. According to the results of the study, the used margarine products with a fat content of 82% make up a thin layer covering flour particles, retaining elasticity over a wide temperature range and inhibiting the swelling and peptization of wheat flour proteins in these products (gluten), high-quality crumbly and brittle products were obtained. Based on the quality indicators of the finished products, it was found that shortbread cookies made with 20% cornmeal and 15% pea flour were distinguished by their crumbiness, good quality, good taste and aroma. It has been established that shortbread cookies with high nutritional and biological value are safe in terms of heavy metals and microbiological indicators.

Keywords: butter, shortbread cookies, dough, cookies, margarine, corn, peas

Citation: Baiysbayeva MP, Zhiyenbayeva ST, Rustemova AZ, Batyrbayeva NB, Izembayeva AK, Irmatova ZK. The effect of formulating supplements on the quality, nutritional value, safety and microbiological parameters of butter cookies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2015-21.

Screening of the allele pool of the pig populations of various breeds in the Belgorod and Voronezh regions of Russia by the gene of the estrogen receptor gene ESR1
Eduard A. Snegin, Elena A. Snegina, Anatolii S. Barkhatov, Olesia Yu. Artemchuk, Sergei R. Yusupov

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Abstract

We studied populations of boars of two pig breeds (Large White and Landrace) in the Belgorod and Voronezh regions of Russia to identify mutations in the gene of the estrogen receptor ESR1 (ESR/PvuII). The results showed that the frequency of the positive B allele was 0.279 in the Landrace and 0.824 in the Large White. An assumption is made that the breeding farms of the indicated region carry out the insufficient selection in Landrace pig populations in relation to maintaining high rates of multiple fertility.

Keywords: ESR1, ESR/PvuII mutations, pigs

Citation: Snegin EA, Snegina EA, Barkhatov AS, Artemchuk OY, Yusupov SR. Screening of the allele pool of the pig populations of various breeds in the Belgorod and Voronezh regions of Russia by the gene of the estrogen receptor gene ESR1. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2023-6.

Ecology of psycho-emotional climate in labor collectives: Factors, problems and prospects of development
Olga R. Tsabolova, Elena I. Cherdymova, Alexey N. Ilyin, Marina A. Zhukova, Indira G. Tsopanova, Lidiya N. Krasnova, Nikolay A. Mashkin, Tatyana K. Bugaeva

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Abstract

Relevance of the study. In the conditions of modern transformation of the labor system, interest in such a phenomenon as the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate is constantly growing. In modern society man the greater part of his life spends at work, so comfortable conditions of labor are extremely important for reaching achievements by the individual of goals set, enforcement of tasks and the advancement on the career ladder. All of this can be achieved if provided, that the employee is in the favorable for him emotional state, which in turn is created by the ecology psycho-emotional climate in collective in a whole. The aim of the study is to study mobbing as a factor affecting the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate in labor collective. The research is based on qualitative methodology. The leading method for the study of this problem is the interview method, which allows identifying the causes of mobbing as a negative socio-psychological phenomenon in labor collectives, significantly affecting the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate and thereby affecting the effectiveness of any organization. The article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of the phenomenon of ecology of psycho-emotional climate in labor collective. The theoretical foundations of the concept of mobbing are studied. The influence of mobbing on the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate of labor collective is analyzed. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate of labor collective is considered. It is revealed that the negative processes and attitudes expressed, in particular, in mobbing contribute to a decrease in labor productivity and economic indicators of the organization. It is determined that positive relations of employees form a favorable organizational climate; contribute to the accumulation of social capital, which, in turn, leads to increased productivity and profits of the organization. The main characteristics of mobbing, as constantly recurring negative actions of individuals or groups of people for a long time are allocated (aggressive, violent behavior, communicative attacks on various spheres of social relations, the escalation of the existing conflict in the form of active attacks and self-defense). It is shown that in a team where mobbing is present, the ecology of the psycho-emotional climate is violated, which means: this team is not cohesive and each of the team members is not interested in communicating with colleagues and in their work, they are less favorable to their professional activities and their colleagues, they do not maintain friendly relations with colleagues and begin to burn out emotionally. It is revealed that in the team, where there is no mobbing, there is a positive picture of relations among colleagues who are positive about their work in General and to their team. It is determined that mobbing, and subsequently deteriorating ecology of psycho-emotional climate in the team, leads to a decrease in labor efficiency and economic indicators of the organization, the emergence of new conflicts, lack of subordination, staff turnover, deterioration of the reputation of the organization and so on. It is revealed that mobbing in the team and negative psycho-emotional climate lead to global problems and costs of the organization, and therefore this problem requires a thorough study of the mood of the team, setting up feedback from employees, maintaining positive relationships in the team and preventing the emergence of mobbing.

Keywords: ecology of psycho-emotional climate, socio-psychological climate, labor collective, organization, mobbing

Citation: Tsabolova OR, Cherdymova EI, Ilyin AN, Zhukova MA, Tsopanova IG, Krasnova LN, et al. Ecology of psycho-emotional climate in labor collectives: Factors, problems and prospects of development. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2027-32.

Conflict prevention conditions and creation of a favorable social and psychological climate in labor communities
Vitaliy L. Skitnevskiy, Ivan A. Sedov, Yulia S. Krasilnikova, Valentina F. Balashova, Vladimir A. Kuznetzov, Nina I. Kulakova

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Abstract

The relevance of the research subject is defined by the dependency of enterprise success on team behavior and management style of a leader. Social and psychological competence of a leader is a necessary prerequisite for high achievements. It is worth mentioning that staff productivity and positive climate depends directly on the proper application of knowledge and skills by the leader. The goal of the article is to declare that the main task of a leader is to assist the actual workers to prevent acute conflict forms, to effectively resolve them without a loss to production or service and in the best interest of people. The leading research method for the study of the subject matter is the analysis of research papers as well as conditions of favorable social and psychological climate creation in labor communities resulting to knowledge of conflict resolution measures. Findings of the research show that problems of conflicts arise and depend frequently on the disability of the leader to provide for favorable social and psychological climate among workers. The organizational needs for creation of favorable social and psychological climate in a work team have been defined.

Keywords: conflict, leadership style, social and psychological climate, reflection, reflectiveness

Citation: Skitnevskiy VL, Sedov IA, Krasilnikova YS, Balashova VF, Kuznetzov VA, Kulakova NI. Conflict prevention conditions and creation of a favorable social and psychological climate in labor communities. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2033-40.

Assessment of the economic effect of the introduction of innovations in the investment and construction cycle
Elena A. Gurkovskaya, Anna A. Larionova, Natalia A. Zaitseva, Oksana S. Prantsuz, Alexey N. Zhavnerov, Ekaterina A. Belyaeva, Alla A. Semenova

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Abstract

The pace of innovation in construction today lags behind most other industries. To increase the investment attractiveness of the industry, a new mechanism is needed to generate, spread and introduce innovations, including a strategic assessment of the economic effects of introducing innovations, which determines the relevance of the study. The purpose of this article is to develop strategic tools for assessing the economic effects of introducing innovations into the investment and construction cycle. Theoretical and empirical methods, expert assessment, classification and structuring of information, reference and statistical data, a comparison method were used to analyze the existing problem. As a result of the study, the scientific and theoretical foundations of the definition of innovation and the main aspects of the functioning of the investment and construction cycle were summarized. The most significant sources of the formation of the economic effect as a result of the introduction of innovations in the investment and construction cycle are highlighted. A set of methods is proposed, the adaptation of which allows us to evaluate the economic efficiency of introducing innovations into the investment and construction cycle. An algorithm has been developed for assessing the economic effect of introducing innovations into the investment and construction cycle. The article will be useful both for the enterprises of the construction industry themselves, and for investors and other interested parties.

Keywords: innovation, economic efficiency, economic effect, investment and construction cycle, innovative potential

Citation: Gurkovskaya EA, Larionova AA, Zaitseva NA, Prantsuz OS, Zhavnerov AN, Belyaeva EA, et al. Assessment of the economic effect of the introduction of innovations in the investment and construction cycle. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2041-9.

The role of psychology students’ reflexivity in securing professional success
Olga I. Kayasheva, Zoya G. Khanova

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Abstract

One of the defining roles in the evolvement of successful professionals belongs to the reflexivity of students of the higher educational institutions. Reflexivity implies the ability of students to analyze and resolve challenging situations in their professional activity, reveal their personal peculiarities that contribute to or hinder their professional progress, comprehend their place in the professional world. Reflexivity is an important regulative component of the personality. It is necessary to distinguish between the constructive and non-constructive reflexivity. The constructive reflexivity is necessary for students to reveal their strengths and weaknesses in professional activity, efficiently adjust their behavioral strategies depending on the pursued professional goals and objectives. Reflexivity of students is developed through a system of specially organized problem-oriented classes and ensures the necessary level of training for future professionals. This paper suggests a three-stage model for developing reflexivity in psychology students at universities based on the subject-activity approach.

Keywords: reflection, reflexivity, personal reflection, professional success, psychology students

Citation: Kayasheva OI, Khanova ZG. The role of psychology students’ reflexivity in securing professional success. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2051-6.

The police reform through the prism of social partnership: the experience of Ukraine
Oleg Todoshchak, Oleg Khamkhodera, Roman Savchuk, Yuliia Bila-Tiurina

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Abstract

The purpose is to find possible ways as to how to increase the level of effective cooperation of the police with the institute of civil society in Ukraine on the ground of using international experience; to identify a single police reformation concept taking into consideration the rethinking of its social function. The method of system analysis, the dialectical method, the formal-logical method, the structural and functional one and the range of empirical ones were used while carrying out this research. The authors have come to a conclusion that the activity of the National police is aimed at constant prevention of social tension and at the prevention of crime by means of social environment monitoring. It is also aimed at helping people to solve their problems as well as at the relief action with minimal compulsory interference and at maximal approach to social problems. The research results are interesting and important for domestic lawmakers as well as for the subjects of public administration against the background of democratization and humanization tendencies’ actualization. Novelty and originality of the research: All the results were obtained independently. They are original (the analogues and adoptions are absent). The subject matter is studied in Ukraine first and has a perspective for further development.

Keywords: the police, social partnership, service function, public administration, Ukrainian

Citation: Todoshchak O, Khamkhodera O, Savchuk R, Bila-Tiurina Y. The police reform through the prism of social partnership: the experience of Ukraine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2057-63.