EurAsian Journal of BioSciences (Eurasia J Biosci, e-ISSN 1307-9867) is an international, refereed electronic journal. It publishes the results of original research in the field of biological sciences especially related to morphology, physiology, genetics, ethnobiology, ethnobotany, taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Advantages of publishing in Eurasia J Biosci

  • Independent, rigorous peer review
  • Rapid publication
  • Open access – gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. 
  • Quality: Eurasia J Biosci applies the professional copyediting and typesetting processes.
  • Indexed in major databasesEurasia J Biosci is indexed by AGRICOLA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, SCOPUS, SCImago, Zoological Record (Thomson Reuters) etc. All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI)- CrossRef. 

Current Issue (Volume 14, Issue 1, January-July 2020)

(In Progress)

Potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on beef cattle performance
Syamsuddin Hasan, A. Mujnisa, Purnama Isti Khaerani, Sema, Asmuddin Natsir

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Abstract

The study aimed to identify potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on and beef cattle performance. This study employed Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisted of 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of T0= amofer-corn straw ad libitum (9.0% CP and 60.0% TDN); T1= Complete feed (10.0% CP and 55.0% TDN); T2= Complete feed (11.0 CP and 60.0% TDN); T3= Complete feed (12.0% CP and 65.0% TDN. The results showed that the treatment of amofer-corn straw significantly affected (P<0.01) chemical component i.e. crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose of complete feed. The treatment of amofer-corn straw significantly affected (P<0.05) feed consumption and Body Weight Gain (BWG). In conclusion, Treatment T3 containing 12.0% of CP and 65.0% of TDN is more effective to improve beef cattle performance.

Keywords: complete feed, fattening, in vitro, local raw materials

Citation: Hasan S, Mujnisa A, Khaerani PI, Sema, Natsir A. Potential of complete feed formulated from local raw materials on beef cattle performance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1-6.

Influence of constricts on the body of a medical leech on their reproductive ability
Ruslan Aminov, Alexander Frolov, Alina Aminova

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Abstract

In the experiment, 120 medical leeches of three species were used: H. verbana, H. medicinalis, H. orientalis. In which constrictions (defect) on their body and reproductive belts were revealed. Those leeches, which had constricts, right up to the rupture of its tissues in these places, were planted two or three in liter jars for reproduction. Their readiness for reproduction was checked by fecundity belts. Piece conditions were created by examples of their living in the wild. We found that this defect (constrictions) contribute to their poor laying of cocoons, up to their absence. Also, most leeches died without laying cocoons in the second week of jigging. The resulting cocoons were defective. our results prove that the appearance of constrictions in a medical leech significantly affects their reproductive. These constrictions appear in about 5% of leeches fed by human and animal blood.

Keywords: medical leeches, reproductive, ectoparasite, constrictions, hematophagus, cocoons

Citation: Aminov R, Frolov A, Aminova A. Influence of constricts on the body of a medical leech on their reproductive ability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):7-10.

Screening for some marine cyanobacteria isolated from Red Sea Coast, Egypt producing antimicrobial activity
Reham G. Elkomy

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Abstract

Marine microalge are known as source of bioactive secondary metabolites. In the present work, production of antimicrobial activity by three marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria simplicissima, Oscillatoria acutissima and Spirulina platensis and antimicrobial activities of them was investigated against different microorganisms. The effects of pH, temperature and light intensity on the production of antimicrobial activity were tested. Extracts of the algae were prepared using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water, then assayed for antimicrobial agents against microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococus luteus, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and one species of yeast Candida albicans. Data showed that the methanol extract was very effective against bacterial and fungi strains compared to other extract at pH 8.0, 30ºC and 3000 lux for three algal. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the water extracts. This material was produced, maximally, after 12, 14, 12 days of incubation period in aerated culture for Oscillatoria simplicissima, Oscillatoria acutissima and Spirulina platensis respectively. The results indicated scope for utilizing these microalgae as a source of antimicrobial substances.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, marine microalgae, cyanobacteria, Red Sea, optimization

Citation: Elkomy RG. Screening for some marine cyanobacteria isolated from Red Sea Coast, Egypt producing antimicrobial activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):11-9.

Antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil obtained through multiple drying methods
Sophia Grace Sipahelut, Ariance Yeane Kastanja, Zeth Patty

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the influence of drying methods on the antioxidant activity and peroxide value of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil. This research employs a Completely Randomized Design (RAL) with 3 repetitions and nutmeg fruit flesh drying treatment (fresh/ without drying, shade-drying, sun-drying). The parameters observed include antioxidant activity test and peroxide value of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil. The research results show that nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil contains 32 components, with major components consisting of α-pinene (18.0%), myristicin (14.1%), α-terpineol (9.4%), β-pinene (8.9%), limonene (8.5%), terpinene-4-ol (8.4%), δ-terpinene (5.9%), α-terpinolene (5.2%), and α-terpinene (4.3%). The highest antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil is found in the shade-drying treatment, which may serve as a reducing agent in oxidation process and has good activity as an anti-free radical of DPPH. The peroxide value is lower than that of α-tocopherol, showing that nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil has the capability to inhibit oxidation process better than α-tocopherol.

Keywords: nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil, antioxidant activity, peroxide value

Citation: Sipahelut SG, Kastanja AY, Patty Z. Antioxidant activity of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived essential oil obtained through multiple drying methods. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):21-6.

Use of bioactive chitosan and Lippia multiflora essential oil as coatings for maize and sorghum seeds protection
Cissé Mohamed, N’guessan Elise Amoin, Tia Vama Etienne, Kouakou N’guessan Yannick

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Abstract

Essential oil (EO) extracted from leaves of Lippia multiflora were used alone or combined with chitosan at 0.25% and 0.5% as coating solutions for maize and sorghum seeds. Different coating formulations made were tested on seeds to determine their antifungal activity against Rhizopus sp and A. Flavus respectively isolated from sorghum and maize seeds. Coating solutions impact on seeds germination rate and plant growth in the laboratory condition were also evaluated. Results revealed that chitosan and L. Multiflora EO coating used separately exhibited fungicidal effect against Rhizopus sp and fungistatic effect against A. Flavus. When there were associated, the coating formulation demonstrated a strong inhibition against A. flavus and became ineffective against Rhizopus ssp. Chitosan solution (0.25% and 0.5%) without EO significantly increased seeds germination percentage and height maize and sorghum plant. On the other hand, EO coating alone displayed a total inhibition of seeds germination. When EO was mixed with chitosan solution, a decrease in the height of plants was observed.

Keywords: Chitosan, Lippia multiflora, coating, antifungal, germination

Citation: Mohamed C, Amoin NE, Etienne TV, Yannick KN. Use of bioactive chitosan and Lippia multiflora essential oil as coatings for maize and sorghum seeds protection. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):27-34.

Molecular detection of β-lactamase production among klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical cases
Najlaa Abdullah D. AL-Oqaili

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Abstract

Many bacteria around the world produce the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are resistant to many beta lactam antibiotics by coding genes of enzymes that in turn give K.pnemoniae antibiotic resistance, as well as a role in the development of infection. The isolates of K.pneumoniae were identified based on phenotypic and laboratory methods, as well as screening of β-lactamase by phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT) where most isolates were positive at a rate (62.06%). K.penumoniae isolates resistance was also tested from a total of (110) isolates from various clinical sources: urine (72) and K.pneumonia isolates were diagnosed about 16 (22.22%, 16/72) , sputum (25) were diagnosed about 8 (32%, 8/25) and burns (13) about 5 (38.46%, 5/13) different resistance to 10 beta-lactam antibiotics including piperacilin (100%), ticarcillin (82.75%), aztreonam (79.31%), ceftazidime (58.62%), ceftriaxone (48.27%), augmentin (41.37%), ceftaxime, meropenem (37.93%), cefepime and imipenem (34.48%). In this study molecular diagnostics for 16S RNA gene screening, as well as four genes for beta-lactamase were investigated. The results showed that high genes of these enzymes were βlaTEM, βlaSHV (80%) and βlaCTX-M, βlaAmpC (100%). It results in a positive relationship between the existence of genes and the of antibiotic resistance in isolates.

Keywords: klebsiella pneumonia, βlatem, βlashv, βlactx-m and βlaampc genes, esbls, antibiotic resistant

Citation: D. AL-Oqaili NA. Molecular detection of β-lactamase production among klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical cases. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):35-41.

Evaluation of mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography
Mohammad Ali Moghadam, Zohreh Reyhani, Marzie Shokrollahi, Soghrat Faghih Zadeh

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Abstract

Introduction: Since radiography plays an important role in the early detection of osteoporosis in patients, we decided to conduct a study to evaluate mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography. Material and method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed randomly on 321 patients aged 20-50 years requiring panoramic radiography referring to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology center in Zanjan in 1398. Only 319 patients (137 males and 182 females) remained by the end of the study divided into three groups of 20-30, 31-40 and 41-50. Radiomorphologic and radiomorphometric indices of GI, MI, PMI and MCI were evaluated. Data were then analyzed using test.t, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The results of this study showed that MIC has a direct relationship with age and sex and this relationship is clinically relevant. MI was inversely correlated with age but was significantly correlated with sex but was not clinically significant. GI was inversely correlated with age and significantly correlated with sex. PMI was inversely correlated with age and has a significant relationship with sex, but it was not clinically significant despite its significance. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study showed the effective role of age and sex variables on radiomorphometric indices and supported the finding that these variables could be useful in identifying osteoporotic conditions.

Keywords: radiomorphometric indicators, panoramic radiography, mandible

Citation: Moghadam MA, Reyhani Z, Shokrollahi M, Faghih Zadeh S. Evaluation of mandibular cortical indexes in digital panoramic radiography. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):43-8.

Anthropometric evaluation of the maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on cbct images
Mahnaz Sheikhi, Mandana Moradi Nejad, Arash Ghodousi

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Abstract

Introduction: Today, it has been determined that women and men are different from each other in anatomical, physiological, and many other aspects. These differences can be useful in many cases, including identification. Considering that we are facing with increased rate of crimes and felonies, and there are different costly diagnostic methods in the field of identification, and few studies have been conducted in this field, as well as the limitation of 2D images and the complex structure of sinus, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (gold standard) are used as the methods for depicting the true anatomy of sinus; However, their use has been limited due to high dose, lack of public access and high cost, and finally, since it seems that the loss of teeth is the only factor that can affect the dimensions of sinus, we decided to carry out a study with the aim of investigating the anthropometric analysis of maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on CBCT images. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 70 patients (39 women and 31 men) were selected among available samples from the Maxillofacial Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Khorasgan Azad University in Isfahan. The CBCT images were taken from samples with high resolution and voxel dimensions of 0.1 mm and with exposures of 85 kV and 21 to 35 mAh (according to patient’s size) and were examined by SIDEXIS software with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS ver.25 at two descriptive and inferential levels. Findings: in this study, 55.7% of the images were related to women and 44.3% were related to men. Also, 57.1% of them were related to dentate subjects and 42.9% were related to completely edentulous subjects. The gender had an impact on the cephalocaudal dimension (p-value = 0.017) and mediolateral dimension (p-value = 0.036), and is greater in men than women. Dental status had an impact on the orbital floor bone (p-value = 0.002), mediolateral dimension (p-value = 0.003), anteroposterior dimension of right maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.042) and soft tissue thickness (p-value = 0.042). These sizes are greater in dentate subjects than edentulous subjects. Gender had a significant effect on the volume of maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.021). Dental status had a significant effect on the volume of maxillary sinus (p-value = 0.022). The mean volume of maxillary sinus in men is higher than women, and in subjects with complete dental system is higher than subjects with complete edentulism. It is also higher in men in both groups of dentate and edentulous than women. Discussion and conclusion: Anthropometric analysis of the sinus by the CBCT not only helps in identification of corpses, but also provides us with useful information about the relationship between dental system and sinus dimensions.

Keywords: maxillary sinus, anthropometric, cbct images, gender

Citation: Sheikhi M, Moradi Nejad M, Ghodousi A. Anthropometric evaluation of the maxillary sinus in subjects with complete dental system and complete edentulism based on gender, on cbct images. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):49-55.

The influence of lead on the growth and development of various mustard types
M. O. Baikhamurova, G. A. Sainova, A. Abseyit, G. Tashmetova, K. Kelesbayev

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Abstract

The article studies the capacity of two types of mustard to accumulate Pb from contaminated sierozem soils. The dependence between the degree of lead contamination of soil (from 150 to 550 mg/kg) and the intensity of its entry in the vegetative and generative organs of brown (Brassica Juncea L.) and white mustard (Sinapis Alba L.) have been thoroughly examined. It has been established that with an increase of Pb content in soil, there is increased content of this metal in organs of the above plants. The effect of vermicompost, sulfur- and perlite-containing waste and their mixtures, the lead behavior in the system of sierozem soil and mustard plants were studied. In conducted experiments, the following soil mass ratios were used: sulfur- and perlite-containing waste:vermicompost = 3:1:0.5. The introduction of vermicompost or its mixture with the sulfur- and perlite-containing waste into the contaminated soil helps to reduce the concentration of Pb, which passes into various plant organs. At the same time, the lead content in mustard organs decreases in the following order: the roots > leaves > stalks > grains. It was revealed that, despite the increased lead content in the soil (from 150 to 550 mg/kg of soil), its translocation amount in the grain portion of mustard does not exceed the standard maximum permissible concentration value for food products (MPC = 0.5 mg / kg).

Keywords: heavy metals, vermicompost, accumulation, sulfur- and perlite-containing waste, mustards, sierozem soils, Brassica Juncea, Sinapis Alba

Citation: Baikhamurova MO, Sainova GA, Abseyit A, Tashmetova G, Kelesbayev K. The influence of lead on the growth and development of various mustard types. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):57-64.

The considerable evidence between latent toxoplasma infection with testosterone and total antioxidant among infertile women
Noor Abdul Redah Al-kremy, Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-hassnawi

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii an intracellular parasite that cause toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma infection it’s well known to induce various physiological, hormonal and behavioral changes in humans and animals. In current study, 147 infertile women were divided into three groups, primary, secondary infertility and aborted woman (sub-infertility). Twenty healthy volunteer women served as controls. Enzyme linked immunofluorescence assay was used to confirm anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Whereas, Testosterone concentration were measured by ELISA technique. We investigated the testosterone and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in free and infected (Toxoplasma gondii) infertile women, to provide clinical scenario that may be adopted as one causes of primary, secondary infertility and sub infertility. Although, there are no significant variation in Testosterone levels between infertility women groups, but according normal, hypo and hyper range, testosterone were increased significantly just in toxoplasmosis women(p-value=0.04), whereas no significant variation are seen in other infertile groups. Testosterone statistically decreased in primary infertile women. In additions, serological analysis confirm that 28 (19%) enrolled women were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis have a significant impact on Total antioxidant capacity especially in secondary infertility and sub-infertility. In addition no significant variations were reached in TAC and Testosterone as correlated with intensity of parasites (anti-IgG antibodies) .interestingly the testosterone hyper concentration are found in secondary infertile women(p-value=0.01, 29%) and in opposite direction percentage of hypo-testosterone is increased significantly in primary infertility women . In conclusion this study suggested a considerable evidence of hypothesis that consider Toxoplasmosis is a one of a risk factor for increase the level of Testosterone and increasing the chance of infertility in women especially according Hypo-Hyper values. Also based our data that supplementations of TAC is recommended for women who had primary and secondary infertility to enhance reproductive outcome.

Keywords: toxoplasma gondii, testosterone, total antioxidant capacity, infertile women

Citation: Redah Al-kremy NA, Shakir Al-hassnawi AT. The considerable evidence between latent toxoplasma infection with testosterone and total antioxidant among infertile women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):65-70.

An exploration of the relationship between interleukin 37, 8-ohdg and a number of anthropometric measurements in iraqi rheumatoid arthritis patients
Moslima M. Ismail, Shakir F. T. Alaaraji

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Abstract

Background: Anti-inflammatory intermediaries like interleukin-37 (IL-37) have a central function in the disease regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to explore the relationship between IL-37, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) and certain anthropometric measurements in RA patients, and to investigate whether there are any correlations between IL-37 and 8-OHDG. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 60 patients with RA and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCs). IL-37 and 8-OHDG serum concentrations were estimated by ELISA. The width of waist (W.W), hip (W.H), thorax (W.T) and neck (W.N) were calculated, along with body mass index (BMI) for all subjects. Results: IL-37 and 8-OHDG serum concentrations were significantly greater in patients with RA. Nevertheless, RA patients showed lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb). Elevated serum concentrations of IL-37 were found to be positively associated with waist to hip ratio (W/H), waist to thoracic ratio (W/T), waist to neck ratio (W/N), ESR and Hb, while raised serum concentrations of 8-OHDG were positively related with W/H, W/T, SBP, DBP, creatinine and total cholesterol (TC). IL-37 exhibited the highest ROC curve value in comparison to other studied markers. Conclusion: Both anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-37) and the marker of DNA impairment (8-OHDG) form part of RA’s pathogenesis. IL-37 and 8-OHDG may be used as possible biomarkers of active RA.

Keywords: interleukin-37, 8-OHDG, rheumatoid arthritis, anthropometric measurements

Citation: Ismail MM, Alaaraji SFT. An exploration of the relationship between interleukin 37, 8-ohdg and a number of anthropometric measurements in iraqi rheumatoid arthritis patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):71-9.

Breaking dormancy of seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieb) using AC water media
Sukariyan, Marjenah, Wawan Kustiawan, Wahjuni Hartati

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Abstract

Generative propagation using seed media, especially sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb), has many obstacles associated with low germination. Information about the right treatment of breaking the dormancy (PD) is very necessary. This study aims to describe the percentage rate of breaking dormancy. In this study, seed samples were treated by selecting seed weighting > 90 grams, seed solarization, soaking using AC water media with different length of time: PD 24 hours, PD 48 hours, PD 72 hours and PD 96 hours. Reaction of seed weight to media soaking time would be analyzed. The use of AC water media, different soaking time and seed weight resulted in a rate of percentage of seed dormancy breaking of 73%-87%, the best time to soak the seeds were 2-3 days and there was an increase in seed mass. The perfection of the physical shape of the seeds, the accuracy of the time to soak the seeds and the weight of the seeds had a positive effect for the rate of percentage of dormancy breaking.

Keywords: seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb, AC water, dormancy, seed mass

Citation: Sukariyan, Marjenah, Kustiawan W, Hartati W. Breaking dormancy of seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieb) using AC water media. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):81-3.

Ficus deltoidea leaves methanol extract promote wound healing activity in mice
Retno Aryani, Rudy Agung Nugroho, Hetty Manurung, Rani Mardayanti, Rudianto, Widha Prahastika, Auliana, Aulia Putri Bru Karo

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Abstract

Wound healing is a normal process in skin tissue in response to injury. Ficus deltoidea leaves contain phytochemicals, which can play a role in wound healing. This study aimed to assess the wound healing activity of methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves on artificial wounds in mice. In total 28 mice (2-3 months old, 20-30 g in weight) were randomly distributed into 7 treatment groups namely group I without treatment (negative control), group II were given povidone iodine 10% (positive control), group III was given a basic ointment and group IV-VII was treated with methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves with concentrations of 20, 40, 60 and 80% respectively. In all test animals, the wound was made with a length of 1 cm, and applied to the treatment according to the group, twice a day for 15 days. At the end of the treatment, wound healing activities were determined by measuring the percentage of wound contractions, Hydroxyproline estimates, and total new tissue DNA. Studies showed that the methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves was able to heal wounds starting at a concentration of 20%. Mice treated with 80% extract resulted in the highest DNA and hydroxyproline content. The higher the concentration of the extract, the greater the healing effect of the wound. In summary, methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves have potential for wound healing in mice.

Keywords: Ficus deltoidea leaves, wound healing, phytochemicals

Citation: Aryani R, Agung Nugroho R, Manurung H, Mardayanti R, Rudianto, Prahastika W, et al. Ficus deltoidea leaves methanol extract promote wound healing activity in mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):85-91.

Association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Amara city, Iraq
Nidhal Abdullah Hashim, Zainab A. J. R. Al-Ali, Ali A. Syhood

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Abstract

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is most common in aging men and causes actual adverse effects on health. Recently the researches have suggested that metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals’ may be exposure to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), this study aimed to evaluated the association between BPH and MetS. Methods: 66 men with BPH (43 without MetS and 23 with MetS) and 30 healthy individuals (as a control group) were included in this study. Sex hormones: Testosterone (T), Estradiol II (E2), Prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and lipid profile were all evaluated. Results: There were significant decreasing (p<0.01) in T and E2 level in BPH patients compared to control group, while DHT level had significant increase (p<0.01) in BPH patients compared to control group. No significant differences were found in T, E2, PRL, LH, FSH between BPH with MetS and without MetS except level of DHT had recorded significantly increase (p<0.01) in BPH with MetS compared to without MetS. In term of lipid profile, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL were no significant differences between the BPH with MetS and without MetS, while HDL level revealed significantly decrease (p>0.05) in BPH with MetS compared to without MetS. Conclusions: Our study confirmed on most the association between BPH and MetS related change in the sex hormones (DHT) and metabolic derangement in lipid profile.

Keywords: sex hormones, benign prostatic hyperplasia, metabolic syndrome

Citation: Hashim NA, Al-Ali ZAJR, Syhood AA. Association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Amara city, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):93-8.

Molecular detection of 16srrna gene in escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients
Widad Sameer Jaaz

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Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate and to diagnose of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli which caused (UPEC). From 75 isolation were collected from children whom caused UPEC during 2015. Fifty of total isolates diagnosis as E. coli and entirely were used to detect 16SrRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and DNA sequencing. Disc diffusion method was used to detect antibiotic sensitivity against of 8 antibiotics. The results of present study showed different in resistant percentage against Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazo, Nitrofuranation, Gentamycin, Nitrofuranation and Chloramphenicol. The resistant percentage of the isolates which: 50 (100%), 48 (96%), 47 (94.8%), 38 (76%), 30 (60%), 22 ‎‎(44%), 11 (22%), 9 (18%) respectively. The results of PCR showed all E. coli samples had the targeted gene and 28 samples recorded as new strains Wid which documented in NCBI.

Keywords: E. coli, 16SrRNA gene, PCR, DNA sequencing

Citation: Jaaz WS. Molecular detection of 16srrna gene in escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):99-104.

How to prioritize health policies by understanding a spectrum of complete health to death
Anita Taft, H. Rahavi, Alexander S Taft

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Abstract

The effect of various health and illness status on society, has always been a matter of interest to public health researchers and policy makers. Specific mortality rate is a simple image of overall burden of a disease, but it only considers the fatality of a disease. Regarding this lack of representativeness, other indices are developed to investigate the burden of various diseases. Two of the most commonly used include Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In both indices, in addition to mortality, other effects of a disease are introduced. Death is considered as zero quality or maximal disability but Weighting is used to quantify the non fatal effects of disease. QALY was developed earlier than DALY. This index is mostly used in cost utility studies to determine the necessity of a desired intervention. DALY index was introduced later to clarify calculations. DALY is calculated at the national and global level by the support of World Health Organization (WHO) regularly. However there are some different ways to calculate DALY, WHO promotes its standard method which has gone through some changes in years. QALY is an index of expected health (higher is better) but DALY is an index showing distance to an ideal health (lower is better). In this study we aim to investigate and compare the use of these two indices in public health studies.

Keywords: quality adjusted life years, disability adjusted life years, burden of disease

Citation: Taft A, Rahavi H, Taft AS. How to prioritize health policies by understanding a spectrum of complete health to death. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):105-10.

Comparing the ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume in supine and prone positions in patients under general anesthesia
Valiollah Hassani, Salume Sehat Kashani, Reza Farahmandrad, Mahzad Alimian, Pooya Derakhshan, Nasim Nikobakht

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Abstract

Introduction: The prone position in the surgery room provides the surgeon with access to the area of surgery in various types of surgeries. The effects of prone position on respiratory gas exchanges are complex. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 61 patients undergoing general anesthesia in prone and supine positions. Half an hour after intubation, 2 hours after anesthesia and before extubation in recovery, arterial blood gas changes, ETCO2, respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume ratio (VD / VT), and hemoglobin levels in both groups were measured and recorded. Findings: Sixty one patients (29 patients in supine and 32 patients in prone positions) were evaluated. There was no significant relationship between VD/VT ratio during anesthesia between the two groups (P = 0.16). In examining this ratio at different measurement times, the results showed that only in supine group, VD / VT relationship was statistically significant two hours after anesthesia onset and at the end of anesthesia (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in pH, PCO2, PECO2, Ppeak and PaO2 in the two groups at different time points. Hb levels were statistically significant in both groups at different time points; but the difference between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: The ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume and oxygenation in the prone position compared to supine position was not changed in patients undergoing general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation. The process of oxygenation changes in the prone position has improved over time.

Keywords: respiratory dead space, tidal volume, supine position, prone position

Citation: Hassani V, Sehat Kashani S, Farahmandrad R, Alimian M, Derakhshan P, Nikobakht N. Comparing the ratio of respiratory dead space volume to tidal volume in supine and prone positions in patients under general anesthesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):111-6.

Influence of lactic acid microorganisms on the formation of quality of dry sausages
Markhaba Sydykova, Gulnur Nurymkhan, Svetlana Gaptar, Rysgul Ashakayeva, Galiya Tumenova, Kulbaram Bayazitova, Oksana Zinina

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Abstract

In the production of meat products one of the promising areas is the use of microorganisms to improve the quality of the product. In this article the biotechnological potential of probiotic microorganisms Pediococcus pentosaseus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Bifidum longum 339M was studied. It was found that with an increase in salt concentration up to 4% the number of viable cells remains at a sufficiently high level and amounts to 1010-1011 CFU/cm3. With increasing doses of sodium nitrite, a higher antimutagenic activity of lactic acid bacteria was observed. The identified regularities serve as a scientific basis for reducing sodium nitrite toxicity.

Keywords: microorganism, sausage, antimutagenic activity, viable cells, revetrants

Citation: Sydykova M, Nurymkhan G, Gaptar S, Ashakayeva R, Tumenova G, Bayazitova K, et al. Influence of lactic acid microorganisms on the formation of quality of dry sausages. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):117-21.

Response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia
Heba Ali Abd EL-Ghaffaar, Jehad Khaled Mandour, Fatma Abed ElKadir Atia

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Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia is common in post-menopausal women, increasing their risk for cardiovascular, thyroid, kidney and liver diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus. The current study aimed to investigate the response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. Forty post-menopausal women, having hypercholesterolemia, were randomized into 2 equal groups. Group (A) received cupping therapy, once/month for 3 months, while group (B) didn’t receive any therapy. All women were evaluated pre- and post-treatment by measuring the serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C (P < 0.05), while there was a statistically significant increase in serum levels of HDL-C (P < 0.05) in favour of group (A). Cupping therapy is an effective method for improving serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic post-menopausal women through decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-C and increasing HDL-C.

Keywords: cupping therapy, hypercholesterolemia, post-menopausal women

Citation: Abd EL-Ghaffaar HA, Khaled Mandour J, Abed ElKadir Atia F. Response of cholesterol to cupping therapy in post-menopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):123-7.

The effect of aloevera phonophoresis on skin thickness in patients with psoriasis: a randomized controlled trail
Shaimaa A. Abbas, Mohamed M. Khalaf, Nermine H. El-Eishi, Shaimaa M. El Sayeh

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Abstract

Aim: The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aloe vera phonophoresis in the treatment of psoriasis. Methods: Thirty patients had psoriasis of the chronic plaque type, their ages ranged from 20-40 years. Patients were divided randomly into two equal groups. Group (A) received topical aloe vera that transmitted through the ultrasound, the ultrasound was delivered for 5 minutes with a frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 1.5w/cm2 with continuous mode, 3 sessions/week for two months as a total period of treatment. Group (B) received topical aloe vera once/day, massaged for 5 minutes, 3 times per week for two months as a total period of treatment. Method of evaluation was ultrasonography. Results: There was greater improvement in patients treated with aloe vera phonophoresis than those treated with topical aloe vera as evidenced by ultrasonography. Conclusions: The combination of ultrasound and aloe vera gel can be considered as an effective method to enhance the drug efficacy and penetration thus enhancing the treatment of psoriasis.

Keywords: aloe vera, phonophoresis, psoriasis treatment

Citation: Abbas SA, Khalaf MM, El-Eishi NH, El Sayeh SM. The effect of aloevera phonophoresis on skin thickness in patients with psoriasis: a randomized controlled trail. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):129-34.

Retrospective evaluation of hyperferritinemia and iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome
Mehdi Dehghani, Mozhdeh Sanei

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Abstract

Introduction: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of myeloid clonal disorders characterized by morphologic features, including hyper cellular bone marrow, unilineage or multilineage dysplasia and peripheral blood cytopenic. Anemia is the most commonly diagnosed cytopenic symptom in MDS patients. Regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is the often needed for the patients’ symptomatic anemia. Transfusion-dependent patient’s undergone tissue iron overload that may frequently be a prominent clinical feature. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum ferritin and iron levels in MDS patients and evaluation the outcome of the treatments received. Methods: In a retrospective study, the clinical and laboratory data were obtained of all patients with MDS referred to the clinic of Namazi hospital in Shiraz during 2017-2018 and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Of 76 patients who entered the study 48 (62.66%) were males with a mean age of 68.48 ± 9.33 years and 28 (37.34%) were women with a mean age of 70.42 ± 10.97 years. The mean of ferritin serum level among all patients was 601.13 ± 828.29 mg / l which 16 men and 6 women had > 500 mg / l ferritin concentration, and a direct and significant correlation found between male and serum ferritin level. 17.33% of patients received iron chelator. In addition 15 (19.7%) and 6 (8.00%) of patients intake erythropoietin alone or with GM-SCF growth factor, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the relatively low number of studies are employed the hyperferritinemia in MDS patients, the obtained data define the hyperferritinemia incidence in MDS depended transfusion and serum ferritin higher than 1000 mg/dl can help to good prognosis for patient survival.

Keywords: myelodysplastic syndrome, ferritin, increased iron load

Citation: Dehghani M, Sanei M. Retrospective evaluation of hyperferritinemia and iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):135-9.

Serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
Zahra Ranjbar, Farzaneh Golfeshan, Bijan Khademi, Azadeh Andisheh Tadbir, Seyed Ali Mosaddad, Mohammad Ali Ranjbar, Mahyar Malekzadeh, Maryam Mehrpoor

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Abstract

Aim: Understanding the process of tumor cell proliferation and metastasis will have a substantial influence on management of the aggressive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).The role of galectin-9 is well-known in several aspects of cancer progression, such as apoptosis, cell adhesion and immune system responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the serum levels of galectin-9 play a significant role in the pathogenesis of OSCC. Method and material: This was a cross sectional study. The data were obtained from 60 patients with histological confirmed OSCC who had medical document in Khalili hospital, Shiraz, Iran, and 28 healthy donors as control group who refer to Blood Transfusion Center, Shiraz, Iran. The levels of galectin-9 were measured by Elisa sandwich assay, following the manufacturer’s protocol. Student t test was used to identify significant difference between two groups according to age, sex and serum levels of galectin-9.To evaluate association between location and grade of tumor lesions with the levels of galectin-9, one way ANOVA was used. Results: The mean levels of galectin-9 in patients with OSCC (6.42± 2.08) were less than control subjects (6.65 ± 2.05), while there is not any significant difference between them (P value=0.0564).we did not find any significant relation between stage, grade and location of tumor lesions with the serum levels of galectin-9. Conclusion: Serum levels of galectin-9 do not seem to play any significant role in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Keywords: serum levels, oral squamous, cell carcinoma

Citation: Ranjbar Z, Golfeshan F, Khademi B, Andisheh Tadbir A, Mosaddad SA, Ranjbar MA, et al. Serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):141-7.

Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals
Tablo A. Ahmad, Dilshad G.A. Ganjo

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Abstract

In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of different strains of native soil fungi (isolated from oil-contaminated environments) in the restoration of oilfield water-based drill-cuttings. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of fungi. About 0.5 g of fungal hyphae containing fungal isolates (after special treatment) used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. PCR product sequencing and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of isolates were sent to GenBank for molecular evolutionary analyses. The evolutionary analyses and phylogenetic tree then was built by MEGA Version4. Out of 68 native hydrocarbon-degrading fungi; only four isolates were identified as the most potent strains, namely; Aspergillus niger-MK452260.1 (F1) A. fumigatus-KU321562.1 (F2); A. flavus-MH270609.1 (F4) and Penicillium chrysogenum-MK696383.1 (F3). Bio-augmentation (in-situ) experiments (individual/mixed cultures) were tested in 10 triplicates, excluding the control. Results (after two months of bioremediation) revealed that; F2+F4 isolates rendered the pH of drill-cuttings from strong alkaline to nearly neutrality level. F3+F4 isolates reduced chloride content by 25 folds. The isolate F2 showed the highest percentage in a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The isolate F3 showed the highest potential in the discount of lead, while the isolate F1 bioaccumulated arsenic more efficiently.

Keywords: Bioremediation, fungi, molecular characterization, drill-cuttings, pH, Cl, TPH, Pb, Hg, As

Citation: Ahmad TA, Ganjo DG. Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):149-60.

The synergistic effect of fungus filter Aspergillus terreus and aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus on some growth characteristics of the ocimum basilicum and its content of active substances
Abdul-Hameed M. Hamoody, Jwan. N. Abood, Batol I. Dheeb

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Abstract

This study included the synergistic effect of A. terreus fungi and aqueous extract of F. vesiculosus on some growth qualities of basil plant and its content of active substances. Three concentrations of (25%, 50% and 75%) were tested. The highest values ​​of germination and plant height were at the concentration 50% (89.6%, and 19.5cm respectively). The number of plants branches, soft and dry weight was 75%. The highest value was 6.3 branches, 1.6 g and 0.73 g respectively, and the use of the mixture at a concentration of 75% was best in increasing the plant content of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates and lipids, with the highest value of 9.7%, 542.8 mg / 100 g and 541 mg / 100 g, 89.4% and 4.7%, respectively.

Keywords: aspergillus terreus, aqueous extract of fucus vesiculosus, active substances

Citation: Hamoody AM, Abood JN, Dheeb BI. The synergistic effect of fungus filter Aspergillus terreus and aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus on some growth characteristics of the ocimum basilicum and its content of active substances. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):161-6.

Change of phytoalexins -stilbenoids of vine leave Tsitska variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Downy mildew
M. Bezhuashvili, L. Tskhvedadze, M. Surguladze, G. Shoshiashvili, L. Elanidze, P. Vashakidze

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Abstract

It is investigated change of phytoalexin-stilbenoids in the leaves of white grapevine Tsitska infected by Downy mildew. The Tsitska is cultivated in the west part of Georgia. Comparing the healthy and diseased grapevine leaves physiological concentrations of stilbenoids, in the infected grapevine leaves it is established following stress-metabolite stilbenoids: trans-resveratrol and ε- viniferin. The stress-metabolite stilbenoids in the conditions of the disease with Downy mildew is a scientific novelty for the vine leave Tsutska variety. The results of the research are important for determination the correlation of the vine immunity with the phytoalexins-stilbenoids.

Keywords: phytoalexin-stilbenoids, Tsitska, Downy mildew

Citation: Bezhuashvili M, Tskhvedadze L, Surguladze M, Shoshiashvili G, Elanidze L, Vashakidze P. Change of phytoalexins -stilbenoids of vine leave Tsitska variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Downy mildew. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):167-1.

Treatment of dyspepsy in calves with an innovative drug – iodpropionix
A. A. Aliev, M. G. Khalipaev, B. M. Gadzhiev, Sh. S. Dibirov, I. M. Azizov, N. M. Dzhamaludinov

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Abstract

In recent years, for the prevention and treatment of acute gastrointestinal diseases (AGID) of newborn calves, many methods and schemes have been proposed using various drugs, both domestic and imported. At the same time, there are very few affordable, cheap, environmentally friendly drugs for the effective treatment of this pathology. One of such agents with a combined effect is a new effective way to treat calf dyspepsia - the combined use of an innovative drug - Iodpropionix, which is a product of biotechnological production (concentrated biomass of propionic acid bacteria P. freudenreichii subsp. Shermanii KM-186 in a living active form (1010-1011 CFU/cm3) (Khamagaeva and Badlueva 2007), containing 20 μg of iodine in 1 ml in combination with an immunostimulant - Stimadent. This article presents the results of scientific studies showing the effectiveness of the use of the innovative drug - Iodpropionix - with an immunostimulator - Stimadent - in the treatment of dyspepsia of newborn calves in a comparative aspect. It was established that the effectiveness of the treatment of newborn calves with dyspepsia using the innovative drug Iodpropionix with Stimadent was 20% higher than with Sulfa - 480. The use of Iodopropionix in combination with Stimadent significantly increased the concentration in the blood of the experimental group of calves on the 10th day of treatment: hemoglobin, red blood cells, total protein, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, protein-bound iodine (PBI), and alkaline reserve, respectively, by 14.61; 14.12; 15.64; 7.14, 17.70; 50.35; and 11.50% compared with the control group. Drug treatment of calves of the experimental group with dyspepsia with innovative drug Iodopropionix in combination with an immunostimulant Stimadent increases their recovery rate, average daily gain in live weight and reduces the duration of the disease by 20.0; 20% and 2 times, respectively, compared with calves of the control group.

Keywords: calves, innovative drug iodpropionix, stimadent, blood, dyspepsia, immunoglobulins, effectiveness

Citation: Aliev AA, Khalipaev MG, Gadzhiev BM, Dibirov SS, Azizov IM, Dzhamaludinov NM. Treatment of dyspepsy in calves with an innovative drug – iodpropionix. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):173-6.

Features of age-related conditions of the Crambe tataria Sebeók in Western Kazakhstan
A. N. Kupriianov, B. A. Turalin, N. V. Kurbatova, M. S. Kurmanbaeva, K. T. Abidkulova, A. A. Bazargalieva

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Abstract

The study of age-related conditions is necessary to assess the state of populations and develop the measures for its protection. C. tataria is rare throughout the range, its habitats are often destroyed and the plant needs widespread protection. Despite the high degree of rarity and threat of plant destruction in natural populations, there is extremely little information about the characteristics of age-related states of C. tataria. The aim of our research was to study the age-related states of C. tataria in the northwestern part of Kazakhstan. Three periods and 8 age-related states were distinguished in the ontogenesis of C. tataria. The duration of ontogenesis from seedlings to the old generative state makes from 12 to 30 years. In the most arid conditions, plants remain in a virgin state indefinitely without starting to bloom, forming invasive-regressive cenopopulations. Vegetative buds on a shortened shoot are formed only among young generative species; they are not formed among middle-aged and old generative species. The incompleteness of age-related conditions does not provide population stability decrease and indicates a high plasticity of the species under extreme conditions of Cretaceous hills.

Keywords: Crambe tatarica Sebeók, Western Kazakhstan, age-related states, ontogenesis

Citation: Kupriianov AN, Turalin BA, Kurbatova NV, Kurmanbaeva MS, Abidkulova KT, Bazargalieva AA. Features of age-related conditions of the Crambe tataria Sebeók in Western Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):177-82.

Shiitake mushroom, Japanese fragrant mushroom (lentinula edodes (derk.) pegler) in primorsky territory: distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, artificial reproduction, mushroom status
G. V. Gukov, P. A. Komin

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Abstract

This mushroom comes from Japan and is known under various names (Shiitake, Shiang-gu) and has amazing properties that have not yet been fully studied. Shiitake mushrooms are one of the most popular mushrooms in the world. They are valued for their rich taste and useful properties, which are now actively used in medicine and pharmaceuticals; they have an antitumor and excellent immunomodulating effect, and some even call these mushrooms the “elixir of life”. Siitake was discovered and brought into use more than 2 thousand years ago, but in Russia it became known only in 1988 thanks to mycologist E.M. Bulakh. She discovered a previously unknown mushroom on the linden tree, and confirmed with numerous studies that it grows mainly in the southern regions of the Primorsky Territory and in the Far East. In 2008, the mushroom was listed in the “Red Book of Primorsky Territory”. However, in the course of field studies, we obtained new information and made conclusions regarding the exact range of the mushroom in the territory of the Primorsky Territory. This allows us to raise the question of changing the “red” status of shiitake and transferring it to the low risk category in order to popularize it among the population and efficiently use its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. In addition, the assignment of a new status will enable people to grow mushrooms in their greenhouses, on personal plots. Under favorable weather conditions, the mushroom yields a good harvest for 7-8 months a year, which allows expanding the range of winter harvestings.

Keywords: primorsky territory, wood-destroying mushrooms, nutritional and medicinal properties, mushroom status

Citation: Gukov GV, Komin PA. Shiitake mushroom, Japanese fragrant mushroom (lentinula edodes (derk.) pegler) in primorsky territory: distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, artificial reproduction, mushroom status. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):183-9.

Improving the fertility of the salted lands of the Western Caspian region by cultivating sorghum crops
Z. I. Magomedova, M. R. Musaev, A. A. Magomedova, Z. M. Musaeva, G. M. Mustafaev, Sh. Sh. Omariev, F. P. Tsakhueva, Sh. M. Khashdahilova

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Abstract

The article presents the studies conducted in the Tersko-Sulak sub-province of the Republic of Dagestan aimed at phytomelioration of medium-salted meadow-chestnut soils by cultivating varieties of grain sorghum. The following was revealed. The duration of the growing season of early ripe varieties ranged from 99-101 days, and mid-ripening - 113-115 days. When treated with growth regulators, a decrease in the growing season was noted. Higher values of photosynthetic potential were noted in Khazine 28 and Zernogradskoe 53 varieties. The applied growth regulators contributed to the increase of these indicators. Among the studied early ripe varieties, Khazin 28 provided the highest yield, and among the mid-ripening varieties - Zernogradskoe 53. The same varieties provided the maximum removal of harmful salts from the soil. Against the background of processing by growth regulators, an increase in the yield of grades of grain sorghum was recorded, which, in turn, led to an increase in salt removal.

Keywords: arid zone, tersko-sulaks sub-province, secondary salinization, phytomelioration, grain sorghum, varieties, adaptation, productivity, desalination

Citation: Magomedova ZI, Musaev MR, Magomedova AA, Musaeva ZM, Mustafaev GM, Omariev SS, et al. Improving the fertility of the salted lands of the Western Caspian region by cultivating sorghum crops. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):191-4.

The effect of aloe vera on apoptosis of periodontal ligament cells
Maryam Roayaei Ardekani, Bahar Houshmand, Seyed Mohammad Razavi

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Abstract

Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects. There is not enough data regarding application of Aloe Vera as storage media for periodontal ligament (PDL) preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this material at different concentrations and different time points on PDL cell vitality and apoptosis. In this study PDL cells were treated at different concentrations of Aloe Vera (25%, 50% and 100%), HBSS and water in- vitro. Cell Vitality was studied by Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT assay at 2, 6,12, 24 and 48 hours. Apoptosis assay was performed at 12, 24 and 48 hours. There was no significant difference in the number of viable and apoptotic cells in 100% Aloe Vera group compared to HBSS. The minimum number of viable cells and maximum number of apoptotic cells were observed in cells exposed to 25% Aloe Vera.

Keywords: aloe vera, storage medium; periodontal ligament cell, apoptosis

Citation: Roayaei Ardekani M, Houshmand B, Razavi SM. The effect of aloe vera on apoptosis of periodontal ligament cells. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):195-200.

Formation of a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes
I. R. Shegelman, A. S. Vasilev

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Abstract

Preparation, storage and efficient use of planting stock are the most important operations of end-to-end procurement technologies - transportation of agricultural products for the production of functional products. Among the most significant agricultural products for consumption by the population of many countries of the world are potatoes. This led to many years of research and development by scientists in the field of preparation, storage and efficient use of seed potatoes. However, these problems have not been completely resolved, which, for example, in Russia is largely caused by the destruction of the potato industry during the years of perestroika. In Russia, a significant factor hindering the growth of productivity and quality of potatoes is the low quality of planting stock. Of about 400 varieties of potatoes in the domestic market, about half are foreign breeding. There is an underestimation of the importance of potatoes for the production of functional foods. The authors believe that the most important condition for assessing the state and development trends of innovative research is the formation of a knowledge base in the field of technology and technology for the procurement and use of seed potatoes. A systematic scientific-informational and patent search made it possible to give such an assessment and form a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes for the production of high-yielding agricultural products.

Keywords: knowledge base, information and patent search, tubers, preplant planting, seed potatoes, physical effects, potato storage

Citation: Shegelman IR, Vasilev AS. Formation of a knowledge base in the field of technologies and physical effects for the preparation, storage and use of seed potatoes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):201-2.

Developing the formulation and method of production of meat frankfurters with protein supplement from meat by-products
Bolat Kabulov, Samat Kassymov, Zhanar Moldabayeva, Maksim Rebezov, Oksana Zinina, Yuliya Chernyshenko, Fluza Arduvanova, Georgy Peshcherov, Sergey Makarov, Anna Vasyukova

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Abstract

y-products and horse meat are presented. The formulation of meat frankfurters is calculated by mathematical modeling. The physico-chemical characteristics and sensory properties of meat frankfurters satisfy the requirements for meat products. Sodium chloride and nitrite are not exceeded 1.7 and 0.0005%, the moisture content is varied from 70 to 75%. The concentration of toxic elements is far below the allowable concentration by regulation standards. The pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms are not detected. The meat frankfurters produced by the developed method enables a more rational use of meat by-products and can lead to meat product-line expansion.

Keywords: meat frankfurters, horse meat, protein supplement, modeling, toxic elements, technology

Citation: Kabulov B, Kassymov S, Moldabayeva Z, Rebezov M, Zinina O, Chernyshenko Y, et al. Developing the formulation and method of production of meat frankfurters with protein supplement from meat by-products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):213-8.

Biomechanics of the deformity of septal l-struts
P. V. Pimanchev, I. V. Reshetov, D. A. Sidorenkov, N. C. Sukortseva, K. B. Lipsky, G. A. Aganesov, Yu. P. Zezin, P. V. Chistyakov

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Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis. During septoplasty, an L-shaped septal strut is often preserved or created. The main goal here is to straighten the nasal septum and to provide the required stiffness of the same. Insufficient stiffness of the septum leads to exceeding the maximum permissible value of its deformation and or its excessive deviation, that could result in functional or aesthetic complications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical shape of an L-shaped strut on its stiffness. Designed and testing tools. With the use of means of computer simulation, we developed L-strut cartilage models featuring an improved stiffness and resistance to deformation. On this basis, we developed L-strut models of various shapes from a material simulating the mechanical properties of cartilage tissue. All the models were tested under the same conditions using a multipurpose instrument ZWICK Z100 and a special device simulating the septum loading conditions. Methods. At the first stage of the study, a five-sided septum model was created based on computed tomography scans of human subjects. Then, based on this model, we developed a series of models with various combinations of L-struts, with or without the use of arcs of cartilage. It was assumed that the edges of the septum, connected with the bone support, are fixed, whereas the nasal tip is relatively free-supported. L-strut models were tested under the same loading conditions using a multipurpose instrument ZWICK Z100 and a special device simulating the septum loading conditions. The loading of the models was effected by applying a distributed load along the outer contour, that is the same for all the studied models. On the basis of an experimental data analysis, we assessed the stiffness of the modeled septa. Results. We obtained experimental “Force – Travel” dependence for nasal septum models with different geometry. Is shown that a septum with a wider dorsal strut is characterized by the greatest stiffness. Conclusions. It is found that a septum with a wider dorsal strut is characterized by the greatest stiffness and a higher resistance to deformation. The preservation of an arc of cartilage and a wider dorsal strut increase the overall stability of the structure.

Keywords: nasal septum, septal l-strut, septal deviation, stiffness, physical modeling, experiments

Citation: Pimanchev PV, Reshetov IV, Sidorenkov DA, Sukortseva NC, Lipsky KB, Aganesov GA, et al. Biomechanics of the deformity of septal l-struts. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):219-25.

Study of factors influencing the distribution and quality of non_finfish aquatic in Shamkir and Mingechaur reservoirs of Azerbaijan
L. V. Kuliyeva, F. R. Guliyeva, N. O. Mamedova, A. M. Jafarova

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Abstract

There is information about the quantitative distribution of Palaemon elegans shrimp at different stages of ontogenesis in Shamkir and Mingecheaur reservoirs. There is a General high density of shrimp in the Mingechaur reservoir, compared with Shamkir, which is explained by the large eutrophication of water. The data on the daily dynamics of the distribution of different stages of shrimp in the surface water layers of both reservoirs are presented.

Keywords: palaemon elegans, ontogenesis, shrimp, eutrophication, crustaceans, marine plankton

Citation: Kuliyeva LV, Guliyeva FR, Mamedova NO, Jafarova AM. Study of factors influencing the distribution and quality of non_finfish aquatic in Shamkir and Mingechaur reservoirs of Azerbaijan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):227-32.

Evaluating bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene toward expression of cd4+cd62l+, cd8+cd62l+, and cd4+ifnÿ in the biology of measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mice
Suwoyo, Muhaimin Rifa’i, Widodo, Sasmito Djati

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Abstract

Current prevention strategies suggest that immunization is still the best option against measles and can manipulate the biologic characters of these viruses. However, immunization is often ineffective in a number of children because of the biological trait of different ages. To a significant extent, this phenomenon is caused by internal and external factors that influence children’s immunity. One of the external factors in this regard is the benzo[a]pyrene pollutant, both directly and indirectly. Accumulated benzo[a]pyrene can infiltrate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to form benzo[a]pyrene and AhR bonds (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor). Such bonds affect the differentiation of immune cells, resulting in immunosuppressive activity. This study aims to analyze the bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene with respect to the expression of CD4+CD62L+, CD8+CD62L+, and CD4+IFNŸ in a measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mouse. Approximately 20 mg/kg BW of benzo[a]pyrene was injected using an intramuscular approach twice per week for one month. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine immune cell expression. The results showed that mice under-vaccination and benzo[a]pyrene treatment suppress the expression of CD4+CD62L+ naïve T cells, increases the expression of CD8+CD62L+ naïve T cells, and reduces the expression of CD4+IFNŸ. Controlling internal and external factors enhanced the effectiveness of measles immunization in children.

Keywords: Benzo[a]pyrene, measles paramyxovirus vaccine, CD4+CD62L+, CD8+CD62L+, CD4+IFNŸ

Citation: Suwoyo, Rifa’i M, Widodo, Djati S. Evaluating bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene toward expression of cd4+cd62l+, cd8+cd62l+, and cd4+ifnÿ in the biology of measles paramyxovirus-vaccinated mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):233-8.

Holter monitoring in the assessment of physiological systems in patients with cervical cancer
V. G. Nesterov, V. N. Dmitriev, S. V. Igrunova, E. V. Nesterova, M. A. Surushkin, G. V. Emelianova

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Abstract

The article sets the task to consider the effectiveness of Holter monitoring during electrocardiographic monitoring of the state of the heart as a pivot factor in the functional state of the body during specific treatment of patients with cervical cancer. As a result, the authors prove that Holter monitoring of myocardial bioelectrical activity in the treatment of cervical cancer can detect heart rhythm disturbance both in individuals being examined according to indications, and in patients who had no indications for electrocardiographic monitoring at more early stages of the examination. Based on this, using Holter electrocardiographic monitoring as a mandatory test is advisable to ensure proper monitoring of the myocardium in patients with cervical cancer.

Keywords: physiological systems, electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, cervical cancer

Citation: Nesterov VG, Dmitriev VN, Igrunova SV, Nesterova EV, Surushkin MA, Emelianova GV. Holter monitoring in the assessment of physiological systems in patients with cervical cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):239-41.

Change of Phytoalexins- Stilbenoids of grape skin Tsolikouri variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Grey mildew
M. Bezhuashvili, L. Bavaresco, L. Tskhvedadze, M. Surguladze, G. Shoshiashvili, L. Elanidze, L. Gagunashvili, P. Vashakidze

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Abstract

It is investigated change of phytoalexins-stilbenoids in the Skin of white grapevine Tsolikouri infected by Grey mildew. The Tsolikouri is cultivated in the west part of Georgia (Zestafoni region). Vineyards are located raw humus calcareous-rendzic-leptosols type of soil 30 years of vine. Comparing the healthy and diseased grapevine Skins physiological concentrations of stilbenoids, in the infected grapevine Skin it is established following stress-metabolite stilbenoids: trans-resveratrol, ε-viniferin, trans-piceid, cis-piceid, trans-piceatannol. The stress-metabolite stilbenoids in the condition of the disease Grey mildew, is a scientific novelty for the grape skin Tsolikouri variety. The results of the research are important for determination the correlation of the vine immunity with the phytoalexins-stilbenoids.

Keywords: grape, stilbenoids, phytoalexins

Citation: Bezhuashvili M, Bavaresco L, Tskhvedadze L, Surguladze M, Shoshiashvili G, Elanidze L, et al. Change of Phytoalexins- Stilbenoids of grape skin Tsolikouri variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in condition Grey mildew. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):243-7.

The analysis of the Dongyztau chink flora (Aktobe region)
Zhaidargul I. Kuanbay, Sardarbek A. Abiyev, Margarita Yu. Ishmuratova, Gulnur B. Admanova, Zhalgas Zh. Kukenov, Gulzhanat T. Maksutbekova

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Abstract

This article provides analysis of the Dongyztau flora. The result of floristic analysis found out that 314 species of vascular plants belonging to 170 genera and 40 families grow on the territory of Dongyztau chink. The analysis of the family-species spectrum reveals that the 5 leading families make up 78.3 % of the total species composition, or 246 species. The leading families in this area are Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. The leading position is occupied by the Amaranthaceae family represented by 67 species that makes up 21.3 % of the species composition of the flora. The second position is occupied by the Asteraceae family including 40 species (12.7 %). The predominance of these families in the flora of the area characterizes it as a continental territory with arid habitat conditions. The presence of 5 endemic and 18 relict species was noted. Life forms are represented by 7 groups, among which the perennial herbaceous plants are dominant. The analysis of rare and endangered species of Dongyztau chink plants showed the growing of 21 species, of which 5 ones are listed in the Red book of Kazakhstan; 16 species are recommended for protection in the region.

Keywords: flora, Dongyztau chink, vascular plants, taxonomic analysis, endemic and relict species, life-form, rare and endangered species of plants

Citation: Kuanbay ZI, Abiyev SA, Ishmuratova MY, Admanova GB, Kukenov ZZ, Maksutbekova GT. The analysis of the Dongyztau chink flora (Aktobe region). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):249-54.

Relations of the imago of Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) and large mammals in natural biogeocenoses of the Northern Urals of Russia
Yuri V. Glazunov, Larisa A. Glazunova

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Abstract

The active role of ticks Ixodes persulcatus in the reservation and transmission of many dangerous diseases for humans and animals requires knowledge of the relationship of adults of this type of parasite with animals that feed tick populations in a specific area. The objective of the research was to study the composition of the hosts of adult Ixodes persulcatus living in the Northern Urals of Russia and to determine their significance in the life of these parasites. The study was carried out from April to October throughout 2001 to 2015 in subtaiga and forest-steppe climatic zones of the Northern Urals of Russia. During the observation period, 5416 heads of animals were examined, including 5218 farm animals, 157 domestic animals, and 41 representatives of the wild fauna which had 14,010 adult ticks removed therefrom, 6,708 of which are Ixodes persulcatus. It has been established that interspecific relations of ixodid ticks are close with all animals living in their biomes. In the taiga-forest zone, where I. persulcatus prevails, all large animals participate in its feeding, and a particularly close interaction is established with wild animals living throughout their habitat: the dominance of the taiga tick in some animals reaches 100%. Farm animals are also involved in the feeding of I. persulcatus, but since their grazing sites, for the most part, are confined to natural pastures, these animals actively feed the ticks of the genus Dermacentor. In the forest-steppe zone, the species ratio of adult ixodid ticks depends on the ethology and location of the food supply of animals participating in feeding. Thus, cattle, which prevails among the animals examined by us and whose food base is located on dry pastures, feeds a significant amount of ixodids, while I. persulcatus (ID - 43.9%) is just subdominant, giving way to ticks of the genus Dermacentor. Wild animals in this zone are most closely associated with the taiga tick I. persulcatus, which is explained by the coincidence of their preferences in settlement, although such domestic animals as dogs and horses also actively feed the adult taiga tick, which perhaps relates to their behavior.

Keywords: Ixodid ticks, Ixodes persulcatus, farm animals, wild mammals, ethological features

Citation: Glazunov YV, Glazunova LA. Relations of the imago of Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) and large mammals in natural biogeocenoses of the Northern Urals of Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):255-8.

Screening, extraction and purification for tannase produced from Iraqi Klebsiella pneumonia isolates and molecular detection of tanA gene
Ahlam Khaleefah Abdal, Sawsan Sajid Al-jubori, Sahira Nsayef Muslim

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Abstract

In this study, tannase enzyme was produced from an Iraq Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. K. pneumoniae were identified by Vitek system and confirmed by housekeeping 16s rRNA gene (amplified size 155 bp). Tannase was genotpically detected by amplification tanA gene (amplified size 210 bp) followed by sequencing. The tannase activity reached its maximum level when this isolate was cultivated under the optimal conditions, which is consisted of using 2.8 g of nutrient agar containing 2% (w/v) tannic acid as a carbon source at pH 5.5 and temperature of 37°C for 24 h. The Tannase had been purified by using three methods: ammonium sulphate, ion exchange and gel filtration. The first method leads to gain a tannase precipitation at 70% ammonium sulphate which is considered as a partial purification where tannase activity was 80U/ml. In comparison, 300 U/mg tannase activity had been gained by using ion exchange with 4.31 fold of purification and a yield of 21.4%. Finally, a tannase activity of 500 U/mg is gained by using gel filtration with 5.75 fold of purification and a yield of 21.4%. The purified tannase is a single peptide with approximate molecular mass of 46.5 kDa as assessed by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: klebsiella pneumoniae, tannase, tannase purification, 16srrna gene, tannase gene

Citation: Abdal AK, Al-jubori SS, Muslim SN. Screening, extraction and purification for tannase produced from Iraqi Klebsiella pneumonia isolates and molecular detection of tanA gene. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):259-63.

Determine anti human cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG) and heat shock protein 70 in aborted women
Shayma’a Jabbar Raisan, Saad S. Mahdi Al-Amara

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to identify cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG), heat shock protein 70 and to affect contact with animals on aborted women. This is Iraq’s first study, no other studies to determine the relationship between CMV infection and HSP70 concentration in aborted women have been conducted. Method: During the duration from July to December (2018), 160 blood samples were obtained from women suffering from repeated embryo predictions, which were used by reviewers in privatelaboratories in the province of Basrah, Iraq to estimate the levels of cytomegalovirus (IgM, IGg) and heat shock protein 70. Result: The results showed that level IgM had higher rates in age (26-30) year at a rate of 26.7% with significantn difference compared to other age groups, whereas level IgG had higher rates in age (31-35 & 36-40) at rate of 100%. Also we found in this results significant relationship between IgM and primary abortion at rate 16.7% in the age group (26-30). But the results show that IgG had a higher rat in the age group (31-35) at rate 68.1% with significant diffrents compared with Primary abortion woman. In addition, the study showed that HSP70 concentration in aborted women was high rate of 38% and a higher concentration show in the 4th age group at rate of 56.3% in 320 ng/ml concentration. The study showed also that HSP70 concentration in aborted women was high rate of 38% and a higher concentration show in the 4th age group at rate of 56.3% in 320 ng/ml concentration, also we found that two and more abortions had the highest rate of 62 %, with significant differences relative to other abortions. The study also showed that aborted poultry breeders women were 42.6% higher with significant difference compared to other groups. Conclusion: Observed that the first age group is more vulnerable to HCMV infection during pregnancy in thistudy relationship between HSP70 and Poultry Breeders with abortion, too.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, hsp70, infection, anti human cytomegalovirus (igm, igg)

Citation: Raisan SJ, Al-Amara SSM. Determine anti human cytomegalovirus antibodies (IgM, IgG) and heat shock protein 70 in aborted women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):265-8.

Epidemiological study of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al –diwaniyah province, Iraq
Ali B. M. Al-Waaly, Habeeb W. Kadhum Shubber

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Abstract

The study included examining 4276 people who visited Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate Center and its county areas. The disease was diagnosed clinically by a dermatologist in the hospital and excluded all cases similar to Cutaneous leishmaniasis. The study showed that the mean prevalence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis was 34.82%, the rural areas were more prevalent for this disease (40.57%) compared to the areas within the city (18%). The months, December, January, and February, recorded the highest infection rate of 48.98%, 57.62%, and 51.16%, respectively. The incidence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis was 43.33% at the age of 1-14 years and 21.45% at the age of 55 years. Males were more susceptible to infection (48.05%) than females (26.39%). The arms and legs were more susceptible to infection (58.70%) than head ulcers (58.70%). Multiple ulcers showed more prevalence in the body (60.44%) compared to a single ulcer. Wet ulcers were more prevalent (82.94%) compared to dry ulcers (17.06%).

Keywords: baghdad boil, flagellata, blood and tissue, sandfly, tropica, major

Citation: Al-Waaly ABM, Kadhum Shubber HW. Epidemiological study of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al –diwaniyah province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):269-73.

Distribution of macrozoobenthos of Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea
G. S. Mirzoev

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Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the species composition and distribution of macrozoobenthos in the coastal zones of the Azerbaijani sector of the southern Caspian Sea. The study (2008-2009) found 56 species belonging to seven systematic groups. The maximum number of species was observed in the spring and summer season (from 33 to 54 species), and the minimum - in the autumn season (from 25 to 30 species). The average annual biomass of macrozoobenthic organisms varied in the range of 63.33-67.69 g / m2, and the number of 306-323 ex/m2. The maximum development of organisms was observed in summer (81.07 g / m), the minimum-in autumn (48.10 g / m2). In terms of species and quantity, the fauna of the silt - shell biotope is the richest, where the total biomass ranges from 93.24 to 94.83 g / m2, with a population of 275-285 species/m2.

Keywords: South Caspian, macrozoobenthos, distribution, biomass, abundance

Citation: Mirzoev GS. Distribution of macrozoobenthos of Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):275-81.

The effect of trimetazidine on histological and myocardial disorders in rats
Hadeel Jabar Neama Almuoswi

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Abstract

Cardiac muscle anemia affects the functions of mitochondria that results in ion disparity. The condition called cardiac arrhythmia. The research aims to study the effect of antianginal medication of trimetazidine on myocardial disorders in rats. The study was conducted on the rats. They were fed with 10 mg trimetazidine per Kg weight of mice each day for seven days. Tests were done for the effect of the moderator on mitochondrial metabolism in severe cardiac muscle anemia affected rats. Acute cardiac muscle anemia results in an injury to mitochondrial functions. So, when anemia cluster without trimetazidine treatment was observed, a major reduction within the infarction range was ascertained in trimetazidine-treated anemia cluster (31±3% vs. 52.8±4.89%). Trimetazidine maintained the mitochondrial organization. And, thus, better the metabolic process management, magnitude relation, and sophisticated activity. Moreover, the mitochondrial biosynthesis and division or fusion of the cells improved. The indubitable Promote the activated receptor gamma peroxisome proliferator (PPARγ), the Joint Co-1α (PGC-1α), mitofusins one (Mfn1), dynamin-related super molecule one (Drp1), Optic nerve atrophy one (OPA1) emerge in rats with acute cardiac muscle anemia. Therefore, the incontestable heart defending effects of trimetazidine was shown to preserve mitochondrial metabolic process, increased biogenesis, and split/union of cells. And, thus, this rat model of cardiac muscle anemia may be effectively used along with other cardioprotective agents.

Keywords: trimetazidine, myocardial disorders, rats

Citation: Neama Almuoswi HJ. The effect of trimetazidine on histological and myocardial disorders in rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):283-6.

The impact of restricted substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies
I Nengah Kencana Putra, I Putu Suparthana

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Abstract

The feasibility of wheat flour substitution with tannia flour in the production of cookies was investigated. The tannia flour studied were native tannia flour (NTF) and pregelatinized tannia flour (PTF). NTF was made by drying the sliced tannia tuber at 70oC and then milled and sieved through a 60 mesh sieve. PTF was made using ahydrothermal technique that was by boiling sliced tannia tuber in hot water (95oC) for 10 minutes before drying. Partial substitution of wheat flour with NTF or PTF was done at the level of 50%. The physical, chemical, sensory, and microstructural properties of the cookies produced were evaluated. Microstructural studies were performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour had a significant effect on sensory properties (texture); physical properties (hardness, color, and microstructure); and chemical properties (protein, carbohydrate, ash, and curd fiber content). Replacement of 50% wheat flour with PTF produced cookies that compete well with 100% wheat flour cookies (control) in term of sensory, physical, and chemical aspects. The PTF substituted cookies had lower protein level compared to the control cookies, but it had higher crude fiber content. Moreover, the PTF substituted cookies contained 5.94% protein, 24.52% fat, 63.10% carbohydrate, and 1.92% crude fiber, and it was a low-gluten and fiber-rich cookie.

Keywords: tannia tuber, pregelatinized flour, wheat flour substitution, low-gluten cookies

Citation: Putra INK, Suparthana IP. The impact of restricted substitution of wheat flour with tannia flour on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):287-92.

Prospects for growing juveniles and rearing fingerlings of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in cages in the conditions of fish farming of Almaty region
Gulmira M. Ablaisanova, Saule Zh. Assylbekova, Adilkhan Ab. Sambetbaev, Piotr J. Gomulka, Kuanysh B. Isbekov, Nina S. Badryzlova, Saya K. Koishybayeva

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Abstract

This article presents the results of scientific research on the growing juveniles and the rearing fingerlings of pikeperch in cages. The conditions for growing larvae, juveniles, and fingerlings of pikeperch are described, and the dynamics of hydrochemical indicators of temperature, active reaction of the aquatic environment, oxygen content in water, and the state of the natural food supply in the experimental pond are presented. The data of a comparative analysis of fish-cultivation and biological indicators for three stages of growing larvae, juveniles and six stages of growing fingerlings of pikeperch in cages are presented. Prospective planting densities of fish planting material for pikeperch have been determined. The data on the use of live and artificial feed for feeding pikeperch are presented.

Keywords: pikeperch aquaculture, larvae, juveniles, fingerlings, pond cages technology, breeding and biological indices of fish

Citation: Ablaisanova GM, Assylbekova SZ, Sambetbaev AA, Gomulka PJ, Isbekov KB, Badryzlova NS, et al. Prospects for growing juveniles and rearing fingerlings of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in cages in the conditions of fish farming of Almaty region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):293-9.

Anthropogenic load on water resources of Kazakhstan
A. R. Medeu, S. K. Alimkulov, A. A. Tursunova, A. B. Myrzakhmetov, A. A. Saparova, G. R. Baspakova, K. M. Kulebayev

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Abstract

In the article the main factor affecting water resources – irrevocable water consumption in the main river channels and administrative regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the degree of its impact on water resources is considered. Quantitative assessment of water resources use was carried out on the basis of data analysis of the statistical form of the departmental statistical observation 2-TP (water farm) and basin inspections. The most complete annual data are available only since 1992. For earlier years, water consumption accounting is not systematic and data are sometimes incomplete and contradictory. In this regard, this study uses data for the period 1992-2015. Anthropogenic changes in river flow at reference points in the main river channels draining the waters of a certain water collection were determined, channel water balances were compiled, transformations of water balance elements in each section were studied and compared with real water-intake facilities, and the share of irrevocable water consumption in certain sectors of the economy was determined. Using data on water consumption, the impact of water consumption on water resources was assessed by comparing the water resources available in the region with the volume of water used according to the so-called water load criterion. It is characterized by the capacity factor of water resources Ccap, equal to the ratio of the percentage of total water consumption to renewable water resources. This assessment was carried out for each WMB, as well as for all administrative regions of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: water resources, anthropogenic changes, water consumption, method of hydrological analogy, method of water balance, anthropogenic load, projected estimates of water resources

Citation: Medeu AR, Alimkulov SK, Tursunova AA, Myrzakhmetov AB, Saparova AA, Baspakova GR, et al. Anthropogenic load on water resources of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):301-7.

Quality of milk-raw materials at different level of solar activity and methods and practices of detecting milk quality
A. Norezzine, A. A. Nikishov, V. G Plushikov, N. Y. Rebouh, Yu. A. Vatnikov, N. V. Babichev, E. V. Kulikov, A. A. Terekhin, M. I. Shopinskaya, M. V. Bolshakova, E. A. Kostitsyna

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Abstract

The history of dairy farming goes back thousands of years, evolving from a traditional small-scale production to the industrialized manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Commercialization of milk and its derived products has been very important not only as a source of nourishment but also as an economic resource. However, the dairy industry has encountered several problems that have to be overcome to ensure the quality and safety of the final products, as well as to avoid economic losses. The results of studies of the relationship between cosmophysical activity and animal productivity are presented. obtained the following results, the synchronization of milk yield in cows of black-motley breed in the years of high solar activity was 76%; 5. The synchronicity and rhythm of milk yield of cows was established, regardless of the phase of lactation of cows, approximately 33% of the time the milk yield increases, 33% decrease and 34% remain at the same level (р0.99); An increase in the relationship between the studied indicators was observed when the animals achieved maximum productivity. With an increase in milk yield from to 8500 kg, the correlation coefficient was + 0.52. It was noted that all the components of milk decreased on days of increasing solar activity. The correlation coefficients for protein and milk fat content with Wolf (sunspot) numbers were r = –0.34 and r = –0.22, P ≥ 0.95. Correlation analysis revealed a reliable correlation of bacterial contamination and the number of somatic cells r = +0.28 and r = +0.31 (at P ≥ 0.95), respectively, with the Wolf (sunspot) numbers. In the collection milk, the negative correlation by fat content r = –0.12, density r = –0.18, acidity r = –0.17, protein content r = –0.19, sugar content r = –0.14, minerals r = –0.17 was observed with an increase in solar activity. Prospects for further research. The results of studying the effect of solar activity on milk productivity and the quality of raw milk provide the basis for predicting the productivity of cows and the possibility of using cosmophysical changes, to increase productivity and improve the quality of milk, by technological methods.

Keywords: dairy cattle, milk, chemical composition, acidity and density of milk

Citation: Norezzine A, Nikishov AA, Plushikov VG, Rebouh NY, Vatnikov YA, Babichev NV, et al. Quality of milk-raw materials at different level of solar activity and methods and practices of detecting milk quality. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):309-16.

Praziver® and Ivermek® effectiveness for horse helminthiase prevention
E. G. Kalughina, О. А. Stolbova

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Abstract

After the examination of horses in various horse breeding farms, including the hippodrome, schools, clubs, private stables and the horses of various ages, sex, and breeds, a wide spread of parasitic diseases was found, most often manifested in the form of helminthic infections and causing horse discomfort, preventing the development of young animals, reducing the working capacity and productivity of the adult population, as well as a number of different deviations. In order to protect animals from the harm caused by mixtinvasions, a hematological and biochemical study of horse blood was carried out. 32 animals infested with helminths were selected for the experiment. Blood was taken from experimental animals and examined in the laboratory. Studies have shown that invasions negatively affect the functional state of animals, while reducing the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, basophils, platelets, total protein, urea, glucose, micro and macro elements, and increasing white blood cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase, alananaminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin.
They studied the effectiveness of the drugs Praziver® and Ivermek® for horse helminthiasis. The drug “Praziver®” showed 100% therapeutic efficacy, used by the dose of 0.04 ml/kg against mixtinvasion of horses.

Keywords: horse, parasites, infestations, helminths, strongylatosis, oxyurosis, parascaridosis, deworming, praziquantel, ivermectin, blood, biochemistry

Citation: Kalughina EG, Stolbova ОА. Praziver® and Ivermek® effectiveness for horse helminthiase prevention. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):317-22.

Infusion of beta vulgaris seeds: protective action in experiment in vivo
A. Konkabayeva, G. Tykezhanova, A. M. Pudov, D. Yu. Sirman

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Abstract

This paper shows the positive effect of the infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds in the experiments in vivo. Due to the significant contamination with the copper compounds of some industrial regions and their accumulation in living systems, methods of health improvement are necessary, in this regard, the use of plant-based food preparations as detoxifiers is promising. In the experiment on rats, the high efficiency of prescribing the infusion of common beetroot seeds was shown in subacute and chronic poisoning of rats with copper acetate in high concentrations. It was found that the use of the infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds in combination with copper acetate poisoning leads to a significant decrease in copper accumulation in parenchymal organs (liver, kidneys and spleen). Simultaneous biochemical analysis of rat blood showed a decrease in the activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, a decrease in bilirubin, cholesterol. Therefore, the infusion of Beta vulgaris seeds of the family Amaranthaceae can be recommended for development as an effective means for the health improvement.

Keywords: infusion of Beta Vulgaris seeds, hepato- and nephroprotective effect, copper acetate, chronic poisoning, accumulation of copper

Citation: Konkabayeva A, Tykezhanova G, Pudov AM, Sirman DY. Infusion of beta vulgaris seeds: protective action in experiment in vivo. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):323-8.

Productive-biological features of aday breed kazakh horses
M. T. Kargayeva, D. A. Baimukanov, A. K. Karynbayev, O. Alikhanov, A. M. Zhunusov

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Abstract

Milk mares of Aday breed Kazakh horses have an average live weight of 389.2 kg, a height at the withers of 139.2 cm, an obliquus body length of 142.1 cm, a chest girth of 167.6 cm and a pastern girth of 17.5 cm. In stud getters of Aday breed Kazakh horses, the live weight averaged 438.7 kg and in the Mangistau population 449.8 kg. The measurements of the body were 145.2 - 147.5 - 169.8 - 18.5 cm in the Aday breed, and in the Mangistau population, respectively, were 145.6 - 148.1 - 172.2 -18.5 cm. Mares of the Aday breed with an average live weight of 389.2 kg produce 1617.0 l, and the Mangistau population, respectively, 415.3 kg – 1413 l of milk. It was found that 2.5-year-old stallions of the Aday breed are characterized by a higher bone ratio in comparison with peers of the Mangistau population, the difference was 1.7%. On the contrary, the yield of flesh is lower in stallions of the Aday breed in comparison with the Mangistau population by 10.6 kg or 6.7%. So, for 1 kg of bones, the flesh was obtained from stallions of the Mangistau population of 5.76 kg, and Aday breed of 5.05 kg. The population-genetic structure of the Aday breed Kazakh horses shows the differentiation of the population as a whole. The total number of alleles found in 17 microsatellite loci was 122, including informative alleles - 122, effective alleles - 99.28, and private alleles - 0. Indicators of the average expected heterozygosity range from 0.7235 to 0.8695. According to the Fis coefficient (individual fixation index), an excess of heterozygotes was found in all loci. Expected heterozygosity is He =0.8677, observed heterozygosity is Ho =0.8600. The analysis of the studied parameters of the population-genetic structure of the Aday breed Kazakh horses confirmed the presence of intra-population differentiation of animals in the conditions of the Mangyshlak peninsula.

Keywords: exterior, live weight, milk yield, fattening, slaughter yield, alleles, microsatellite loci

Citation: Kargayeva MT, Baimukanov DA, Karynbayev AK, Alikhanov O, Zhunusov AM. Productive-biological features of aday breed kazakh horses. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):329-35.

Mathematical modeling of biodiesel production process
N. M. Orynbayev, Mikho Yankov Mikhov, M. K. Aldabergenov

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Abstract

The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of transesterification of vegetable oils with methyl alcohol, the material balance is determined, and the molecular weights of the components involved in the process of transesterification as input and output products are established. The influence of temperature and changes in the critical mixing rates on the acceleration of the process of transesterification of vegetable oils with methyl alcohol, the results of an experimental study of the processes of biodiesel production by mobile equipment.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification processes, biodiesel production, diesel internal combustion engines, reduction of emissions from diesel engines

Citation: Orynbayev NM, Mikhov MY, Aldabergenov MK. Mathematical modeling of biodiesel production process. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):337-42.

Selection method of karakul sheep of gray color by viability
Nurzhan N. Azhimetov, Zhanibek A. Parzhanov, Bakytzhan A. Azhibekov, Taubassar A. Mustiyar, Erubay Baibekov

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Abstract

The developed selection method of homozygous Karakul sheep of gray color by viability makes it possible to reduce the yield of albino gray lambs by homogenous selection of animals in gray color by 2.1% in offspring of rams with intensive pigmentation of the hair covering in comparison with the parameters of rams with weakened pigmentation.

Keywords: homozygous, albino, pigment, viability, gray color

Citation: Azhimetov NN, Parzhanov ZA, Azhibekov BA, Mustiyar TA, Baibekov E. Selection method of karakul sheep of gray color by viability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):343-5.

The ecological status of irrigated saline soils of the Shaulder massif of the Turkestan region
A. S. Vyrakhmanova, A. Otarov, A. S. Saparov, M. Suska-Malavska, S. N. Duisekov, M. N. Poshanov, S. I. Tanirbergenov

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Abstract

Despite the wide variety of soil cover of the irrigated areas of the Republic, the problem of establishing regional background levels of heavy metals and other pollutants in the irrigated soils remains unresolved. The study and systematization of data on heavy metals in irrigated soils at the regional level is very relevant and necessary for assessing the resilience and stability of irrigated ecosystems to global and regional anthropogenic impacts. In this regard, the content of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in the irrigated soils of the South Kazakhstan region (on the example of the Shaulder Irrigation Massif) was investigated. The study determined the percentage of total forms of Zn (44.6%), Ni (28.9%), Cu (16.3%), Pb (8.6%), Cd (1.7%) and mobile forms of Ni (43.4%), Pb (21.7%), Zn (17.7%), Cu (10.3%) and Cd (6.9%). Consequently, the process of irrigation of these soils leads to an increase in the mobile forms Cd, Pb, and especially Ni, and the proportion of the mobile forms Cu and Zn decreases. By statistical processing of the obtained analytical data (n = 348) the concentrations of the studied heavy metals (mg/kg) in soil of the area were determined: Zn – 3.4 ± 0.05; Cu - 1.7 ± 0.02; Pb - 4.7 ± 0.10; Cd – 1.3 ± 0.01; Ni - 8.4 ± 0.12. These values are proposed by us for adoption as background levels of heavy metals in the studied soils and will be used in monitoring the soil of the Shaulder Irrigation Massif.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, irrigated soils, soil information system (GIS), heavy metals, background concentration

Citation: Vyrakhmanova AS, Otarov A, Saparov AS, Suska-Malavska M, Duisekov SN, Poshanov MN, et al. The ecological status of irrigated saline soils of the Shaulder massif of the Turkestan region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):347-54.

Development of a recipe and technology for the production of drinking yogurt from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition based on the enzyme, probiotics and nutrient additive
E. Zh. Zhaxybayeva, F. Т. Dikhanbayeva, Zh. P. Dimitriev, Zh. К. Imangalieva, А. R. Asenov

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Abstract


Despite extensive research and development of technology for fermented milk products from camel milk, until today its position in the form of a geroprotector has not been considered. This study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of fermented milk product from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition and conducting a study of the developed samples, analysis of the results. As a result of research and development of technology for the production of fermented milk product, by enriching camel milk with various nutrient and other additives, it was possible to obtain drinking yogurt for gerodietetic nutrition with certain properties that meet the requirements of regulatory documents. The addition of enzyme (transglutaminase), prebiotic (fructooligosaccharide) and nutrient additive (apple pectin) to camel milk positively affected such properties as organoleptic, viscosity, and moisture-retention capacity of the product. And also, for the production of drinking yogurt in order to identify the most acceptable type of lactic acid starter cultures, a combination of different lactic acid starter cultures and its application in fermentation were carried out, as a result of which it was possible to obtain reasonable indicators of suitable lactic acid starter cultures for the production of drinking yogurt for gerodietetic nutrition.

Keywords: gerontology, camel milk, drinking yogurt, pectin, prebiotic, enzymes, healthy aging, prevention

Citation: Zhaxybayeva EZ, Dikhanbayeva FТ, Dimitriev ZP, Imangalieva ZК, Asenov АR. Development of a recipe and technology for the production of drinking yogurt from camel milk for gerodietetic nutrition based on the enzyme, probiotics and nutrient additive. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):355-63.

Manipulating the biological character of red algae extract (kappaphycus alvarezii) administration on the total cholesterol levels of wistar strain male rats (rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet
Herin Setianingsih, Edgar Noya Cosa Arand

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Abstract

Background/aim: Cholesterol is recycled in the body. The liver excretes cholesterol into biliary fluids, which is then stored in the gallbladder, which then excretes it in a non-esterified form (via bile) into the digestive tract. Typically, about 50% of the excreted cholesterol is reabsorbed by the small intestine back into the bloodstream Cholesterol is one of several biological problems that can result in death, especially for high-risk groups, such as older people and those with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and can lead to atherosclerosis and reduce work productivity as well. Red algae extract (Kappaphycus alvarezii) affects the total cholesterol level because the content of β-carotene reduces the formation and oxidation from low-density lipoprotein proteins (LDL cholesterol). This study aimed to determine the effect of red algae extract (Kappa hycusalvarezii) administration with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW on the total cholesterol levels of Wistar strain male rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet. Materials and methods: This research used 30 rats that met inclusion requirements, and they were divided randomly into three groups: the normal group (K0), feed group (K1), and Kappaphycus alvarezii group (K2). An examination of cholesterol levels was done for each group on the 31st day. The sample was analyzed using the CHOD-PAP (Cholesterol oxidase para aminophenazone) method. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Statistics based on Mann-Whitney U tests for significance levels between the group that had not been given and the other group that had been given the extract of red algae (Kappaphycus alvarezii) with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW for rats that had been given a high-fat diet were less than 0.05 (Sig<0.05), resulting in 0.001. Conclusions: Administering the extract of red algae (Kappaphycus alvarezii) with a dose of 140 mg/200grBW affected the total cholesterol level of Wistar strain male rats (Rattus norvegicus) inducted with a high-fat diet.

Keywords: cholesterol, cholesterol oxidase para aminophenazone, red algae extract

Citation: Setianingsih H, Cosa Arand EN. Manipulating the biological character of red algae extract (kappaphycus alvarezii) administration on the total cholesterol levels of wistar strain male rats (rattus norvegicus) induced by a high-fat diet. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):365-70.

Growth and yield of potato in relation to application of Alphylax and fish oil as organic fertilizers
Wafaa Ali Hussein, Nafisa Elmahi Ahmed

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Abstract

This study aimed to examine the activity of Alphylax and Fish oil fertilizers on growth and production of Potato (Everest variety) in the central regions of Iraq. The experiment was conducted in two seasons of 2017 using randomized complete block design with eleven treatment with three replicates including: control (T0), Alphylax (1, 2, 3 ml L-1) symbolized T2, T3, T4, fish oil (1, 2, 3 ml L-1) symbolized T5, T6, T7 and an interaction between Alphylax and fish oil (1+1, 2+2, 3+3, 1.5+1.5 ml L-1) symbolized T8, T9, T10, T11, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences of T10 in producing the highest values of aerial stem number, leaf number and plant dry weight for two seasons of 2017. T7 and T9 increased nitrogen (N%) in leaf for two seasons, while T10 increased percentages of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) for two seasons. T10 and T4 increased plant yield to 0.871g and 426g for two seasons, respectively. Plant tuber number increased at 5.90, 2.60 tuber plant-1 in T10 and T5 for two seasons, respectively. T10 and T6 increased tuber weight at 198.1g and 203.7 g tuber-1, respectively. It is concluded that plants fertilized by Alphylax and fish oil had higher growth rates in compared to control group. The organic materials can be considered as an applicable fertilizer in the growth and yield performance of organic potato.

Keywords: eureka, stimulator, potato production, natural compound

Citation: Hussein WA, Ahmed NE. Growth and yield of potato in relation to application of Alphylax and fish oil as organic fertilizers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):371-5.

Review of pathogenicity and virulence determinants in Salmonella
Hadaf Mahdi Kadhim

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Abstract

Salmonella are widely distributed and can be survived in contaminated food and water which are considered a real health hazard. The genus Salmonella that associated with human infection cause food-borne and water-borne by consumption of contaminated meat, milk, eggs and water. These organisms grow on mainly nutrient media, the growth of most Salmonella strains require minimal media containing sulphate phosphate, ammonium salt for nitrogen, as well as glucose as a source of energy and Carbone. Salmonella infections are commonly increased in low income countries. The aim of this review is to review the characteristics of Salmonella, the virulence properties of Salmonella, pathogenesis and Salmonella infection.

Keywords: Salmonella, enteric fever, virulence factors, pathogenicity

Citation: Kadhim HM. Review of pathogenicity and virulence determinants in Salmonella. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):377-81.

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients
Haider A. Alghanmi, Aqeel Shanan Omran

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Abstract

Microalgae play a significant role in the development of new products for medical and pharmaceutical research due to their ability to generate different biologically active metabolites. They are target organisms in the search for new antibiotic molecules to deal with antibiotic resistance. In addition, the use of natural antibiotics could satisfy consumer demand to avoid the side effects of chemicals. Our results showed antimicrobial activity of two algal species Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris against nine human pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Seven concentrations of algal extract (10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/ml) were used. It was observed that ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis was most effective against Streptococcus agalactiae with maximum inhibition zone of 21.6 mm, while the minimum inhibition zone (8.5mm) was found in case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentration 300 mg/ml. In the case of ethanolic extract of Chlorella vulgaris, the inhibition zone was the highest (31.6 mm) against Staphylococcus lentus, while the lowest inhibition zone (20.6 mm) was in case of Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 300 mg/ml. While the concentrations less than 300 mg/ml showed varying inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, some bacterial isolates showed resistance to low concentrations of algal extracts. The results of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the two algal extracts showed that chemical composition analysis consisted of terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes)

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Bioactive compounds, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibacterial activity, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

Citation: Alghanmi HA, Omran AS. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):383-94.

Bioaccumulation of some heavy elements in different tissue of Cotugnia polycantha and two parasites (Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis) infected with birds
Nuha Jabbar Abed Alrikaby, Afrah A. Maktoof, Alyaa A. Hafedh

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Abstract

Heavy metals tend to bioaccumulation in living organisms. Their aggregation has been a noteworthy concern. The present investigation assessed the concentration of five heavy metals in the cestode Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis and in its host Cotugnia polycantha gathered from local market of Al-Nassiriyia City/south of Iraq. Samples (Liver, Kidney, muscle, intestine and two parasities) of 60 infected were chosen for heavy metals examination which achieved by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the bio concentration factors (BCF) in Raillietina tetragona is more than in Streptopellia senegalensis. The obtained results illustrated the probability of the utilization of birds and two parasites as markers of environmental pollution.

Keywords: heavy elements, Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis, Cotugnia polycanth and Bioaccumulation factors

Citation: Abed Alrikaby NJ, Maktoof AA, Hafedh AA. Bioaccumulation of some heavy elements in different tissue of Cotugnia polycantha and two parasites (Raillietina tetragona and Streptopellia senegalensis) infected with birds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):395-9.

Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet on some blood parameters for broiler chickens
Alaa K. Mohammed, Nihad A. Ali, Chassan R. Mousa

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the field of Poultry birds belonging to Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University in order to study the effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological traits for blood. A 180 unsexed broiler chickens (ross 380 strain), with one-day age were used, where they were randomly divided into four treatments, with a rate of 45 birds per treatment and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatments of experiment were as follows: First treatment (control) without adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet, second treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (1 g / kg feed), third treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (2 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (3 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: Red blood cell count, white blood cell count, Haematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, White Blood Cell Differential Count, estimating the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The results indicated that adding laurel leaves with the rate of (2 and 3 g / kg feed) led to significant improvement (p <0.05) in the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, Haematocrit, the value of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio). From the present experiment, it is concluded that adding laurel leaves with the rate of (2, 3 g / kg feed) to the diet can lead to improve some blood parameters for broiler chickens.

Keywords: laurel leaves, blood parameters, broiler chickens

Citation: Mohammed AK, Ali NA, Mousa CR. Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet on some blood parameters for broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):401-5.

Impact of using dried bread residue as substitution of energy source for cereals on milk production and its ingredients of Awassi ewes
Mozhir K. K. Almahdawi, Ali A. T. Altalib

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Abstract

In order to know effects of dried bread residue used as partial substitution of energy source by barley grains in fodder of Awassi ewes on milk production and its ingredients and growth of lambs.Twenty Awassi ewes and their lambs were used during this study. This study included two experiments, the first was conducted on Awassi ewes group, which extended from benefiting, gestation, milk production until the weaning of lambs. The second experiment was conducted on lambing from birth until reaching the age of weaning. The dried bread residues was using with different percentages (0,12,24 and 36%) as energy source instead of barley grains in the control fodder. The ewes and their newborns were randomly distributed into four treatments was mentioned above. The results of the first experiment in this study showed a significant superiority(P≤0.01) on rates of ewes performance, milk production and its composition, concentrations of blood proteins and glucose sugar were in favor of ewes groups which were fed on experimental diets (different percentages of dried bread residues) compared to the control group. As well as the results of the second experiment appeared a significant improvement on rates of daily and total weight gain and most blood traits of lambs which was in favor of lambs groups that consumed experimental diets containing different levels of dried bread residues compared to control group. We conclude there was a significant improvement on weight gain, daily milk production, percentages of milk protein and milk fat that were in favor of ewes groups which were consumed an experimental diets. This was reflected on improvement of lambs growth during lactation period until they reached weaning due to the computational improvement on milk intake during this period. Also, the results indicates a significant improvement on blood protein concentrations of ewes and neonates who were treated with experimental diets compared to the control group.

Keywords: dried bread residue, milk production, productive traits, blood proteins, Awassi lambs

Citation: Almahdawi MKK, Altalib AAT. Impact of using dried bread residue as substitution of energy source for cereals on milk production and its ingredients of Awassi ewes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):407-16.

Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens
Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali, Alaa Khudhair Mohammed, Mohannad M. AL-Rekabi

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Abstract

This experiment aimed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) on the immune responses and microbial content of gut in broiler chickens. A total of 180 unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into four treatments (45 birds per treatment) and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatment groups were: control; without adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet, second treatment; Adding 1 g/kg feed crushed laurel leaves to diet, third treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (2 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (3 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: antibody titer against Newcastle disease, investigating sensitivity against Newcastle disease, the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, bursa of Fabricius index, estimating the total number of bacterial, estimating the total number of coliform bacteria and estimating the total number of Lactobacillus bacteria. The results indicated that adding the crushed laurel leaves significantly improved cellular immunity and antibody titer against Newcastle disease as well as relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and bursa of Fabricius index. A significant decrease in the logarithmic numbers for the total aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria with a significant increase in the logarithmic numbers for Lactobacillus bacteria in the duodenum contents for the small intestine as well as in the ceca compared to the control treatment. It is concluded that the addition of crushed laurel leaves to the diet can improve the immune response and microbial content of digestive tract in broiler chickens.

Keywords: broiler chicken, immune response, laurel leaves, microbial content

Citation: Abdul-Lateef Ali N, Mohammed AK, AL-Rekabi MM. Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):417-21.

Effect of biologically active supplement feeds on the quality of broiler chicken meat
Gaukhar Moldakhmetova, Shokhan Аlpeisov, Zhanar Kussainova, Soo-Ki Kim

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Abstract

To determine the biochemical composition of the meat of broiler chickens raised on mixed feed with the addition of biologically active supplements, studies were conducted at the “Sary-Bulak” poultry farm in the Almaty region. The object of the study was broiler chickens of the “Cobb 500” cross. As a result of scientific research, the effectiveness and expediency of the complex use of the supplement feed “Suvar” and the probiotic “Acidophilin B-143” in feeding broiler chickens and their impact on the safety of livestock, live weight gain, slaughter and meat quality were determined. It was found that the optimal dose of the supplement feed “Suvar” is 0.25 ml/kg, and the probiotic “Acidophilin B-143” is 0.13 ml/l of feed during the entire growing period. It was found that the combined use of supplement feeds and probiotics improves the growth and development of pectoralis of broilers in the experimental group. There was also an improvement in the taste of broiler meat based on the results of the tasting.

Keywords: broiler, live weight, supplement feed, probiotic, meat tasting

Citation: Moldakhmetova G, Аlpeisov S, Kussainova Z, Kim S. Effect of biologically active supplement feeds on the quality of broiler chicken meat. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):423-6.

Genetic diversity among pishdar dog in sulaimani governorate using RAPD-PCR technique
Israa Hameed Abd Alsada Alwaeily, Yousif M.S. AL-Barzinji, Bahjat Taifor Abbass

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Abstract

Present study aimed to characterization Pishdar shepherd dogs which is a native breed specified in Kurdistan- Iraq. For this purpose the RAPD markers were used to study genetic diversity among nine geographical locations in Suliamani governorate. A total of 74 samples were typed using twenty RAPD primers. Moreover, fourteen out of the twenty primers had clear bands. A total of 709 bands were scored, of which 57 bands (51.48%) were polymorphic and 15 of polymorphic band were unique bands. For all regions, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon index, percentage of polymorphic loci and unique bands are in the range of 0.19 to 0.49, 0.34 to 0.68, 10 to 100, and 1 to 5, respectively. The UPGMA dendrograms showed three clusters, the 1st cluster branch consisted of the Sitak and Halabja, the 2nd cluster was include both of the Qala-Diza and Rania and the 3rd one included constitutes four sub-clumps the 1st branch consist of (Dokan and Suliamani) region, the 2nd branch harbored the Huwana region only. The 3rd one covers the Sangasar region. Finally, the 4th sub-cluster possesses the Pishdar group. The results indicated that impressive logical result, showed low genetic distance between the Dokan and Suliamani population, in addition to small genetic distance between Qala-Diza and Rania, and moderate genetic distance between Sitak and Halabja. Which means there was no genetic variation in between these populations according to the near geographical distance between these areas. Thus, the inbreeding mating among these areas records high value. Meanwhile, the Huwana, Sangasar and Pishdar sub-clusters population documented a moderate genetic distance between them. Nevertheless, the high genetic distance that recorded (56.13%) among the region’s population of Pishdar dog showed ample ground for mating within this breed in suliamani province.

Keywords: RAPD-PCR, pishdar dog, polymorphism, genetic distance

Citation: Alsada Alwaeily IHA, AL-Barzinji YM, Abbass BT. Genetic diversity among pishdar dog in sulaimani governorate using RAPD-PCR technique. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):427-33.

Electron microscopic changes in mitochondria in central nervous system of neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) in adult hen
Methaq A. Abd Alsamad, Aula E. Hadi, Mohammed A. Hasan

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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) of acute single dose for 21 days and sub chronic of daily doses of 90 days. All of the following mitochondria of cerebellum and midbrain, and also mitochondria of axoplasm of myelinated nerve fibers of sciatic nerve and spinal cord, showed that treatment related changes of neurotoxicity of TOCP characterized by dark stained, lamellated degenerate mitochondria. This indicated that mitochondria can be affected by the neurotoxicity of TOCP resulting in degeneration. Electron microscopic study of nervous system demonstrates very strong evidence of degeneration of mitochondria in myelinated axon. Further than presence of degenerate mitochondria even in the cytoplasm of neuron TOCP ultra-structurally showed degenerate myelin as lamellated body formation with auto phagocytosis of degeneration myelin by oligo dendrocytes. Mitochondria in axoplasm of myelinated axon in association with degenerate myelin. Morphologically degenerate mitochondria showed loss of formation of lamellated degenerate mitochondria, it neurons there was complete loss of the neuronal morphology of mitochondria, in severe cases the degeneration of mitochondria associated with calcium deposits. The presence of degeneration of mitochondria in association with neurotoxicity of TOCP indicated the serious of the damage which was caused by the TOCP.

Keywords: mitochondria, electron microscope, hen

Citation: Abd Alsamad MA, Hadi AE, Hasan MA. Electron microscopic changes in mitochondria in central nervous system of neurotoxicity of TOCP (tri ortho cresyl phosphate) in adult hen. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):435-9.

Technology of formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in conditions of fish farms in Kazakhstan
Nina Badryzlova, Saya Koishybayeva, Saule Assylbekova, Kuanysh Isbekov

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Abstract

The article presents biotechnical measures for harvesting spawners and individuals of different ages of pikeperch from a natural reservoir and transporting pikeperch from fishing sites to a fish farms. The values of body weight, minimum allowable length and fatness of spawners and younger age groups of pikeperch are given. Comparative characteristics of fish-breeding and biological indicators of males and females with statistical processing of indicators are given. The characteristic of the production capabilities of wild pikeperch spawners during spawning, incubation of eggs and obtaining larvae is given. The article describes the biotechnical methods of conducting pikeperch spawning in spawning cages on nests in pond conditions of fish farms, incubation of eggs in “Amur” devices. Data on the culturing pikeperch juvenile in cages and the cultivation of fingerlings and two-year-old pikeperches in ponds are presented. The characteristic of fish-breeding and biological indicators of fingerling and two-year-old pikeperch cultured in a polyculture with cyprinid fish is given. The data of statistical analysis of indicators of weight final values, minimum allowable length and fatness of fingerlings and two-year-old pikeperches cultured in ponds for selection in the formed replacement-brood stock of pikeperch are presented. The dynamics of the main hydrochemical indicators of ponds is presented. The developed biotechnical standards for the formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in the conditions of fish farms in the South of Kazakhstan are recommended.

Keywords: domestication, pikeperch, spawners, larvae, fingerlings, two-year-olds, replacement-brood stock, spawning, incubation, ponds, fish-breeding and biological indicators, polyculture

Citation: Badryzlova N, Koishybayeva S, Assylbekova S, Isbekov K. Technology of formation of replacement-brood stock of pikeperch in conditions of fish farms in Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):441-7.

Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological blood traits
Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the field of Poultry birds belonging to the Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University to investigate the effect of adding different amounts of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to feed broilers on some chickens’ physiological blood traits. 180 unsexed broiler chickens (ross 380 strain) one-day old were used, randomly divided into four treatments at a rate of 45 birds per treatment, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The experimental treatments included the first treatment (control) in which no crushed laurel leaves were added to the food, the second treatment in which crushed laurel leaves were added in an amount of (1 g / kg of feed), and the third treatment in which crushed laurel leaves in an amount of (2 g / kg of feed) and the fourth treatment in which crushed laurel leaves in an amount of (3 g / kg of feed) were added. The experiment included the concentrations of glucose albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, ALT enzyme, AST enzyme and uric acid, and also globulin/albumin (G / A) ratio and total protein. The results indicated that the addition of crushed laurel leaves (2-3 g / kg of feed) led to an increase in the concentration of high-density lipoproteins and globulins as well as a significant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins. The present experiment indicated that adding laurel leaves can improve some physiological blood traits in broilers.

Keywords: broiler chickens, laurel leaves, physiological blood traits

Citation: Abdul-Lateef Ali N. Effect of adding different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) to the diet of broiler chickens on some physiological blood traits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):449-52.

Use of domestic starter feeds for culturing clarid catfish and tilapia
Alyona Mukhramova, Saule Assylbekova, Adilkhan Sambetbaev, Tomáš Policar, Kuanysh Isbekov, Saya Koishybayeva, Nina Badryzlova

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Abstract

The article presents the results of scientific research on testing domestic starter feed for larvae of clarid catfish and tilapia when cultured in cages installed in ponds and basins with natural thermal regime in the conditions of the fish farm of “HalykBalyk” LLP (Almaty region). The data of comparative analysis of fish-rearing and biological indicators of fish larvae during the experiment are presented. Feed ratios for starter mixed feeds were determined, which amounted to 0.93 units for clarid catfish and 1.3 units for Nile tilapia.

Keywords: nile tilapia, clarid catfish, artificial starter feeds, recipes, fish-rearing and biological indicators, feed ratio

Citation: Mukhramova A, Assylbekova S, Sambetbaev A, Policar T, Isbekov K, Koishybayeva S, et al. Use of domestic starter feeds for culturing clarid catfish and tilapia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):453-8.

Consortium of starter cultures with lactose-utilizing and probiotic properties technology of production of delactosed sould - milk products
Raikhan A. Arynova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Sandugash S. Anuarbekova, Madina K. Imanbayeva

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Abstract

The main purpose of the study was to develop technologies for the production of lactose-free fermented milk products based on active strains of lactose-utilizing microorganisms. As a result, 12 consortiums were created, which include lactic acid bacteria and yeast. To determine the starter properties of the created compositions, the biocompatibility of microorganism cultures was evaluated using the perpendicular streak technique on a dense nutrient medium. The viability score was checked by the Miles&Misra method, the antagonism score with the block, hole, prick, and stroke methods. All cultures of the consortium members: C136, C198, C196, C190, DK26, C237, LB4, LB24, LC59, LR 12, L98, LB24, LC70, LC90, LR 12, LC 58, LB4, L98 - are biocompatible, antagonists to opportunistic microorganisms such as: E. coli, S. marc., S. typh. With high viability, having the ability to utilize milk sugar - lactose, which was confirmed by us in previous scientific studies.

Keywords: lactose intolerance, lactose-free dairy products, lactic acid bacteria, probiotic properties

Citation: Arynova RA, Muslimov NZ, Anuarbekova SS, Imanbayeva MK. Consortium of starter cultures with lactose-utilizing and probiotic properties technology of production of delactosed sould - milk products. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):459-65.

Evaluation of the habitat state of the Zhaiyk River Ichthyofauna in modern conditions and its influence on the impacts of anthropogenic factors
Saule Assylbekova, Kuanysh Isbekov, Damir Zharkenov, Yevgeniy Kulikov, Yerbolat Kadimov, Olga Sharipova

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Abstract

The article presents data from a comprehensive study of the current state of the habitat and its impact on hydrobionts and fish populations in the area within the Atyrau city, where an environmental disaster occurred in December 2018, which led to the mass mortality of partial and sturgeon fish in the Zhaiyk river. In the course of research in the summer-autumn period of 2019, the hydrological regime, hydrochemical and hydrophysical parameters, the content of heavy metals, phenols, pesticides and petroleum products in water, hydrobionts and fish were studied. The state of the fish food supply (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos), and the quality of the habitat for indicator species were assessed. The analysis of the composition and state of the ichthyofauna and the conditions of natural reproduction of fish were carried out. Pathological changes in fish organisms, the presence of parasites, viral pathogens, and the state of fish internal organs were studied. The state of the ichthyofauna and the habitat of hydrobionts were analyzed, and scientific recommendations were made to reduce the negative impact of anthropogenic factors on ichthyocenosis.

Keywords: hydrology, hydrochemistry, toxicology, food supply, ichthyofauna, histology, pathology, parasitology, virus, fish stocks, fisheries, anthropogenic factor

Citation: Assylbekova S, Isbekov K, Zharkenov D, Kulikov Y, Kadimov Y, Sharipova O. Evaluation of the habitat state of the Zhaiyk River Ichthyofauna in modern conditions and its influence on the impacts of anthropogenic factors. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):467-3.

Technology of cultivation of feeder fish for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan
Zamira Bolatbekova, Saule Assylbekova, Beibit Kulatayev, Tomáš Policar, Kuanysh Isbekov, Saya Koishybayeva

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Abstract

The article presents the results of cultivation of nekton-benthic crustaceans of the species of mysid (Paramysis) and shrimp (Palaemon modestus) for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan. Cultivation of feeder fish was carried out in basins on artesian water with heating. Both cultures developed rapidly during cultivation. When evaluating and comparing these cultures, the shrimp (Palaemon modestus) showed the best properties when feeding fish with them in terms of such indicators as palatability, gain and feeding ratio. The calculation of economic efficiency was performed on juveniles of clarid catfish, as it is more demanding to feeder fish. The lowest primary cost values for the “price - quality ratio” indicator were noted when using shrimp (Palaemon modestus) as a feeder fish.

Keywords: cultivation, mysid, shrimp, aquaculture, tilapia, clarid catfish, gain, feeding ratio

Citation: Bolatbekova Z, Assylbekova S, Kulatayev B, Policar T, Isbekov K, Koishybayeva S. Technology of cultivation of feeder fish for culturing tilapia (Tilapia) and clarid catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in the VI fish-breeding zone of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):475-81.

Development of technology for producing gluten-free dry mixes for confectionery products based on Kazakhstani raw materials
Zhanar T. Botbayeva, Tolkyn M. Koptleuova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Kadyrbek A. Baigenzhinov, Aidana E. Zhanaidarova

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Abstract

The article presents data on the production of gluten-free dry mixes. At the beginning, gluten-free crops of corn and rice grains were selected, which were refined according to the climatic conditions of our country. All selected crops were tested for the presence of gluten using the IFA analyzer of Rider Multiscan FC. Before setting the temperature conditions in three parameters on the extruder, the degrees of gelatinization are considered and investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) equipment. Based on the thermodynamic melting parameters, the optimal extrusion mode for rice and corn flour is selected. Extrusion was performed on a double-screw extruder, DS32-II – Double-screw testing extruder. The morphology of extruded corn and rice flour was studied, and micrographs revealed that extrusion destroys their granular structure and creates a link between starch and free lipids in the raw material. The ratios of dry mixtures for obtaining gluten-free products based on mathematical modeling have been developed. Based on the study of quality characteristics, the ratios of dry mixes for cakes were worked out (rice flour - X1-24,25%, corn flour - X2-59,5%, extrusion flour - X3-16.25%). As a result of the study of the gluten content in dry mixes from grain crops and obtained confectionery products, it was revealed that gluten does not exceed 20 mg/kg. During the experiments, the energy value of gluten-free cakes (406,66 kcal) was studied.

Keywords: gluten-free extruded rice, corn, mathematical modeling of dry mixes, confectionery products

Citation: Botbayeva ZT, Koptleuova TM, Muslimov NZ, Baigenzhinov KA, Zhanaidarova AE. Development of technology for producing gluten-free dry mixes for confectionery products based on Kazakhstani raw materials. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):483-91.

Efficiency of bioecological features of soybean in increasing soil fertility and its productivity in the conditions of south-east Kazakhstan
Elnara Kuandykova, Naziya Suleimenova, Baglan Makhamedova, Baktigul Raimbekova, Meruyert Kurmanbayeva, Aisulu Zhanibekova

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Abstract

In order to increase soil fertility and crop productivity in the conditions of South-east Kazakhstan, we have studied the effectiveness of resource-saving technology in soybean cultivation. The bioecological - nitrogen-fixing features of soybeans were also considered. The experimental study conducted in accordance with the scheme of the full factorial experiment in 2012-2017 on meadow-chestnut soils in South-East Kazakhstan. The article discusses the results of the application of the bioecological potential of culture in the ecologization of technological processes in the agricultural sector (agricultural economics), as a result of which the doses of nitrogen fertilizers are reduced (up to 50%), financial costs for growing crops are reduced, which makes it possible to solve pressing environmental problems. In the experiment, various soybean varieties were studied on the following backgrounds: without fertilizer (control); inoculation of seeds with soybean nitragin; with fertilizer N60Р180К90. The duration of the growing season, plant height, mass of air-dry matter, the number and mass of active nodules on the roots, elements of the structure of plant productivity and productivity were determined. It was proved that agro-inoculation of seeds with nitragin can significantly improve the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of soybeans (increases the number of nodules from 16.2 to 35.1 from 21.0-38.0 pcs / 1 plants.). As a result, soybean productivity increases to 34-36%. With such a crop, the ratio of soybeans to terrestrial and underground biomass is ½, which proves the large accumulation of organic roots and residues after harvesting (leaf tops) in the soil, which reduces the dose of nitrogen fertilizers used and contributes to an effective increase in soil fertility. In turn, the structure of the arable soil will stabilized at optimal soil density, which contributes to the normal growth and development of soybean culture. It proved that the minimum technology of tillage is the best agricultural practice providing preservation and improvement of qualitative and quantitative indicators of soil resource and productivity of soybeans.

Keywords: bioecological feature, soybean, inoculation, soil fertility

Citation: Kuandykova E, Suleimenova N, Makhamedova B, Raimbekova B, Kurmanbayeva M, Zhanibekova A. Efficiency of bioecological features of soybean in increasing soil fertility and its productivity in the conditions of south-east Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):493-500.

Cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds
Margarita Yulaevna Ishmuratova, Saltanat Ushkempirovna Tleukenova, Sairan Nikolayevna Atikeyeva, Аlmagul Kaliyevna Auelbekova, Gulmira Okibayevna Zhuzbayeva, Zharkyn Zharkeyevna Zhumagaliyeva

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Abstract

The article presents the results of cryopreservation of seeds of the medical plant Calendula officinalis. Cryopreservation is a highly promising direction of biology, allowing deep freezing of objects with full preservation of life properties. Calendula seeds have different size and weight. The best survival rates are observed for large seeds (germination rate - 77.5%, energy of germination - 55.0%). Assessment of seed survival in the storage rate showed a linear decrease in germination rate and energy of germination during storage. After 1.5 years of storage, germination decreased to 30.0%.As part of the research, the container was optimized for cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds, defrosting conditions, seed humidity and the use of different cryoprotectors. The results showed that the optimal container for freezing in liquid nitrogen was plastic cryotubes; defrosting should be carried out at room temperature; the best survival rates were found at seed humidity 5-6%; the use of cryoprotectors was not feasible. The results of the studies can be used to organize long-term storage of Calendula officinalis seeds at extra low temperatures (liquid nitrogen).

Keywords: Calendula officinalis, cryopreservation, germination, liquid nitrogen, seed material

Citation: Ishmuratova MY, Tleukenova SU, Atikeyeva SN, Auelbekova АK, Zhuzbayeva GO, Zhumagaliyeva ZZ. Cryopreservation of Calendula officinalis seeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):501-5.

The state and possibilities of ecotourism development within the National Nature Parks of Kazakhstan
F. Zh. Akiyanova, R. K. Temirbayeva, K. B. Yegemberdiyeva, A. Atalikhova, A. Simbatova, A. Nazhbiyev

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Abstract

Kazakhstan has developed a system of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) which encompasses the most important habitats. The system includes 117 protected areas covering 24.5 million hectares (8.9 % of the country’s area), including thirteen state national nature parks. They are designed to preserve and restore the unique natural areas that have a special ecological, scientific, cultural and recreational value. Six national nature parks are located within insular low-hummocky tracts of the steppe zone; one is located in the semi-desert zone; and the rest in the desert area in the medium and highland areas with pronounced altitudinal zoning. National nature parks thus cover a wide range of landscapes. 19 of the 25 are classified as areas of national importance. This article analyzes the potential possessed by the national nature parks of Kazakhstan to contribute to the development of ecological tourism. It is shown that the diversity of the national nature parks in terms of their landscape and biology is associated with the particular nature of the natural and climatic conditions found in the zones of high altitude. Demographic analysis shows that there is potential for growth in terms of the economically active population. Within or in close proximity to national nature parks, the number of those who are economically active stands at 1021,0 thousand at present; but less than five percent of this number take part in the development of ecological tourism. 150 existing ecological routes are the main way in which tourists become familiar with the typical and rare landscapes, natural features and picturesque landscapes of untouched nature within the national nature parks.

Keywords: ecological tourism, national nature park, biodiversity, tourist route, Kazakhstan

Citation: Akiyanova FZ, Temirbayeva RK, Yegemberdiyeva KB, Atalikhova A, Simbatova A, Nazhbiyev A. The state and possibilities of ecotourism development within the National Nature Parks of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):507-14.

Biochemical and hormonal study in women infected with Toxoplasma gondii
Balkeas A.A. Jwad, Zainab A. M. Al- Haboobi, Nawras M. Al-Khafaji

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is one of the causative agents of miscarriage or birth defects in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess liver function in women with toxoplasmosis who experience repeated miscarriages. Common biochemical markers were measured to extrapolate the effects of toxoplasmosis on liver function. In total, 37 women were diagnosed with Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and another 20 uninfected women were selected as a control group. The results demonstrated a dramatic increase in the serum levels of ALT and IgG in patients compared with the control group. In addition, a Pearson’s Coefficient Correlation test revealed positive correlations between ALT and ALK, LH and FSH (at p < 0.01 for both) and patient age and LH (p < 0.05). Preliminary tests indicate that LH and FSH levels are lower in infected groups, but statistical significance was not established. Nevertheless, the current study clearly demonstrates that liver function is affected in patients with Toxoplasma gondii parasites.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, ELISA, apportion, hormones

Citation: Jwad BA, Al- Haboobi ZAM, Al-Khafaji NM. Biochemical and hormonal study in women infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):515-9.

Relationship of levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) to the levels of ferritin in blood of transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients with growth retardation: A case-control study
Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Al-Hindy, Mazin J. Mousa, Asseel K. Shaker, Raghdan Z. Al-Saad, Widad Hamzah Shakeer AL-Dujaili

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Abstract

Introduction: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic polypeptide member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines that has multicellular functions. Thalassemias are the most common genetic disorder worldwide. Severe forms are termed thalassemia major characterized by repeated blood transfusions with the elevation of iron levels and progressive multi-organ failure mainly involving endocrine glands and other major organs. It is common to find stunted growth in advanced cases especially among teenage patients. Ferritin is an iron-binding protein can store iron in a safe formula that reflects iron state; conversely, the free-iron concentrations can control intracellular ferritin levels. Serum ferritin is a valuable monitoring marker for iron-overload in thalassemias. This study is designed to assess the relationship of levels ferritin to the TGF-β1 in the sera of β-thalassemia patients and their association to growth retardation. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study included 196 subjects; 147 children identified as β- thalassemia major and 49 healthy controls. The thalassemic patients were on consistent follow-up, had received repeated blood transfusions and on iron-chelation therapy. The forty-nine healthy control group were free of any blood disorders or growth abnormalities. The height, weight, and BMI of the studied groups were compared on both standards from WHO and CDC growth charts to evaluate their growth status. In accordance with their growth, the patients were stratified into three groups: those with mild growth impairment, stunted growth, and normal growth groups. Moreover, all subjects’ sera concentrations of both ferritin and TGF-β1 were evaluated. Results: The mean age showed no significant differences among the 4 groups. The male: female ratio, as well as BMI, were nearly the same amongst the study groups despite both height and weight were significantly differed between normal thalassemics and controls. There were no definite impression of gender on the distribution of ferritin and TGF-β1 individually among the involved subjects. There was a significant correlation of both mean serum ferritin and TGF-β1 mutually, with the four groups being higher in mild and stunted growth patients (2142 ng/ml & 271.3 pg/dl) and lower in normal thalassemics (1005 ng/ml & 76.9 pg/dl) and control group (60.6 ng/ml and 291.7 pg/dl) consequently. The mean ferritin and TGF-β1 levels were significantly correlated only among stunted thalassemics even with levels of ferritin higher than 1000ng/dl. The analysis of linear-regression revealed significant strength of the relationship between levels of ferritin with TGF-β1 in sera of mild and stunted growth patients, while there was a poor insignificant relationship in normal thalassemics and controls. The correlations of ferritin and TGF-β1 with height ZScore and weight ZScore were significant together in 1st and 2nd groups of thalassemia, on the other hand, it was insignificant among third and fourth groups apart from their correlation with height ZScore. Conclusions: 1-thalassemia with mild and stunted growth show higher serum levels of TGF-β1 and ferritin than normal thalassemia and healthy subjects. 2-Higher TGF-β1 levels in thalassemics might be an extraordinary cause of disturbing iron metabolism, expressed by elevated serum ferritin levels. 3- Higher TGF-β1 levels correlate well with growth stunting in thalassemic patients.

Keywords: β-thalassemia, TGF-β1, ferritin, growth retardation

Citation: Makki Al-Hindy HA, Mousa MJ, Shaker AK, Al-Saad RZ, AL-Dujaili WHS. Relationship of levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) to the levels of ferritin in blood of transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients with growth retardation: A case-control study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):521-7.

The relation between maternal age with placental weight: Histological study
Riadh Lafta Meteeb, Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy

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Abstract

This study shows the effect of age of women on placental barrier thickness, fetal and placental weight. The work was done on total 25 human full term placentas of multiparous healthy pregnant women obtained from department of Obstetrics and Gynecology unit in Al-Zahra hospital in Najaf. The women in this work were classified into two groups; the control group consisted of 10 placentas from pregnant women between age of 20-34 years and experimental group consisted of 15 placentas from pregnant women of 35 years old and more. Stereological and histological studies were done to determine the effect of advanced maternal age on placental barrier and fetal and placental weight. The results showed: 1. Increase in the mean of placental barrier thickness of the placenta of mother ˃ 35 years than that of placenta of control group (20-34 years). 2. Increase in the mean placental weight of mother ˃ years in comparison to that of the control. 3. Decrease in mean birth weight of mothers ˃ 35 years in comparison of that of the control. 4. Extensive morphological changes in the structural component of terminal villi (capillaries, stoma and trophoblast). The results showed that there is an increase in the placental barrier of placenta, decrease in vascularization of the terminal villi and increase in the stroma and fibrin deposition in the placenta of mothers more than 35 years of age regarding to normal group.

Keywords: stereology, histology, placenta, maternal age, stroma

Citation: Meteeb RL, Al-Dhalimy AMB. The relation between maternal age with placental weight: Histological study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):529-33.

Bacteria-antagonists of pathogens of sugar beet root rot during storage
Rayhan A. Arynova, Nurzhan Zh. Muslimov, Sandugash S. Anuarbekova, Bekzat S. Atabayeva

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Abstract

The search for antagonistically active cultures of bacilli to fungal and bacterial pathogens of sugar beet root rot was carried out. Mycelial fungi are represented by genera such as Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Mucor spp. et al. The study involved 44 cultures of bacilli to 10 microscopic fungi, 5 bacteria, 5 yeasts and 5 enterobacteria. We selected 14 working bacilli for further work, which have good antagonistic properties.

Keywords: sugar beet, kick rot, storage, microorganisms, bacteria, lactobacilli, microscopic fungi, yeast, enterobacteria, antagonistic activity, biocompatibility

Citation: Arynova RA, Muslimov NZ, Anuarbekova SS, Atabayeva BS. Bacteria-antagonists of pathogens of sugar beet root rot during storage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):535-43.

The relationship between some electrolyte levels and MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism in premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis Iraqi women
Adnan F. AL-Azzawie, Wasan N. Husain, Maan H. Salih, Akeel H. AL-Assie

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Abstract

Gene polymorphism related to osteoporosis plays a significant role in the development of osteoporosis, therefore, this study aimed to detect the MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism and evaluate its relationship with biochemical parameters in Iraqi women with premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Salah Al-din province. Blood samples were collected from one hundred women (53 premenopausal and 47 postmenopausal) with osteoporosis diagnosed by specialist doctors and seventy healthy women with identical ages. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were estimated and genomic DNA was extracted that used to detected MTHFR C667T polymorphism employing Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The results showed a significant decrease in the calcium and phosphorus concentrations (p-value <0.001) for the osteoporosis group compared with controls. Frequency of T allele and TT genotype were high significant (p-value < 0.001) in osteoporosis patients compared with controls. But there were no significant differences in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between patients group. On the other hand, there was no correlation between the decrease of calcium and phosphorus levels and presence of T allele in the genotypes of patients (p-value > 0.05). Conclude that calcium and phosphorus levels and frequency of normal CC genotype were decreased while the frequency of mutant TT genotype was higher in women with osteoporosis compared to healthy women, this indicates that TT genotype and T allele can be considered as an indicator of osteoporosis in Iraqi women.

Keywords: MTHFR C667T, Iraqi Women, osteoporosis

Citation: AL-Azzawie AF, Husain WN, Salih MH, AL-Assie AH. The relationship between some electrolyte levels and MTHFR C667T gene polymorphism in premenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporosis Iraqi women. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):545-1.

Antibacterial screening for five local medicinal plants against nosocomial pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Amal Talib Al-Sa’ady

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Abstract

Introduction: The continuous increasing in the emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to the development of new alternatives that are active against the pathogens. In Iraq, many plant components have been extensive attention as alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: Punica granatum, Mentha pulegium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Piper nigrum are five Iraqi medicinal plants were studied in this study. The plant samples were extracted in by three types of solvents, ethanol, methanol and hot boiled water. The plant extracts were examined as antibacterial agents against both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae in four concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 mg/ml) by using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: All assayed plant extracts have antibacterial activity in different concentrations and this activity was varied depending on some factors: the species of bacteria, the type of plant, the type of solvent and the concentration of extract. Depending on the species of bacteria, Gram negative bacteria has higher sensitivity than Gram positive against most studied plant extracts. The type of solvent has a clear effectiveness on the antibacterial activity, the ethanolic extract has the highest antibacterial activity of most studied plants, while the aqueous extract has the lowest activity. On the other hand, the increasing of extract concentration has been associated with increasing of the diameter of inhibition zone. Depending on the type of extracted plant, the maximum diameter of inhibition zone was yielded from Punica granatum extract regardless with the type of the solvent.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Iraqi plants, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis

Citation: Al-Sa’ady AT. Antibacterial screening for five local medicinal plants against nosocomial pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):553-9.

The antibacterial efficacy of the secondary metabolites extracted from (Melia azedarach L.) leaves against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis infections
Hussein J. Hussein, Ali H. Al-Marzoqi

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Abstract

The current investigation was accompanied to assess the antibacterial efficacy of secondary metabolites compounds, such as: phenolic, terpenoids, and alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L., Family: Meliaceae) counter to pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. by using agar well diffusion method. The aimed of this investigation was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of Phenolic, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.) against some pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. The data collected from the study revealed that, secondary metabolites compounds, such as: phenolic, terpenoids, and alkaloids extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree had a range of antibacterial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases. Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus were exhibited fully unaffected to phenolic and terpenoids secondary metabolites extracted from leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.). Escherichia coli were fully resistant to terpenoids compounds. Staphylococcus aureus were fully resistant to alkaloids compounds. In conclusion, secondary metabolites compounds extracted leaves of Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.) considered a good source for make drugs against microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis cases especially alkaloids compounds.

Keywords: antibacterial, secondary metabolites, melia azedarach, pathogenic microorganisms

Citation: Hussein HJ, Al-Marzoqi AH. The antibacterial efficacy of the secondary metabolites extracted from (Melia azedarach L.) leaves against pathogenic microorganisms isolated from burns and gingivitis infections. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):561-5.

Effect of Thymoquinone on some biochemical and hormonal indices and their protective effect on the genital organs of rats after cancer induction in Laboratory
Sundus W. Alabdullah, Shaimaa A. Alsamir, Iqbal A. AlRufaei

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of Thymoquinone as a treatment for cancer tumors and to indicate whether it has a negative effect on the male genital organs. For this purpose, 18 adult males of white rats were divided into three groups (A: control group, B: group treated with carcinogen (AOM) only, C: group treated with Thymoquinone after treatment with carcinogen (TQ+AOM)). Each group included six rats and induced colorectal cancer. By injecting Azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for groups B, C except group A was considered as a control group. The tumor was detected by examining the tissue in the AOM-injected groups compared to the control group and CEA concentration. Group treated by TQ obsorbed decreased in CEA concentration was response to the treatment used. The weights of the animals and genital organs were measured before and after the experiment where the carcinogen caused weight changes compared to the control group while the TQ did not show changes in the weight of animals and is evidence of resistance to this substance of oxidative stress due to carcinogens, also been conducted some tests for testicular functions such as measurement of the concentration of testosterone hormone, serum acid phosphatase and concentration of sperm living has been observed significant differences (P <0.05) between these totals and for all tests. Amicroscopic examination of the sperm forms was performed notice the distortions in the sperm in AOM group, while TQ group these abnormalities were not observed. The histomicroscopic examination of the testicular, prostate gland and seminal vesicle by using light microscopy for all rats showed pathological changes in the group treated with AOM such as sperm cell degeneration , appearance of sperm ghosts, breakdown of the walls the Hyperplasia, and presence dermal infiltrating glandular cavities, infiltration Inflammatory cells around the Hyperplasia, while the TQ group showed no effect on these tissues. The current study aimed at showing the effect of TQ which is an antioxidant on the proliferative system and used as a treatment for tumors without causing any side effects on this tissue.

Keywords: Thymoquinone, cancer, azoxymethane

Citation: Alabdullah SW, Alsamir SA, AlRufaei IA. Effect of Thymoquinone on some biochemical and hormonal indices and their protective effect on the genital organs of rats after cancer induction in Laboratory. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):567-3.

Research of the oxalic acid effectiveness in the treatment of biodegradable organic waste from livestock complexes
E. A. Gribut, M. A. Kulikova, O. A. Surzhko, T. A. Kolesnikova, D. I. Monastic

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Abstract

The article presents the results of studies of the process of reagent treatment of biodegradable organic waste of livestock complexes for the purpose of their agricultural use. The basic laws of the process of separation into liquid and solid fractions using oxalic acid are determined and analyzed; optimal doses of reagents; the dependence of changes in the properties of the fraction at various stages of treatment with calcium carbide slurry, comparing them with indicators obtained using lime milk, superphosphate and phosphogypsum.

Keywords: biodegradable organic waste, processing, parameters of the process of fractionation into liquid and solid fractions, oxalic acid

Citation: Gribut EA, Kulikova MA, Surzhko OA, Kolesnikova TA, Monastic DI. Research of the oxalic acid effectiveness in the treatment of biodegradable organic waste from livestock complexes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):575-9.

Chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in human-to-human sphere workers, factors contributing to formation and its impact on health
Nadezhda N. Petrishcheva, Natalya B. Smirnova, Olga V. Parfenova, Irina M. Ryazantseva, Alla V. Ivanova, Olga A. Khoraskina, Marina Yu. Deryabina, Elena B. Pokaninova

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is to study such a social phenomenon as chronic fatigue syndrome in social work professionals. Any work activity in the man-man sphere has its own professional risks. The specificity of the social work specialist’s activity leads to the appearance and formation of chronic fatigue syndrome, and the lack of effective means of its prevention contributes to its significant spread and perception by social service employees as an inevitable concomitant effect of their professional activity. It is easier to prevent the occurrence and development of chronic fatigue syndrome than to deal with its consequences. The aim of the article is to study the problem of prevention of chronic fatigue syndrome in social work professionals and identify means of prevention; to identify the relationship between the specifics of social work as a professional activity, professional requirements for a social work specialist and the risks that provoke chronic fatigue syndrome. As a research method, we used a questionnaire survey as a method of collecting primary information that allows us to quickly and effectively investigate the features of the manifestation of chronic fatigue syndrome. The article considers the essence and features of the manifestation of social work professionals’ chronic fatigue syndrome. Means of prevention of chronic fatigue syndrome in social services are indicated: organization of consultations of specialists in social work with an independent psychologist, conducting psychological training; conducting preventive examinations in social sphere organizations, issuing sanatorium vouchers for treatment and rehabilitation; organization of cultural events outside the institution, visiting theaters, concerts; formation of corporate culture for team cohesion and creating a psychologically comfortable microclimate. It is shown that managers of social services underestimate the importance of the psychologist’s work with the workforce as a means of preventing chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, one need to take into account such a moment that the social work specialists themselves do not feel very comfortable in consultations with a psychologist, an employee of the organization. They would rather have individual sessions with an independent psychologist. They would be interested in group sessions with a psychologist who does not work with them in the same organization.

Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, social worker, prevention

Citation: Petrishcheva NN, Smirnova NB, Parfenova OV, Ryazantseva IM, Ivanova AV, Khoraskina OA, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in human-to-human sphere workers, factors contributing to formation and its impact on health. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):581-6.

Social representations of the metropolis residents on the ecology of women’s corporeality in the structure of civil identity
Elena A. Sorokoumova, Elena I. Cherdymova, Tatiana I. Shulga, Olga V. Suvorova, Lyubov V. Kochneva

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Abstract

Relevance of this article: it consists in the study of current trends and prospects for the development of the ecology of women’s corporeality in the civil identity structure. On the one hand, at present, there is an increase in both public and scientific interest in the ecology of corporeality, one of the facets of which is the problem of social representations of men and women about female beauty; and, on the other hand, the lack of development of this problem within the framework of civil identity, although the idea of a certain standard of beauty can significantly affect the assessment of the attractiveness of a person and the formation of its civil identity. The purpose of the study: is to analyze the social representations features of men and women of the megalopolis about female beauty as one of the corporeal ecology sides in the civil identity structure. Research methods: as a research method, we used a questionnaire survey that allows us to quickly and effectively explore the core and periphery of the social representations of megalopolis residents about female beauty. Results of the research: the article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of the corporeal ecology in the civil identity structure. The core and periphery of social ideas about a woman’s beauty are revealed. The advantages and disadvantages of female beauty in certain areas of her life are determined. The relationship between a woman’s character traits and her appearance is established. It is shown what respondents pay attention to when communicating with a first place woman. The degree of influence of external attributes on female beauty is determined. A comparison of men’s and women’s opinions about The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that a theoretical and methodological analysis of the ecology of a woman’s body in the civil identity structure, was carried out in the context of social representations of megalopolis residents about female beauty. It is determined that the core of social representations includes such features as: attractive appearance, femininity, developed mind, self-confidence, health and kindness. It is shown that the core represents stable personality characteristics. It is revealed that the following features can be distinguished in the periphery of social representations: loyalty in love, a sense of humor, expressive eyes and energy. It is shown that the periphery represents the changeable characteristics of a beautiful woman, i.e. For respondents, these qualities are important, but their absence will not play a big role in recognizing the beauty of a certain girl. It is determined that the majority of respondents include the physicality ecology concept, in the context of female beauty definition: a woman’s appearance, physical data, appearance, figure, correct facial features, a proportional body, healthy hair, skin and nails. It is shown that the respondents support the point of view that women should pay attention to the care of their appearance, but also not forget about the spiritual component, develop their mental abilities, and have a female trick to emphasize all their advantages. It is revealed that in modern society, the fundamental factor in evaluating the beauty of a person is the reference images of a man and a woman broadcast by various media. Practical significance: the data obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, environmental psychology, human ecology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology of corporeality, civic identity, megalopolis residents, social ideas about beauty

Citation: Sorokoumova EA, Cherdymova EI, Shulga TI, Suvorova OV, Kochneva LV. Social representations of the metropolis residents on the ecology of women’s corporeality in the structure of civil identity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):587-92.

Formation of new food market segments and features of its functioning under modern conditions
Nikolay V. Tumalanov, Irina N. Urusova, Tatyana A. Zerfos, Artem S. Evseev, Elena A. Antonovskaya, Iraida P. Ivanytskaya, Galina N. Sokolova

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Abstract

The research showed that the food market is changing in structure and in product quality. The concentration coefficient of firms in the industry market is growing, and with the growth of the market for high-quality products, the elasticity of demand is increasing. The market is differentiated by product quality. It is forms segments of high-quality products. It means that competition has changed. Accordingly, regulatory methods and mechanisms must be brought into the system. In the regulation of pricing, the main attention should be paid to purchase prices, at which direct producers are forced to sell goods. In the regulation of product quality, along with market it has to be applied clear institutional rules, norms, restrictions. In price regulation, it is often necessary to use carefully developed and refined methods of influencing demand and supply, based on those changes that occur in the market structure and nature of demand.

Keywords: food market, market regulation, food quality, pricing, institutions, market structure, nature of demand

Citation: Tumalanov NV, Urusova IN, Zerfos TA, Evseev AS, Antonovskaya EA, Ivanytskaya IP, et al. Formation of new food market segments and features of its functioning under modern conditions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):593-9.

Urban space ecology as modern direction of urban environment research
Liya V. Faleeva, Tatyana I. Baklanova, Natalya A. Galchenko, Alexey A. Chistyakov, Sergey V. Illarionov, Lyudmila P. Illarionova, Gulfayruz G. Erkibayeva, Valentina P. Smorchkova

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Abstract

The relevance of this article is to understand the problem of studying the visual images of graffiti in the socio-cultural space of the city. The article substantiates the relevance of the appeal to the ecology of urban space as one of the modern directions of urban environment research. Nowadays graffiti has become an integral part of modern culture and way of life, a special kind of art, which can be both an art object and an act of vandalism, violating the ecology of the city space. The aim of the study is to analyze the features in the use of different styles of graffiti in the urban environment in the aspect of the ecology of urban space. The leading method for the study of this problem is the method of analysis of photographs, which contributes to the effective identification of types of graffiti and their impact on the ecology of urban space. The article analyzes the ecology of urban space and the impact of graffiti on it. The basic styles of graffiti are allocated; the dominating and less used graffiti in social and cultural space of the city are defined. The features of the location of graffiti on the streets of the metropolis are considered. The most commonly used size of graffiti in the city is shown. Graffiti in different areas of the urban environment are analyzed. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that for the first time the eco-psychological problems of space organization associated with the use of graffiti are analyzed (visual images in the urban environment, deforming or decorating the visual space of the city). The importance of graffiti for the city as one of the factors influencing the ecology of urban space is revealed. It is revealed that using graffiti in the urban space contributes to social interaction between man and the ecology of the city. It is shown that the introduction of harmonious colors details on the flat ends of buildings, their implementing into the subject forms and lines, in most cases, makes a positive contribution to the ecological space of the metropolis and helps people to distract from their internal worries. The styles of graffiti, which are most famous and popular in the course of graffiti, affecting the ecology of urban space (Writing, Bombing, Tagging, Scratching, Street art, and 3D graffiti) are considered. It is shown that the most popular in use are three styles: Tagging, Writing and Street Art. The styles of Tagging and Writing negatively affect the ecology of the socio-cultural space of the city, the style of Street Art influences positively and is often perceived as an art object. It is revealed that the least popular styles in the city are Bombing, Scratching and 3D graffiti. It is shown that the styles of bombing and Scratching have a negative impact on the ecology of the socio-cultural space of the city, the style of 3D graffiti has a positive impact and is considered an art object. It is shown that according to the size of drawings graffiti artists prefer works in small and medium sizes. It is revealed that graffiti works in a large format are much fewer. It is determined that on the outskirts of the districts graffiti is found much more than in the center of the metropolis. The data obtained in this work can be used in environmental psychology, visual ecology, labor psychology, social psychology, pedagogy, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

Keywords: ecology of space, urban environment, perception, graffiti

Citation: Faleeva LV, Baklanova TI, Galchenko NA, Chistyakov AA, Illarionov SV, Illarionova LP, et al. Urban space ecology as modern direction of urban environment research. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):601-6.

Some aspects of evaluation of vaccine prophylaxis organization in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics
K. E. Moiseeva, A. V. Alekseeva, V. K. Iurev, L. A. Fedorova, Sh. D. Kharbediya, Kh. E. Rustamova

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Abstract

Properly organized vaccination in medical organizations is a guarantor of infectious diseases control and serves as a protective barrier to the spread of childhood infections. In order to assess the organization of children’s vaccination in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics by random sampling on the basis of 7 children’s polyclinics in St. Petersburg a survey of 1724 mothers who had 1 year old children born in 2016-2017 was conducted. Evaluation of children’s vaccination coverage in the first year of life showed that 84.3% are vaccinated according to the National calendar of preventive vaccinations. In general, 15.7% of children had vaccination disorders, 4.9% of them were not vaccinated completely, and 10.8% - partially. The main reason why children are not vaccinated both in maternity institutions and in children’s polyclinics are medical contraindications associated with the health of the child in more than 75% cases. Subjective reasons for violations of vaccination status in most children are the belief of parents in the absence of risk of infection with some children’s infectious diseases and fear of possible post-vaccination complications. The highest proportion of children was vaccinated against rubella (91.5%), the lowest - against pneumococcal infection (68.5%). Less than a third of mothers (30.5 %) indicated that they had received detailed information from their doctor about the vaccine, the disease for which the child would be vaccinated and the possible consequences of immunization.At most of the respondents, monitoring of the child’s condition after immunoprophylaxis was not carried out in accordance with the instructions. The main source of information for 91.1% of parents is the Internet. Only 31.4% of respondents identified health workers as the main sources of information on vaccine prophylaxis. Thus, despite the relatively high vaccination coverage of children of the first year of life, there are a number of significant shortcomings in the vaccination organization. There is a need to optimize the organization of vaccination in medical organizations of St. Petersburg.

Keywords: vaccination, children, national calendar of preventive vaccinations, obstetric hospital, children’s polyclinic

Citation: Moiseeva KE, Alekseeva AV, Iurev VK, Fedorova LA, Kharbediya SD, Rustamova KE. Some aspects of evaluation of vaccine prophylaxis organization in obstetric hospitals and children’s polyclinics. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):607-12.

The effect of biofuel crops cultivation on food prices stability and food security-A Review
Jalal Omer Ahmed

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Abstract

Biofuel is the subject of increasing attention in most area of the world especially in the developed countries and some newly developed countries. It has become a controversial issue for the following reasons, rising commodity prices, a negative impact on food security and finally the issue of climate change. An increase in the uses of agricultural land in countries exporting food crops such as wheat, barley and rice and focus to grow oilseeds to produce biofuel, this change leads to food shortages, and rising prices due to a decline in production of basic crops and increasing demand for this type of crops, which is mainly used for food. Obviously high crop prices in this way could lead to an increase in the proportion of famine in the world and adversely affect food security. The cultivation of biofuel crops have many positive aspects including the use of agricultural land, which was left without cultivation and use for long periods of time, as well as providing employment opportunities and thus improve the living conditions of the farmers.

Keywords: biofuel, energy, crops cultivation, food security, food prices stability

Citation: Ahmed JO. The effect of biofuel crops cultivation on food prices stability and food security-A Review. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):613-21.

Profiling of phenolic compounds in the grains of the genus Secale L. using HPLC technique
Ruqayah Manoon Hasan Alnomani

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Abstract

Background: Secale is an annual or perennial grasses from the Poaceae family represented in Iraq by three wild species, from which Rye (S.cereale) grew as a weed in Wheat fields. Rye represented a grain crop in the world used for different purposes such as alcoholic beverages, food, grazed forage. Methodology: This paper outlines the differences in concentrations of 10 different compounds determined by HPLC technique in three species of the genus Secale L. in Iraq. The content of most compounds are variable in the species. Results: High content of Gentisic acid are recorded in S.montanum Guss. and S.cereale while less content are observed for Luteolin-7-glucopyranoside. S.afghanicum (Vav.) Rozhev. reveals high content of Coumaric acid and less content of Anthocyanins. So the results indicate that the three species of the genus Secale represent a valuable source of biologically active constituents which can enhancing the separation of species by means of chemotaxonomic techniques. Conclusion: The situations of differences in concentrations of phenolic compounds play an important role in identification and separation between species studied which can be easily used as a chemotaxonomic tool.

Keywords: Secale, HPLC technique, chemotaxonomy

Citation: Hasan Alnomani RM. Profiling of phenolic compounds in the grains of the genus Secale L. using HPLC technique. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):623-7.

To develop dental prostheses and improve the addition of polymers (Atridox, Fort Collins) in dental procedures
Husam Ekrayyem Salman, Zena Natheer Rajab, Bassam Ibrahim Khalil

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Abstract

The majority of the studies analyzed show modest beneficial effects of pulsed lasers (Er: YAG or Er, Cr YSGG) compared to conventional therapies (with manual and / or ultrasound instrumentation) in the initial treatment of patients with peri-implantitis. OHLLT photodynamic therapy, using penetrating and super-pulsed lasers (980 nm), thanks to the biological hypotheses that support it, and by the preliminary results obtained with this study, seems to be a good complement to the surgical treatment of the perioperative -implantite. The effectiveness of the proposed protocol highlights the possibility of acting on the site in the least traumatic way possible, but with efficiency capable of offering a real improvement of the bacterial flora condition. The reduction of inflammation of the peri-implant tissues, with a decrease in the sounding depth, the rate of bleeding and a massive reduction of the bacterial load, especially for aggressive strains very often found in affected sites, refractory to conventional protocols, are tangible elements as to the potential effectiveness of this protocol for the treatment of peri-implant disease. It will be necessary to complete this pilot study with RCTs or other forms of research referenced in the pyramid of scientific evidence in dentistry.

Keywords: dental prostheses, polymers, Atridox, Fort Collins, dental procedures

Citation: Salman HE, Rajab ZN, Khalil BI. To develop dental prostheses and improve the addition of polymers (Atridox, Fort Collins) in dental procedures. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):629-43.

Effect of Zamzam’s water and magnetized water on E. coli o157: h7 growth compared to other pathogens
Angham Jabbar Alwan

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Abstract

The current study aims to evaluate the effect of Zamzam’s water and Magnetized water on the growth of E. coli O157: H7 compared to a group of other pathogens including Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aurginosa, proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus fecalis, Bacillus and Enterobacter. Chemical analysis of water samples from different sources was carried out (Zamzam’s water, magnetized water, hot water, distilled water and tap water). The physical properties were determined for Zamzam’s water in Long intervals which was stored in room temperature. Trybtose soy broth was prepared with different water samples with different types of bacteria. Growth density was measured by UV Spectrometer. The results showed that the water samples were different in support of growth. The highest value of bacterial growth in distilled water (0.6 nm) was compared with the lowest value for bacterial growth in case of Zamzam’s water (0.1 nm) In supporting growth between these two values. As for the types of germs used, E. coli O157: H7 was the best developed bacterium using different water samples with (0.6 nm) distilled water, (0.5 nm) hot water compared to the other microbes studied (0.6 nm) for tap water for Enterobacter, Bacillus.

Keywords: Zamzam’s water, Magnetized water, E. coli O157: H7, other bacteria

Citation: Alwan AJ. Effect of Zamzam’s water and magnetized water on E. coli o157: h7 growth compared to other pathogens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):645-0.

Study and analysis of the properties of organic and hydrocarbon aromatic metals
Hayfaa A. Mubarak, Hussein Abdulkadhim Al-khafaji, Wisam Abdul Jaleel Jawad

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Abstract

Organic minerals are naturally occurring organic compounds with both a defined chemical composition & crystallographic properties. Their presence reflects the high concentration of certain organic compounds in natural environments. Therefore, the origin & the processes of formation of organic minerals will allow us to undress & the fate & behavior of organic molecules in the lithosphere. In order to contribute to the development of new developments in mineralogy, we divide organic minerals into two groups: (1) ionic organic minerals, in which organic anions & various actions are linked by ionic bonds, & (2) molecular organic minerals, in which organic electron molecules are linked to each other by weak intermolecular interactions. This overview includes four main themes. The first section deals with the general definition of organic minerals & the two groups named above. The second deals with the crystallochemistry & geochemistry of oxalates, the most typical ionic organic minerals. We first discuss the role of (H2O) 0, because most minerals in this group incorporate (H2O) 0 in their crystal structures. Then, we describe the phase relationships among oxalated calcium minerals, hydrated & anhydrous, & in particular their structural hierarchy, these compounds being the most abundant organic ionic minerals. In addition, we describe by way of example the weak effect of Jahn-Teller caused by the Fe2 + ion in humboldtin, [Fe2 + (C2O4) • 2H2O]. The Fe2 + ion causes a distortion of the octahedra of this organic mineral, although the effect is barely detected in inorganic minerals. The third theme deals with crystallochemistry & the formation process of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) minerals, which are the most typical of the class of molecular organic minerals. In particular, we examine the case of karpatitis (C24H12) & idrialite (C22H14). We conclude with a summary of the characteristics of organic minerals & a discussion of their contribution to the earth sciences & planets.

Keywords: Organic minerals, hydrocarbon, ionic, molecular

Citation: Mubarak HA, Al-khafaji HA, Jaleel Jawad WA. Study and analysis of the properties of organic and hydrocarbon aromatic metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):651-7.

Effect of grain size and shape on some characteristics of the development of young stage corn
Azhar Taher Sleibi

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Abstract

In previous work (Bourdu and Gregory 1983), we showed that several parameters of the beginning of maize growth could be used for an intervarietal comparison. The same type of analysis was used to compare the effect of grain size and shape of the same corn variety (LG 11) on the characteristics of early growth. Seedlings from larger grains are found to exhibit higher growth rates; it is the same for those from round grains. However, if most characters are affected, there is one that remains constant: it is the one that measures the efficiency of use of seminal reserves for the construction of functional photosynthetic equipment. This characteristic can therefore be considered as a varietal constant.
The effect of seed size and shape on early development in maize.
In a previous paper in this series, we showed (Bourdu and Gregory 1983) that several parameters of early growth could be useful for intercarietal comparisons. We have used the same type of analysis to study the effect of grain size and shape in a variety of maize (LG 11). We found that large grains are associated with higher growth rates and that production forms better seedlings than flat ones. Most of these characters are affected by grain size and shape, but they are constant in the four-dimensional grain categories, ie the efficiency of utilization of maternal reserves for the photosynthetic apparatus. Thus this criterion can be considered as a genotypic characteristic.

Keywords: zea mays, germination, germination vigor, Zea mays, germination, seedling vigor

Citation: Sleibi AT. Effect of grain size and shape on some characteristics of the development of young stage corn. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):659-63.

Used satellite images and GIS to study the degradation lands in the western desert upper Euphrates, Anbar Province, Iraq
Raad M. Wafur Abdulrazzaq

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Abstract

The study explained the state of land degradation in Western Desert, Upper Euphrates, which located in Anbar province/Iraq, assessed in relation to the productive capacity of the land, through the interpretation Land sat TM and many different satellite, and image processing by a GIS for the area, which associated with a database, and the visual and numerical interpretation of satellite images and topographic maps, various, thematic maps and many field checks. Beforehand, standards states of reference have been established in order to evaluate the various states of degradation observed. The study explained the uses of remote sensing for direct identification of degradation in the area, and study the loss of organic matter in the upper layer of soil, and how we can make classification for isolated the degradation areas from other healthy areas. The study discovered, the heavily degraded areas cover about 5% of Western Desert, Upper Euphrates, while the little or no degraded part still occupies the other area.one reason of weakly production potential agricultural is the degradation of soil in the area of study. Therefore must produce a map, for classification the areas of degradation for area of study, and published a map in future, to serve as a baseline for soil monitoring and the environment in the coming decades for all country.

Keywords: western desert, upper euphrates, land degradation state, remote sensing

Citation: Wafur Abdulrazzaq RM. Used satellite images and GIS to study the degradation lands in the western desert upper Euphrates, Anbar Province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):665-70.

Role of IL-18 and caspas-9 polymorphism in disease susceptibility in prostate cancer
Ibrahim A. Altamemi, Adnan H. Aubaid, Thaer Ali Hussein

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Abstract

Backgrounds: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd utmost global prevalent male cancer and major cancer in economically developed countries. Environmental factors and person having genetic polymorphism might have a function in prediction and consequently treatment strategies for a particular disease in a particular or a group of patients. This emerging approach has the potential to improve prediction of susceptibility to prostate cancer and disease progression, thereby minimizing the development of metastatic disease and allowing the ability to tailor therapeutic intervention. Objective: The present study aimed to examine whether the prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients have distinctive IL-18 and capsase 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that could have an effect on disease susceptibility. Material and Methods: A case control study has been steered to attain this goal which is based on three groups include 50 patients with PCa (group 1), 50 patients with BHP (group 2) and 50 healthy (non BHP & non prostate) volunteers (group 3, control). Patients were under observation in the Thi Qar Oncology Center from the period of January 2018 till February 2019. Moreover, the supervision of specialists of oncology was also incorporated in this research. For the extraction of DNA, 2mL blood was directly collected to the EDTA comprising sterile tube. Then, amplification refractory mutation-PCR system (ARMS-PCR) technique is used to study interleukin-18 (IL-18) and caspase 9 polymorphism. Results: there was no significant difference among the BHP patient’s mean age and patients with prostatic cancer (P=0.093; 60.04±10.47 vs. 63.04±8.35 years, respectively); however, patients in both BPH and cancer groups were found to be significantly older as compared to the subjects of control group (P<0.001). IL-18 genotypes homozygous CC and heterozygous GC genotypes were significantly more frequent in patients with prostatic carcinoma in comparison with control group (P=0.002) and in comparison with BPH group (P=0.030). Caspase genotypes homozygous GG and heterozygous AG genotypes were significantly more frequent in patients with prostatic carcinoma in comparison with control group (P=0.003) and in comparison with BPH group (P=0.018); however, there was no significant difference in caspase 9 genotype frequency distribution between control and BPH groups (P=0.842). Conclusions: We can speculate that population who have AC, CC genotype for IL-18, and AG, GG genotype for caspase 9 could be at risk for malignant tumor formation, and this could emerging an approach which has the potential to improve prediction of susceptibility to prostate cancer and disease progression.

Keywords: IL-18, caspas-9, polymorphism, prostate cancer

Citation: Altamemi IA, Aubaid AH, Hussein TA. Role of IL-18 and caspas-9 polymorphism in disease susceptibility in prostate cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):671-6.

Resistance of E.coli isolate from patient suffering from UTI toward Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug
Hadi Hussein Abbas, Israa Mamdooh Subhi, Eman Thamer Garallah

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Abstract

Pathogenic bacteria of Escherichia coli (35 isolates) had been obtained from persons suffered from UTI from Baghdad Medical City hospital among the time between first December/2015 until first April. The samples had been detection by growth on MacConkey medium and blood agar, then identification by doing some morphology and biochemical parameters. In current study 22/35 (62.8%) of the samples were taken from patient woman and 13/3 (37.1%) take from patient man. Antimicrobial sensitive test for 2 antimicrobial was achieved by using disc diffusion method. The persistence isolates of E.coli was highest percentage 28.5% (10/35) to Ciprodar® while it was 14.2% (5/35) of Trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole. determined the resistance rates in relation to the gender patients showed great different for resistant to Ciprodar® in male 17.1% (6/35) in comparison with 14.2% (5/35) in patient woman and for Co-tri in also female 5.7% (2/35) in comparison with 8.5% (3/35) in patient man.

Keywords: E.coli, patient of UTI, Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug

Citation: Hussein Abbas H, Subhi IM, Garallah ET. Resistance of E.coli isolate from patient suffering from UTI toward Tri/sulfamethoxazole drug. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):677-82.

Value potential of dry land for future agricultural development in Bali
I Made Sukerta, I Made Suryana, Anik Yuesti

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Abstract

The calculation of crop water requirement for dry lands is expected to assist in policymaking and planning in Bali on the effective use of limited water resources to support food security and environmental conservation. Farmers need information that can assist them to use rainfall effectively, such as planting in the fixed time of plant growth phase with rain season or groundwater availability. The present research aims to (1) evaluate the potential of dry land in the research area, (2) develop water balance on dry land, (3) estimate crop water requirements of dry land, (4) develop alternative cropping calendar for pattern rotation cropping in a year and (5) simulate alternative crop rotation pattern in the most profitable year. Research sites with water balance in the Bali area included Gilimanuk, Banyuwedang, Celukan Bawang, Seririt, Buleleleng, Kubut additions, Kubu, Banjar Bunutan, Padangbai and Sanur. The amounts of rainfall and evapotranspiration yearly were approximately 1723.9 and 1833.7 mm, respectively. The amount of rainfall in the last five months from December to April was 1394.5 mm, whereas that from May to November was substantially low at only 329.4 mm. Water supply from January to April was surplus only, whilst that from May to November was deficient. These findings indicated the following conclusions. (1) Bali has a particularly hilly land condition and clay soil. As dry land farm has low soil fertility and sources water only from rainfall, cultivated plants include maize, cassava, beans, turi, banana, papaya, coconut, mango, oranges, sugar apple and teak. (2) Thornthwaite and Mather indicated that water surplus occurs from January to April whilst deficit occurs from May to November based on the water balance for Bali. High rainfall (1394.5 mm) occurs from December to April, whereas low rainfall (329.4 mm) occurs from May to November. (3) Crop water requirement in the root zone of cassava monoculture (1087.34 mm) were lower compared with those of intercropping cassava + maize (1088.89 mm) and cassava + maize − groundnut (1109.99 mm). (4) The pattern of crop rotation intercropping cassava + maize − groundnut can be planted from October 22 until June 21. Fresh tuber yields of cassava intercropping with maize and groundnut are 22.54 t ha−1. (5) Cassava can be planted from October 22 to 29, sweet potatoes can be planted from February 3 to 17 and groundnut and maize can be planted from February 3 to March 17. The revenue of intercropping cassava + maize − groundnut is 25.3% larger compared with that of cassava monoculture.

Keywords: agricultural, dry land, multiculture, monoculture

Citation: Sukerta IM, Suryana IM, Yuesti A. Value potential of dry land for future agricultural development in Bali. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):683-97.

Synthesis and characterization of na-saturated kaolinite membrane for pb(ii) filtration
Jaslin Ikhsan, Endang Widjajanti Lfx, Erfan Priyambodo, Ajeng Ayu Pratiwi, Wijayanti Karunia Widi

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Abstract

This research aims to synthesize membrane using kaolinite and Na-saturated kaolinite. Three main steps of preparation of the membrane were conducted; preparation of kaolinite, synthesis of the membrane and trial of membrane implementation for filtration of Pb2+ cation using cross-flow reactor. Membrane characterization was performed using SEM EDX. This research showed that kaolinite membrane (Kao) has significant larger pores compared to those of Na-kaolinite membrane (Kao-Na). Both membranes have uneven distribution of pores, with main compositions of carbon (C) and oxygen (O). The mass of each element is 43.69% and 46.88% of total mass on Kao, and 45.35% and 44.84% on Kao-Na, respectively. The highest flux on Kao is 58.441 L/(m2.h) and 30.080 L/(m2.h) on Kao-Na. The highest rejection of Pb2+ is 24.48% on Kao and 28.27% in Kao-Na. The saturation of Na+ decreases the flux and increases the rejection.

Keywords: filtration, kaolinite, membrane, Pb2+

Citation: Ikhsan J, Widjajanti Lfx E, Priyambodo E, Ayu Pratiwi A, Karunia Widi W. Synthesis and characterization of na-saturated kaolinite membrane for pb(ii) filtration. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):699-703.

Impact of diatomite priming of seeds of hordeum vulgaris in salinity
S. K. Nayekova, K. M. Aubakirova, K. K. Aitlessov, V. V. Demidchik, Z. A. Alikulov

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Abstract

Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.) seeds were grown in plastic pots in order to study the effect of diatomite (DTM) on the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and aldehyde oxidase (AO EC 1.2.3.14) under salt stress. AO is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abscisic aldehyde to abscisic acid, a phytohormone of adaptation. 10-day old seedlings of barley were also evaluated for salt stress response in terms of free proline and photosynthetic pigments in the presence of 200 mM NaCl in combination with diatomite. Before the germination seeds were primed in different concentrations of diatomite supernatants obtained from its suspensions of 5g, 10g and 20g DTM in 100ml H2O. Control seeds were primed in distilled water and sodium silicate Na2SiO3(1.5mM/L) separately. Three replicates of all experiment options were grown in the presence and absence of 200 mM NaCl. Plant seedlings were harvested on 10th day of germination and the activities of the enzymes, the content of free proline and photosynthetic pigments were determined. Our results showed that the enzyme activities and proline content in seedlings were considerably lower than those in control plants (i.e. seed priming in the water and growth in NaCl). However, photosynthetic pigments (i.e. chlorophills a and b and carotenoids) were significantly increased. The results showed that increasing concentrations of diatomite had a positive effect to the morphological characteristics of plants, i.e., the biomass of leaves and roots of seedlings was higher.

Keywords: diatomite, barley seeds, pre-sown priming, salt tolerance

Citation: Nayekova SK, Aubakirova KM, Aitlessov KK, Demidchik VV, Alikulov ZA. Impact of diatomite priming of seeds of hordeum vulgaris in salinity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):705-12.

Efficiency of use of the nanosilicium drug in rations of young minks
L. V. Alekseeva, A. A. Lukjanov

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Abstract

The article shows the growth dynamics of minks (males and females) under the influence of the nanosilicium drug introduced into their ration. The drug affects the biochemical and physiological parameters of blood, which contributes to the accelerated growth of minks and increase metabolic rate.

Keywords: trace elements, minks, weight gain, enzymes

Citation: Alekseeva LV, Lukjanov AA. Efficiency of use of the nanosilicium drug in rations of young minks. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):713-7.

Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes
A. Z. Alabdallach, A. A. Nikishov, N. A. Volkova, A. N. Vetokh, N. Y. Rebouh, V. I. Semenova, A. K. Petrov, E. O. Rystsova, M. V. Bolshakova, E. A. Krotova, S. G. Drukovsky, A. Norezzine

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Abstract

Background: The GFP gene is commonly used in biotechnology and is used as an indicator. Chicken embryos are also the most important experimental animals used in modern research for easy access to embryos, as well as easy gene injection at an early stage. Study design: Study of the influence of genetic engineering manipulations on the histological and morphometric parameters of organs and tissues of chicken embryos. Methods: We took the three groups: - Normal (H), Transgenic (G) and Crossbred (HxG). Research stage was divided into two parts: The first step was to study the internal and external characteristics of the eggs. At the second stage, morphological and histological changes in organs and tissues in embryos were studied. Results: The incubation eggs of the studied genotypes met the regulatory requirements for morphometric indicators of egg quality. Eggs from transgenic chickens (group 2) had statistically significantly lower values of the quality index of dense protein - units of Hough. Compared to the eggs of the 1st and 3rd groups, the difference was 4.8 and 3.6 Hau units, respectively (P≥0.95). On the 14th day of incubation, the embryos of the 1st and 3rd groups were statistically significantly superior the weight of group 2 embryos was 17.4% and 13.5%, respectively (P≥0.95). By day 18, differences in the weight of the embryos persist. Embryos from eggs from genetically modified chickens (group 2) on the 18th day of incubation had the smallest absolute values according to linear indices of individual parts of the body. Genetic engineering manipulations affect the morphology of the internal organs of embryos. Embryos of the 2nd group of 18 days of age have a heart mass of 7.6 and 5.7% more than peers from the 1st and 3rd groups, and liver mass is 13.0 and 19.3% less, respectively. the mass of the stomach is 4.4 and 20.8% less, respectively (P≥0.95). In group 2 embryos, the number of convoluted seminiferous tubules in the field of view of the microscope is 1.7 and 1.5 times less compared to groups 1 and 2 (P≥0.95). Conclusions Genetic manipulations significantly reduce almost all morphological and histological parameters in group 2 embryos and cause negative consequences in the development of chicken embryos.

Keywords: GFP, chicken embryos, morphological changes, histological changes

Citation: Alabdallach AZ, Nikishov AA, Volkova NA, Vetokh AN, Rebouh NY, Semenova VI, et al. Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):719-25.

Functional food products for nutrition of residents of the territories of the north and the arctic: problems and solutions
I. R. Shegelman, V. M. Kirilina, L. E. Blazhevich, O. E. Smirnova, A. S. Vasilev

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Abstract

Many countries of the world, including Russia, have stepped up their attention to the prospective development of the colossal natural resources of the Northern Territories and the Arctic. The measures taken at the same time will inevitably lead to an increase in the number of people living and working in the complex, and sometimes in the extreme, climatic territories of the Northern Territories and the Arctic permanently or temporarily. Moreover, in view of the specific climatic conditions for the population living and working in the territories of the Northern Territories and the Arctic, for members of their families, it is necessary to create conditions for the use of health-saving technologies that minimize negative factors from the specific living and working environment. The most important of which are the organization of high-quality specialized, scientifically based nutrition using appropriate quality food products. To improve food security and ensure a balanced diet for various groups of the population living in the North and the Arctic territories, people working under these conditions on a rotational basis or on a rotational basis, people sent to the North, it is necessary to develop fundamentally new functional food products. Using the developed methodology, specialists from Petrozavodsk State University substantiated and patented original recipes for functional foods created especially for residents living in the conditions of the Northern Latitudes and the Arctic, including plants of the Northern Latitudes.

Keywords: arctic, food products, food security, intellectual property, plants, recipes, north of russia, plants of northern latitudes, functional foods

Citation: Shegelman IR, Kirilina VM, Blazhevich LE, Smirnova OE, Vasilev AS. Functional food products for nutrition of residents of the territories of the north and the arctic: problems and solutions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):727-37.

Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L) and lemongrass improves hormonal and biochemical parameters in Shami goats
Salih Najem Hussein, Rajaa Mossa Ismail, Zainab Hassan Majeed, Kasim Sakran Abass

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Abstract

The antioxidant activities of alcohol extracts of the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum L) were investigated in this study. This indicates that the extracts could be used as antioxidants in fat‐containing foods. Lemongrass is an important source of citral that is used for the preparation of ionones and artificial perfumes. The high concentration of hemoglobin, the percentage of plasma erythrocytes and erythrocytes, indicating the health status of female goats. Furthermore, improved kidney function through a decrease in the level of urea and Creatinine in the blood serum of animals, especially when giving lemongrass. The treatment of animals with an alcoholic extract of anise seeds led to a significant increase in FSH and LH hormones, which is reflected in the reproductive performance of female goats. The extracts also showed good free radical‐scavenging activity, indicating that they act as FSH and LH, two substances called Dianethole and Photanethole.

Keywords: antioxidant, alcoholic extract, anise seeds, lemongrass, goats

Citation: Hussein SN, Ismail RM, Majeed ZH, Abass KS. Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L) and lemongrass improves hormonal and biochemical parameters in Shami goats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):739-45.

Ovarian activity improvement and antioxidant effects of Gundelia Microcephala extract in oxidative stress rats
Najdat Ali Al-kadhi, Kasim Sakran Abass, Qays Satwan Abbas

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Abstract

The paper aimed to investigate the antioxidant effects of Gundelia Microcephala extract on some physiological, biochemical parameters and ovarian activities of female rats exposed to oxidative stress. Twenty adult female rats grouped to four groups ( I-IV ) treated with distilled water, Gundelia Microcephala extract, 0.5% H2O2 and Gundelia Microcephala + H2O2 respectively for five weeks. At the end of study the blood collected and centrifuged to obtain serum which kept at deep freeze (-20 °C). Ovaries isolated and preserved in containers contained formalin 10%. Then ovaries were sectioned 5 µm and examined under microscope to observe number and type of follicles with corpus leteum. The results of the study recorded a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the concentration of some hepatic enzymes (GOT and GPT), glucose, lipid fractions (TG and TC), MDA while a significant increase (P<0.05) in concentration of HDL and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, SOD and catalase) when compared with H2O2 group which recorded a reverse results. However, Gundelia Microcephala + H2O2 group recorded no significant differences (P>0.05) of the studied parameters when compared with the control. Histological results revealed an improvement and enhancement effects on ovarian structure through an acceleration growing of different stages of ovarian follicles and active corpus luteum in Gundelia Microcephala and Gundelia Microcephala + H2O2 groups, while the reverse observations recorded in group treated with H2O2. These alterations companied with the fluctuations of hormonal concentrations in corresponding groups. Finally, concluded the improvement and ameliorating effects of Gundelia Microcephala extract against oxidative stress concerned with hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and antioxidant effects enhanced ovarian activity.

Keywords: gundelia microcephala, antioxidant, female rat, ovary, oxidative stress

Citation: Al-kadhi NA, Abass KS, Abbas QS. Ovarian activity improvement and antioxidant effects of Gundelia Microcephala extract in oxidative stress rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):747-56.

Energy productivity of miscanthus giganteus depending on growing technology elements
Valerii S. Khakhula, Mikola B. Grabovskyi, Taras V. Panchenko, Lyudmyla A. Pravdyva, Yaroslav D. Fuchylo, Volodymyr M. Kvak, Bohdan V. Khakhula

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Abstract

Increasing industrial production and global processes in the modern world lead to a significant rising in energy consumption which, as a consequence, causes the environmental damage. The development of unconventional and renewable energy sources should be seen as an important factor in improving energy security and reducing the anthropogenic impact of energy on the environment. In Ukraine, the large-scale use of renewable energy potential is not only of domestic but also of great international importance.It is a significant factor in counteracting global climate change, improving the overall state of Europe’s energy security (Heletukha H. H. аnd Zhelieznaia T. A., 2006). Therefore, scientists around the world are looking for the alternative sources of energy that could provide partial or complete energy independence. The soil and climatic conditions in Ukraine are favorable for the cultivation of crops with a high level of biomass energy accumulation during vegetation. Some unconventional crops capable of accumulating large biomass have significant prospects for bioenergy in Ukraine, in particular due to the fact that photosynthesis occurs over a long period - from early spring to late autumn. The results of studies of miscanthus productivity, biofuel yield and energy depending on the timing of planting rhizomes are highlighted in the article. The maximum yield of dry biomass of miscanthus plants is observed during planting rhizome in the second decade of April and is 15.3 t/ha, which contributes to the increase of yield of solid biofuels (up to 16.8 t/ha) and energy per unit area (up to 285.6 GJ / Ha).

Keywords: miscanthus, yields of biomass, solid biofuels yield, energy yield

Citation: Khakhula VS, Grabovskyi MB, Panchenko TV, Pravdyva LA, Fuchylo YD, Kvak VM, et al. Energy productivity of miscanthus giganteus depending on growing technology elements. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):757-61.

Study of epipelic algae and epiphytic algae in Al-Sadir River, Al-Najaf, Iraq
Dunia Bahel Gadaan Al-Ghanimy

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Abstract

In this study, epipelic algae and epiphytic algae which grow on the surface of submerged macrophyte Phragmites australis at Al-Sadir River in Al-Najaf province (Iraq) were investigated. The samples were collected monthly from three sites in this river for six months from January to June 2015. Many physicochemical variables were measured include water temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, calcium ion, magnesium ion, nitrite, nitrate, and Phosphates. The results showed that the number of epipelic algae was 100 species, while the number of epiphytic algae was 143 species. Diatoms were predominant over other algae species during the study period. Some benthic algal genera existed in most of the study months, including Navicula, Nitzschia, and Cymbella. The number of species common between the two algal groups (epipelic and epiphytic) was 62 species. The highest number of epipelic algae reached 9.09 cell×104/cm² and the lowest number was 0.18 cell×104/cm², while the highest number of epiphytic algae was 54.36 cell × 104/g and the lowest number was 2.04 cell×104/ g.

Keywords: epipelic algae, Al-Sadir River, epiphytic algae, benthic algae

Citation: Al-Ghanimy DBG. Study of epipelic algae and epiphytic algae in Al-Sadir River, Al-Najaf, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):763-72.

The effect of cyclic irrigation on reproduction of black-earth soil fertility
Vasilyev Sergey Mikhaylovich, Balakay Georgiy Trifonovich

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Abstract

The relevance of the problem under study is conditioned by the need to preserve and reproduce the fertility of agricultural land. The goal of the research is to develop methods for maintaining and improving the fertility of irrigated black earth soil in southern Russia. Research methods: the leading method is the synthesis, comparison and analysis of data obtained from long-term field studies of the long period of irrigation (30 years or more)  effect  on the change in soil processes; the experiments were carried out by the randomized method on stationary closes in the experimental farms of the institute (Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems, until 2001 it was called Southern Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems, Rostov Region); soil and water sampling and analysis was carried out according to international standards (ISO). The study results showed that the adoption of the proposed cyclic irrigation method, when one part of the crop rotation fields (5, 25, 50 or 75%) is put into non-irrigated mode with seeding-down of drought-resistant crops for several years, and the second part of the fields with moisture-loving crops remains in the irrigation mode. This alternation of fields in the experimental plots contributed to the creation of conditions for the natural restoration of the main indicators of soil fertility: the humus content increased from 1.99 to 2.67%, the pH decreased from 7.5 to 6.7, the amount of toxic salts is halved from 0.04 to 0.02% in the upper horizons 0-20 and 20-40 cm and the sodium content in the soil absorption complex decreased more than two to three times  and moved from the category of salty soils to non-salty. Practical significance is concluded in the development of a method for increasing soil fertility without additional costs for chemical reclamation of degraded soils on long-irrigated lands.

Keywords: irrigation, cyclic irrigation, black earth soil, soil fertility, method of increasing soil fertility

Citation: Mikhaylovich VS, Trifonovich BG. The effect of cyclic irrigation on reproduction of black-earth soil fertility. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):773-80.

The application problem of project-based learning technology in higher education of Kazakhstan
Gulzhan Abishova, Natalya Andreeva, Gani Issayev, Abdinabi Issayev, Bakhyt Mynbayeva

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Abstract

An innovative and practical activity in all spheres of human life has become a characteristic feature of the modern era. Such activities directly depend on the project competence formation in the professional education system. Project technologies are one of the most promising educational technologies. They have significant potential for the development of personal qualities and the formation of students’ professional competencies of any specialty. This is evidenced by the modern research results. For students (learners)’ future activities as a teacher, it is important to develop the “project activities readiness” competence. Accordingly, the main goal of our research was to identify the readiness of undergraduate biology students to organize and execute projects, as well as to identify the willingness of teachers to apply the project-based training technology in the educational process. It should be underlined that this study analyzed only open questions to identify teachers’ ideas and future biology teachers’ ideas about the project-based training technology, identify needs related to this technology and provide a basis for further research. The authors of the article surveyed 115 students of specialty “5В011300 - Biology” and 75 teachers at Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University and Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University. The questionnaire method was used in the form of open-ended questions. The data was analyzed using content analysis. Based on the survey results, an urgent problem was identified: the unreadiness of both teachers and students for projects organization and implementation. Bringing teachers and students to the formation and implementation of students’ readiness for projects organization in the biological disciplines teaching process requires the development of a scientifically based methodology for the development of this competence in the future.

Keywords: project activity, project-based learning, project

Citation: Abishova G, Andreeva N, Issayev G, Issayev A, Mynbayeva B. The application problem of project-based learning technology in higher education of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):781-9.

Design factors research of the small-scale feed from the drum milling machine
G. A. Mamedova

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Abstract

The research is devoted to the study of the design parameters of a small-size feed shredder, which is widely used in animal husbandry. It was found that studying the principles of working methods used to strengthen the feed base for animals, improve the quality and enrichment of feed, as well as the search for optimal modes of operation are one of the important requirements of the day. The application of theoretical and experimental analysis on farms can lead to more active work in this area.

Keywords: livestock farms, feed base, feed grinding device, quality improvement, operation mode

Citation: Mamedova GA. Design factors research of the small-scale feed from the drum milling machine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):791-5.

The state of systemic and local immunity with nonspecific vulvovaginitis in adolescents
Lazat Smailova, Serik Iskakov, Ainur Tuletova, Galym Shegenov, Asem Aketaeva

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Abstract

The study showed that there is a secondary immune deficiency in the subacute course, and in acute immunodeficiency it was not detected. In acute course compared with subacute one, there is an increased production of IFN-γ, which indicates the direct dependence of the pro-inflammatory cytokines activity level on the clinical course of the inflammatory process. A study of vaginal secretion phagocytosis revealed that in acute cases, the phagocytic function of the local secretion is satisfactory, while in the subacute case, satisfactory absorption function decreases the bactericidal activity of the vaginal secretion, which indicates the need for correction of the phagocytic link. The use of Roncoleukin parenterally in acute course does not affect normal immune status indicators, i.e. has a modulating effect depending on the initial immune status. In subacute case, local application leads to an increase in the absorption and oxygen-dependent bactericidal ability of the vaginal secretion, which contributes to the rapid regression of the clinical manifestations of vulvovaginitis, parenterally leading to normalization of the main indicators of the subpopulation composition of lymphocytes.

Keywords: teenager, vulvovaginitis, immunity, cytokines, phagocytosis, roncoleukin

Citation: Smailova L, Iskakov S, Tuletova A, Shegenov G, Aketaeva A. The state of systemic and local immunity with nonspecific vulvovaginitis in adolescents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):797-802.

Meat productivity of different livestock breeds in conditions of agrofirm «Dinara- Ranch»
Roza Ibrayeva, Kuat Nurgazy, Saule Seilgazina, Kulsara Nurzhanova, Akhmetova Balnur

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Abstract

At present, one of the basic objectives of livestock production development in Kazakhstan is to provide the population with qualified, accessible meat. An important reserve for increasing the production of meat, in particular, beef, is the development of specialized meat breeding. The leading position in this industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs to Kazakh white-headed breed, which was withdrawn in 1932-1950 with the way of breeding Kazakh cows and partially Kalmyk cattle with the bulls of Hereford breed. At present, this breed is raised almost in all regions of the Republic. The breed is characterized by good meat productivity, sufficient high early maturation and animals have excellent adaptation to continental climatic conditions. The aim of research is to study the results of meat productivity of bulls of different genotypes in conditions of LLP Agrofirm «Dinara- Ranch», Almaty region, the Republic of Kazakhstan. To achieve this goal, the following objectives have been put before us:
- determination of slaughter weight and yield of morphological composition of carcasses and qualitative indicator of experimental bulls’ meat;
- to give an assessment of qualitative indicators of meat products obtained from the bulls of different genotypes. Meat obtained in control slaughtering from experimental bulls coincided requirements of I category. According to the weight of hot carcass Hereford bulls exceeded the peers of Kazakh white-headed breed to 42.9 kg or 18.1% (p > 0.95) and bulls crossbreed to 9.0 kg or 3.3% (p > 0.95). Yield of inner salo was higher in the bulls of Kazakh white-headed breed. Bulls of Hereford breed exceeded their Kazakh white-headed breed by the amount of meat per 43.2 kg – 22.5% (p > 0.95) and bulls crossbreed to 8.1 kg – 3.6% (p > 0.95). Yield of bulls meat of Hereford breed exceeded its peers of Kazakh white-headed breed to 2.4 – 2.9% (p < 0.95), but conceded to crossbred bulls to 0.1 kg – 0.1%. Correlation of protein and fat in the meat of experimental animals comprised: in the bulls of Kazakh white-headed breed - 1:0.65, in the animals of the Hereford breed and crossbreed - 1:0.64.

Keywords: Kazakh white-headed, Hereford, crossbreed, genotype, carcass, meat, body weight, slaughter weight

Citation: Ibrayeva R, Nurgazy K, Seilgazina S, Nurzhanova K, Balnur A. Meat productivity of different livestock breeds in conditions of agrofirm «Dinara- Ranch». Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):803-7.

ISO 45001 as a tool to improve the occupational health and safety management system at Kazakhstan enterprises, on the example of the fat and oil industry
S. A. Beisseyev, A. S. Naukenova, A. K. Tulekbayva, A. E. Otunshiyeva, M. B. Kenzhekhanova, A. A. Toktabek

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Abstract

The results of research on the formation of occupational health and safety management system according to ISO 45001 for the food industry are given. As an example Shymkentmay JSC was used, which specializes in the production of edible vegetable oils. The technological process of cotton oil production as an object of professional risks for technological personnel has been studied, hazardous and harmful production factors have been classified in the production of edible vegetable oils, the nature and content of professional risks and methods for their evaluation have been investigated, it has been proposed to apply the implementation of occupational risk management system Deming’s cycle “Plan-Do-Check-Act”, the primary identification of occupational risks for each workplace. The effects of emerging risks are studied on the basis of an analysis of the impact of identified harmful and hazardous workplace factors and the safety of workplaces using the Fayn and Kinney method, which allows assessing the individual risks of an individual worker, defined as the probability of injury or illness resulting from an existing hazard. The context of Shymkentmay JSC was developed, which is necessary for informing, both external and internal stakeholders about its activities, the main factors of production that affect the risks of industrial injuries, accidents and occupational diseases. The main sources of harmful production conditions for the employees of the enterprise have been identified, risks have been formed, according to the types of dangers existing for workers, the types of control over the source of occurrence and the environment of propagation of harmful effects, the contingent of workers exposed to the danger.

Keywords: international standard ISO 45001, occupational health and safety management system, requirements, regulations, guidelines, improvement, occupational hazards, harmful and hazardous factors, working conditions, assessment, method, classification, personnel, sources of hazards, control, identification

Citation: Beisseyev SA, Naukenova AS, Tulekbayva AK, Otunshiyeva AE, Kenzhekhanova MB, Toktabek AA. ISO 45001 as a tool to improve the occupational health and safety management system at Kazakhstan enterprises, on the example of the fat and oil industry. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):809-16.

Nitisinone drugs bioequivalence in healthy volunteers in fasting state
G. N. Gildeeva, A. V. Belostotsky, O. V. Gridnev

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Abstract

Comparative study of pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of preparations containing nitisinone: Nitisinone, capsules 10 mg (ZAO Obninsk Chemical-Pharmaceutical Company (ZAO OCPC), Russia) and Orfadin®, capsules 10 mg (“Apotek Production and Laboratory AB”, Sweden) with a single capsule taken on an empty stomach by healthy volunteers. An open randomized cross-examination included 36 healthy volunteers. As a novel strategy the drugs (the test and the comparison drug) were administered once, followed by blood sampling for 72 hours. The “washout” period between study periods was 14 days. Nitisinone concentration in blood plasma samples was quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The boundaries of the estimated 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the mean values of the analyzed parameters (Cmax, AUC0-72) are within 80-125% according to the existing guidelines. Nitisinone is bioequivalent to Orfadin. Comparable drugs were also comparable in safety indicators.

Keywords: blood sampling, chromatography, healthy volunteers, orfadin, pharmacokinetics

Citation: Gildeeva GN, Belostotsky AV, Gridnev OV. Nitisinone drugs bioequivalence in healthy volunteers in fasting state. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):817-21.

Studies of the reduction process of the fe /γ-al2o3 catalytic system
A. Brodskiy, V. Yaskevich, B. Khussain, A. Shapovalov

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Abstract

The reduction processes of the Fe/g-Al2O3 catalytic system by hydrogen were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) in the temperature range 293-773K. It was found that in the initial state, the system contains at least two paramagnetic forms of Fe3+ with close values of isomeric shifts and various quadrupole cleavages. In an atmosphere of the H2 iron in the system is reduced to the Fe2+ state in the range 573-773K, which is also in two forms. It was shown by the TPR method that hydrogen is adsorbed on the initial g-Al2O3 oxide with chromatographic maxima at 458 and 673K. For the Fe/g-Al2O3 system, the chromatographic maxima of hydrogen adsorption shift by 478 and 583K, and starting from ~ 630K, a desorption process is observed with a maximum at 703K.

Keywords: reduction process, catalytic system, hydrogen

Citation: Brodskiy A, Yaskevich V, Khussain B, Shapovalov A. Studies of the reduction process of the fe /γ-al2o3 catalytic system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):823-8.

Ammophos efficiency application for treatment highly concentrated by biogenic elements wastes of agro-industrial complexes
T. A. Kolesnikova, M. A. Kulikova, E. A. Gribut

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Abstract

Research findings are made of reagent treatment processes of highly concentrated liquid wastes at pig farms in agro-industrial clusters (AIC) for the purpose of obtaining organo-mineral fertilizer and water for irrigation and increasing the fertility of agricultural lands. The research objective was to study the process of reagent fractionation of highly concentrated by nutrient elements liquid wastes of pig farms, with the replacement of the existing superphosphate reagent by more effective nitrogen and phosphorus. The main processes of liquid waste separation into fractions, determination of optimal reagent doses, comparison of results of different reagents use and recommendations are studied. Optimal portioning of ammophos suspension for treatment of highly concentrated waste was established and determined by the effect of separation into fractions. Researches were carried out at Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI) in Novocherkassk. The usage of ammophos for fractionation of highly concentrated liquid waste of livestock farms, is to use as an acidifying reagent ammophos suspension, reducing the retention time in wet pits, as well as reducing reagent doses by more than 2 times, compared with superphosphate. The efficiency of waste separation was provided with the usage of ammophos and superphosphate was compared, optimal doses of ammophos suspension -0.5-1.5 g/dm3. The dependence of the separation efficiency of liquid waste as a function of its temperature was studied, the kinetics of separation at increasing temperature increases in the range from 20-45 0C. The greatest effect of separation of liquid waste was observed at a temperature of 450C, but the separation efficiency, ranging from 20 to 45 0C varies slightly. Nevertheless, it was accepted that the optimal temperature for reagent processing of highly concentrated liquid waste from pig farms of agro-industrial clusters was 20-25 0C.

Keywords: ammophos, agro-industrial clusters, organo-mineral fertilizers, high concentration liquid waste, fractionation

Citation: Kolesnikova TA, Kulikova MA, Gribut EA. Ammophos efficiency application for treatment highly concentrated by biogenic elements wastes of agro-industrial complexes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):829-34.

The biological and hydrothermal environmental process of fluidization zones of oil-and-gas bearing rock in the seismic field of the North-Taz Basin
Y. A. Revinsky, A. I. Sukharev

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Abstract

The article reflects the study results of oil and gas bearing rocks of the North-Taz Basin. The interconnection of oil seismology and hydrothermal processes is pointed by the example of local and integral seismic effects. We determined that the fluidization processes are associated with the activation of abdominal faults and are secondary to the previously formed classical zones of epigenesis. Based on paragenetic mineral associations and epigenetic changes in the rocks of the study area, new types of hydrothermal-metasomatic formations are identified - mudstones and fluidisites. The lithogeochemical anomalies of potassium, phosphorus, iron, fluorine, and arsenic confirm the presence of vertical migration and are linked to the morphological features of the reflecting horizons of the study area. The results of determining the petrochemical modules for the Turonian-Maastrian reserves confirm that the lithogeochemical anomalies of the selected group of elements are associated with the Late Cretaceous stage of activation of deep-seated processes. According to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis, three main complexes of clay minerals of the sedimentary section were identified: montmorillonite-kaolinite, hydromicaceous-chlorite, hydromicaceous-chlorite-zeolite. It was established that the presence of montmorillonite is a distinctive feature of these reserves and its presence leads both to high reliability of tires and to a significant deterioration in the reservoir properties of sand varieties. Zeolites are defined as indicators of diagenetic transformation of rocks. For micaceous mineral, the most common polytypic varieties were identified, characterizing the presence of a hydrothermal process. According to electron microscopic studies of the composition of the rocks, their pore space, and the analysis of the geological characteristics of the study area, six types of integral fluidization zones and three local levels were established. The mineral composition of the fluidization zones was characterized as a result of hydrothermal-metasomatic transformations of the corresponding rock complexes. Assumptions are made about the forms of bodies of hydrothermally transformed rocks, defined in the field of seismic waves, as the results of the development of fluid zones of a certain mineral type and similar to primary halos of ore reserves. The characteristics of the zones of colmatation of two types are given that affect the flow rate of wells and form a new type of metasomatic traps for oil and gas reserves.

Keywords: fluidization, hydrothermal process, metasomatism, electron microscopy, polytype, catagenesis, seismology, integral

Citation: Revinsky YA, Sukharev AI. The biological and hydrothermal environmental process of fluidization zones of oil-and-gas bearing rock in the seismic field of the North-Taz Basin. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):835-42.

Ecological and economic aspects of differentiated application of glyphosate in Central Kazakhstan
Sayakhat Bekbulatov, Marat Khanturin, Akhan Abzhalelov, Raikhan Beisenova, Assylgul Bekbulatova, Kakabayev Anuarbek, Sagandyk Zhetpisov

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Abstract

Object: Substantiate the ecological and economic aspects of differentiated glyphosate application in comparison with traditional all-round application technology. Methods: Experimental field method of environmental research. Findings: By comparing the traditional all-round and differentiated methods of glyphosate spraying in the conditions of Central Kazakhstan, ecological and economic effects were obtained. Conclusions: The differentiated method of glyphosate spraying allows reducing the total agroecological load and the cost of agricultural production while not reducing the biological effectiveness of the action of glyphosate on the target objects (weeds).

Keywords: glyphosate, spraying, rate, tank mix, weed, differentiated application, efficiency

Citation: Bekbulatov S, Khanturin M, Abzhalelov A, Beisenova R, Bekbulatova A, Anuarbek K, et al. Ecological and economic aspects of differentiated application of glyphosate in Central Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):843-50.

The newest information about atom radiuses of chemical elements
U. Besterekov, S. R. Yermekov, S. P. Nazarbekova, A. A. Bolysbek, G. A. Kambova, S. E. Zholdasbaeva, I. A. Petropavlovskiy

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Abstract

The article contains the description of the technique for determination of the atom diameters of chemical elements excluding the necessity of application of measurement instrumentation. Methodological bases of the research have been developed taking into account modern postulates of quantum mechanics and atom-molecular physics that the main kinds of the interaction between electrons and a nucleus in ion of a chemical element are electrostatic and centrifugal. On the basis of the analysis of known data about the electronic structure of chemical elements taking into consideration the electron and proton numbers in ions of the elements the laws about changing the values of ion coefficients for the ions of all chemical elements of the periodic table has been revealed and their numerical values have been determined. The calculated atom radiuses for the major part of the chemical elements are within the framework of the known data about their radiuses established previously.

Keywords: atom, diameter, chemical element, electronic structure, stationary state, ion coefficient

Citation: Besterekov U, Yermekov SR, Nazarbekova SP, Bolysbek AA, Kambova GA, Zholdasbaeva SE, et al. The newest information about atom radiuses of chemical elements. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):851-5.

Efficiency of utilization of genetic resources of imported and domestic servicing bulls of beef breeds
N. Zh. Kazhgaliyev, A. B. Makhanbetova, A. S. Shamshidin, K. Kh. Shaikenova, K. M. Omarova

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Abstract

Keywords: servicing bulls, beef breed, live weight, sperm production

Citation: Kazhgaliyev NZ, Makhanbetova AB, Shamshidin AS, Shaikenova KK, Omarova KM. Efficiency of utilization of genetic resources of imported and domestic servicing bulls of beef breeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):857-63.

The biotechnological network model analysis of a distributed information technology system
O. S. Litvinskaya, A. E. Dudrov

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The article provides a comparative analysis of the information system based on the terminal and peer-to-peer architecture using wireless technology for network bandwidth. We give the research result of guaranteed data packets delivery on the example of the terminal architecture. The structure of the technical system information taken for research is also given. We analyzed the model of the distributed information system on three types as QS (queue system) as well. The Lemma model is taken to describe the system.

Keywords: terminal architecture, distributed system model, wireless communication system, network loading

Citation: Litvinskaya OS, Dudrov AE. The biotechnological network model analysis of a distributed information technology system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):865-8.

Evaluating the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids content of arthrospira fusiformis
Haider A. Alghanmi

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Microalgae, particularly Arthrospira sp., has been considered as an alternative energy for biofuel worldwide. It is one of the world’s largest organic nutrient sources and a potential source of biodiesel. Genetic analysis is an essential process of morphological identification confirming cyanobacterium homologous to the isolates identified in 100% of Arthrospira fusiformis at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained by the genetic analyzer were deposited in the NCBI GenBank with accession number: MN160402.1. Arthrospira fusiformis was exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 Gray (Gy) using Co60 as a gamma source. While the highest value of chlorophyll-a and carotenoid registered in the control unit was 7.437 and 6.733 µg/L, the lowest value was 0.423 and 0.643 µg/L at radiation treatment with 12gy, respectively. Likewise, carbohydrates reached the highest value (1.383 mg/L) in the control unit and the lowest (0.713 mg/l) in the radiation treatment with 12 Gy. Regarding proteins, the highest value was 640,387 mg/L when treated with 1 Gy, and the lowest value was 64,187 mg/L in the control unit. The highest value of total lipids was 0.633 g/L in the radiation treatment with 12 Gy, whereas the lowest value in the control unit was 0.283 g/L. These results confirmed the role of gamma irradiation in stimulation of proteins and total lipid content in Arthrospira fusiformis, which indicate the importance of gamma radiation in biodiesel production by algae species.

Keywords: 16S rRNA, genetic analysis, gamma radiation, Arthrospira fusiformis, lipids, proteins

Citation: Alghanmi HA. Evaluating the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids content of arthrospira fusiformis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):869-76.

Tourism market development, accounting features in travel agencies of Kazakhstan and the East Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan
K. G. Sholpanbaeva, A. A. Apysheva, N. K. Shaihanova, Y. A. Kolos, U. S. Alimbetov, S. K. Egenberdieva, A. M. Zhaparova, N. V. Krause

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The article covers the topic of tourism market development and accounting features in travel agencies on the territory Kazakhstan and the East Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The article discusses indicators from different aspects of tourism, types of tourism, characteristic of the popularity of different resorts in Kazakhstan, their comparative analysis is presented in the form of tables and diagrams.

Keywords: tourism, Kazakhstan tourism market, accounting features of tourism, travel agencies

Citation: Sholpanbaeva KG, Apysheva AA, Shaihanova NK, Kolos YA, Alimbetov US, Egenberdieva SK, et al. Tourism market development, accounting features in travel agencies of Kazakhstan and the East Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):877-87.

Developing haccp plan for a fermented milk drink with encapsulated biologically active supplements
Aitbek Kakimov, Alibek Muratbayev, Klara Zharykbasova, Yerlan Zharykbasov, Samat Kassymov, Gulmira Zhumadilova, Madina Jumazhanova, Asiya Utegenova

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The article discusses the features of the HACCP system for fermented milk drink with encapsulated biologically active supplements. General characteristics of critical control points and critical limits are given. The analysis of the main control critical points in the production of fermented milk products with encapsulated biologically active supplements is performed. The HACCP control map is given, where the procedure of monitoring and corrective actions are presented.

Keywords: encapsulation, sour milk, HACCP, hazardous factors, biosupplement

Citation: Kakimov A, Muratbayev A, Zharykbasova K, Zharykbasov Y, Kassymov S, Zhumadilova G, et al. Developing haccp plan for a fermented milk drink with encapsulated biologically active supplements. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):889-5.

Axiological aspects of education and research activities in teaching mathematics at the primary level of education
Natalia Vladimirovna Biziaeva, Natalia Dmitrievna Konstantinova

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This article examines value and relevance of educational material presented in the mathematics textbooks of the Soviet period. This material made it possible to really form a functionally competent personality of a student capable of applying this knowledge throughout his life. Confirmation of data is reflected in the number of tasks presented in the method of teaching and research activities, having practical orientation of these tasks also contributed to the career guidance of future generation.

Keywords: mathematical education, teaching and research activity (MIA), comparative characteristic, diagnostic work

Citation: Biziaeva NV, Konstantinova ND. Axiological aspects of education and research activities in teaching mathematics at the primary level of education. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):897-9.

Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of brassica oleracea and coriandrum sativum vegetable crops
Galiya Imankulova, Zhanar Moldabayeva, Ramazan Mammadov, Amirzhan Kassenov, Asiya Utegenova

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The search and study of promising natural sources of compounds with antioxidant activity is an urgent task. In this work the food value and antioxidant properties and phenolic and flavonoid compounds of Brassica oleracea (white cabbage) and Coriandrum sativum (cilantro) are investigated. DPPH, ABTS and β-Karoten/linoleic acids have been used to determine the antioxidant activity. By mineral composition cilantro is rich in sodium (5490.05 mg/kg), iron (43.59 mg/kg), magnesium (440.31 mg/kg), while cabbage has high calcium content (1515.09 mg/kg), potassium (4003.32 mg/kg), phosphorus (737.87 mg/kg). In terms of vitamin composition, white cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C (432.64 mg/kg), whereas vitamin A (2.46 mg/kg) and vitamin E (1.85 mg/kg) prevail in cilantro. The antioxidant activity varied according to the model system used, all extracts generally exhibited strong antioxidant activity. B. oleracea and C. sativum extracts contain significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids.

Keywords: radical scavenging activity, phenol, flavonoid, mineral composition, extract

Citation: Imankulova G, Moldabayeva Z, Mammadov R, Kassenov A, Utegenova A. Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of brassica oleracea and coriandrum sativum vegetable crops. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):901-6.

Attack on hash functions
Vladislav Dmitrievich Zyuzin, Dmitry Viktorovich Vdovenko, Vasily Nikolaevich Bolshakov, Alexey Aleksandrovich Busenkov, Alexander Dmitrievich Krivdin

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This article explores the attack on the MD5 hash function using pre-calculated hash chains, as well as the rainbow table method. The content of the article includes: the operation of the MD5 hash function, the determination of the calculated hash chains, the attack on the MD5 hash function by the method of the calculated hash chains, as well as the definition and study of rainbow tables. A hash function is a function that converts an array of input data of arbitrary length to an output bit sequence of fixed length, and is performed using a specific algorithm. The main vector of attack on hash functions is the search for collisions. A collision is the equality of two output values of hash functions for different input data. in this article, two methods are used to investigate the attack on hash functions: the method of pre-calculated hash chains and the method of rainbow tables. it is concluded that the rainbow table method helps to eliminate all the disadvantages that exist in the pre-calculated hash chains. where a single collision causes the rest of the chain to be corrupted. Thus, the longer the chain, the more damage is obtained from collisions. In rainbow tables, these situations are almost reduced to 0.

Keywords: password, hash, chain, table, reduction, reduction function, function, hash function, hash chain, length, attack, chain length, rainbow, rainbow tables, set, data, collision

Citation: Zyuzin VD, Vdovenko DV, Bolshakov VN, Busenkov AA, Krivdin AD. Attack on hash functions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):907-13.

Quantitative and qualitative effects of proteins and natural sugars on hardening and color of high-protein nutrition bars during storage
Sami Kadhim Hassan

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Unpalatably, high protein nutrition (HPN) bars tend to go hard during storage. The present study aims to investigate the effects of quantity (34%, 36%, 38%, 40%, and 45%)  and quality of milk proteins: whey protein isolate (WPI) and milk protein concentrate (MPC) or a mixture of them with alcohol sugar syrups (sorbitol + glycerol), natural sugar syrups (agave, rice and honey) and glycerol combined with vegetable shortening oil on the hardness, water activity and color change in bars after accelerated storage at 35°C for 43 days in order to meet consumer demands; such as soft HPN bars and high level of protein combined with natural sugar syrups. Using MPC makes the bars brittle and crumbly. Using glycerol initially makes bars softer but accelerates hardening. Using mixture of 50:50 WPI and MPC and 80% sorbitol, agave, rice or honey mixed with 20% glycerol in bars formulations improve its cohesiveness and textural stability, and minimize bars hardness with fold minimizing (F.M) as follows: 10.4, 5.4, 1.2 and 5.8 fold of 34% protein, 7.8, 4.0, 1.1 and 4.5 fold of 36% protein, 5.0, 3.1, 1.1 and 5.0 fold of 38% protein, 4.7, 3.2, - and 5.0 fold of 40% protein, and 5.9, 4.7, - and 5.9 fold of 45% protein respectively. Hardening of HPN bars during storage was related to protein surface-solvent interactions by non-covalent interactions (hydrogen bonds and van der Waals and ionic forces not by disulphide bonds or browning reactions or water activity) with the protein layers would be with the hydroxyl groups of sugars especially of glycerol and its functioning of hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic layers of protein in HPN bars will tend to aggregate together resulting the hardness in bars.

Keywords: milk protein, WPI, MPC, alcohol sugars, natural sugars, HPN bar, hardening, water activity, color

Citation: Hassan SK. Quantitative and qualitative effects of proteins and natural sugars on hardening and color of high-protein nutrition bars during storage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):915-32.

The research of the timano-pechora ultra-deep magnetic rocks based on this borehole magnetometry
G. V. Igolkina

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Purpose of the article: to obtain new data about magnetic fields, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of rocks at great depths in conditions of their natural location. The application of the borehole magnetometry method in the absence or incomplete flow of core material from ultra-deep boreholes in combination with geological methods of study allows: to isolate intrusive bodies in the sections of deep boreholes, to establish the location of roof and bottom of dolerite intrusions, localize and determine their power. Methods: magnetometer-inclinometers have been developed at the Geophysics Institute of the Ural Department of Russian Academy of Sciences for magnetometer studies, which allow continuous measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of rocks (χ), vertical component (Za) and the entire vector of the horizontal component (Ha) of the geomagnetic field; magnetic azimuth (Am) and zenith angle (φ) of the borehole. The methodology of processing and interpretation of magnetic properties of dolerite intrusions has also been developed by the Institute of Geophysics of the Ural Department of Russian Academy of Sciences. Results: The possibilities of the downhole magnetometry method were evaluated to research the magnetic properties of rocks and refinement of lithological and stratigraphic characteristics of the Timan-Pechora ultra-deep well (SG-5) at the depth below the gas condensate deposit to assess the prospects of oil and gas bearing capacity of Silurian - Lower Devonian deposits. Conclusions: The magnetic characteristics and structural-texture features of rocks are researched. The magnetic properties of dolerite intrusions in the natural occurrence of this borehole magnetometry, namely - the magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field and magnetization are determined. More exact location of roof and bottom of dolerite intrusions is established. Its capacities are localized and determined in the section of Timan-Pechora superdeep well at the depth of more than 3.5 km, which allowed specifying the lithological section of the borehole.

Keywords: borehole magnetometry, magnetic characteristics, borehole, dolerites, intrusions, magnetic susceptibility, geomagnetic field, magnetization

Citation: Igolkina GV. The research of the timano-pechora ultra-deep magnetic rocks based on this borehole magnetometry. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):933-8.

Determination of genetic diversity of grapevine fanleaf virus in vineyards of East Azerbaijan Province
Iman Abdel Sattar Abdel Razzaq

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Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is one of the oldest viral diseases of vineyards and it is more common in a few provinces of Iran such as East Azerbaijan (Moghan and Maragheh) and Isfahan. The name of this virus is derived from the symptoms in the leaves of this virus-infected grape tree. In the current study, it was tried to investigate the genetic variation of GFLV in East Azerbaijan province (located in Iran). For this purpose, 310 leaf samples were randomly collected during the growing season of 2017-2018. Using specific antibodies raised against Iranian isolate of GFLV, 197 samples were found to be infected with GFLV in indirect ELISA. Nucleotide sequence identities of 87-90% were found between the coat protein region of isolates of this study and that of deposited in the GenBank previously.

Keywords: grapevine fanleaf virus, vineyard, genbank, East Azerbaijan Province

Citation: Sattar Abdel Razzaq IA. Determination of genetic diversity of grapevine fanleaf virus in vineyards of East Azerbaijan Province. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):939-43.

Study of epipelic algae and epiphytic algae in Al-Sadir River, Al-Najaf, Iraq
Dunia Bahel Gadaan Al-Ghanimy

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In this study, epipelic algae and epiphytic algae which grow on the surface of submerged macrophyte Phragmites australis at Al-Sadir River in Al-Najaf province (Iraq) were investigated. The samples were collected monthly from three sites in this river for six months from January to June 2015. Many physicochemical variables were measured include water temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, calcium ion, magnesium ion, nitrite, nitrate, and Phosphates. The results showed that the number of epipelic algae was 100 species, while the number of epiphytic algae was 143 species. Diatoms were predominant over other algae species during the study period. Some benthic algal genera existed in most of the study months, including Navicula, Nitzschia, and Cymbella. The number of species common between the two algal groups (epipelic and epiphytic) was 62 species. The highest number of epipelic algae reached 9.09 cell×104/cm² and the lowest number was 0.18 cell×104/cm², while the highest number of epiphytic algae was 54.36 cell × 104/g and the lowest number was 2.04 cell×104/ g.

Keywords: Epipelic algae, Al-Sadir River, epiphytic algae, benthic algae

Citation: Al-Ghanimy DBG. Study of epipelic algae and epiphytic algae in Al-Sadir River, Al-Najaf, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):945-4.

Investigation and determination of the best strategy for sustainable development of nomadic areas of Iran based on the rights of local societies
Mohammad Pakrah, Seyed Abbas Poorhashemi, Mohammad Reza Parvin

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About 2 percent of the total population of Iran are nomads. Despite the fact that the population of the nomadic community is less than the population of the urban community and the rural community and the products of this society are more than urban’s and rural’s societies products but their uses of facilities and services are less than urban and rural communities. There are documented reasons for this claim: having over 24 million livestock units (equivalent to 28% light livestock and 4% heavy livestock), producing more than 20% of red meat and producing over 1.5 million square meters of country handicrafts by nomads. This society, with possession of 60% of the geographic space of Iran and 38% of its pastures, plays a very important role from the standpoint of non-operational defense as well as national security in Iran. Also, products of this society, as the first ring of the production chain, support other businesses outside the nomadic areas in the fields of industry, commerce, and services, etc. The set of these capabilities identifies the status of local communities and nomadic areas in Iran’s economic, social and environmental equations and emphasizes the need to examine and determine the best sustainable development strategy for these regions and the local community active in it This article, by studying and identifying the internal and external factors affecting the local community and nomadic areas, by highly applicable scientific and practical method, Called SWOT method, draws the interaction matrix of these factors. In this way, the best strategy for the sustainable development of nomadic areas of Iran, based on the rights of local communities will be defined and presented. Obviously, by adopting the best sustainable development strategy in the nomadic areas of the country, the next step will be to provide the best sustainable development model for the nomadic areas of the country and Local society active in it.

Keywords: Iran, pattern, development, sustainable development, nomadic local society, nomadic regions, strategic management

Citation: Pakrah M, Poorhashemi SA, Parvin MR. Investigation and determination of the best strategy for sustainable development of nomadic areas of Iran based on the rights of local societies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):955-66.

The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine
Dicky Kurniawan Tontowiputro, Djanggan Sargowo, Askandar Tjokroprawiro, Muhaimin Rifa’i

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Objectives: Atherosclerosis formed due to the accumulation of the fibrous tissues in the vascular wall and gradually become thrombus. Agaricus brasiliensis known as a traditional drug for lifestyle-related diseases, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The aim of this research was to examine the potency of Agaricus brasiliensis to reduce the excessive inflammatory response that occurs in the process of atherosclerosis. The extract of Agaricus brasiliensis contains β-glucans and Agiritin that may bound to the Dectin-1 receptor and TLR-2. Methods: Therefore, we examine the interaction of the molecules by using bioinformatic. We have docked β-glucans and Agaritin to the active site of the Dectin-1 receptor and TLR-2. Results: The result of the analysis indicated the binding affinity of between TLR2/1 and 1,3-1,6 β-glucan or agaritin showed higher compared to positive control, Tri-Acylated Lipopeptide. Besides β-glucan 1,3-1,6 bound to Dectin-1 has similar binding affinity compared to the positive control, Beta-D-Glucose. Conclusions: It could be concluded that β-glucan 1,3-1,6 and agaritin might enable to activate the TLR2. However, Dectin-1 receptor might only be activated by 1,3-1,6. β-glucan.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, Agaricus brasiliensis, β-glucan, Dectin-1 receptor, TLR2/1

Citation: Tontowiputro DK, Sargowo D, Tjokroprawiro A, Rifa’i M. The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):967-1.

Chemical biology of cyclization reactions by using POCL3
Inas S. Mahdi, Zainab A. Jabarah, Sameaa J. Khammas, Rawa’a Abass Majeed

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Abstract

In recent years, the chemical biology have attended significant progress in cyclo addition and cyclization reaction for synthesis many heterocyclic compounds, and here we reported one of the most utilized cofactor in cyclization reaction and discuss its function in most known synthesis reactions.

Keywords: cyclization reaction, Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, Bischler-Nabieralski reaction

Citation: Mahdi IS, Jabarah ZA, Khammas SJ, Majeed RA. Chemical biology of cyclization reactions by using POCL3. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):973-6.

Screening and identification of Actinomycetes produced chitinolytic from suppression soil as biological agents of fruit flies (Bactrocera sp.)
Penta Suryaminarsih, Wiwik Sri Harijani, Ida Retno Muljani, Wanti Mindari, Noni Rahmadhini

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Abstract

The effectiveness of biological control is generally associated with the tolerance of biological control agents to environmental stress. One of the enhanced tolerances of entomopathogenic bacteria to thermal factors and pesticides is a result of the chitinolytic biosynthesis of the filamentous bacteria. The filamentous bacteria Actinomycetes can be isolated from several specific areas: the Kelud volcano mountain, a tomato field contaminated with pesticides and protected forests. The aim of the study was to obtain and identify Actinomycetes candidates capable of producing chitinolytic compounds and controlling fruit flies and other insects (Bactrocera sp.) in vitro. Screening and identification were undertaken using descriptive methods while an antagonism test was designed using a completely randomized block design, with nine treatment combinations and each treatment being replicated three times. The results showed that Actinomycetes Tomatoes_Pare (Atp) and Actinomycetes Merubetiri 1 and 2 (Mbr1 and Mbr2) isolates produce chitinase and are able to control parasite fruit fly larvae and pupae by up to 100% in vitro. The identification of Actinomycetes spp. by DNA sequencing showed that 3 Actinomycetes isolates have are closely related: Streptomyces narbonesis, Streptomyces spectabilis SHH and Streptomyces deserti.

Keywords: antagonism, bactrocera, biological agents, chitinolytic, streptomyces

Citation: Suryaminarsih P, Sri Harijani W, Muljani IR, Mindari W, Rahmadhini N. Screening and identification of Actinomycetes produced chitinolytic from suppression soil as biological agents of fruit flies (Bactrocera sp.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):977-82.

Intermolecular [4+2]-cycloaddition reaction to biotransform morachalcone A into kuwanon J, catalyzed by Diels-Alderase from a root culture of Morus alba var. shalun (M. shalun)
Rahmat Kurniawan, Elvira Hermawati, Rukman Hertadi, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita, Wong Cing Piow, Euis H. Hakim

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Abstract

Morus is one of the main genera of the Moraceae family and widely cultivated in Southeast Asia for silkworm feeding. This genus also produces valuable bioactive phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, stilbenes, 2-arylbenzofurans, and Diels-Alder adducts. Previous phytochemical investigation of Morus shalun reported the Diels-Alder adducts as the mayor phenolic compounds isolated from root cultures. The Diels-Alder adduct is considered formed by the intermolecular [4+2]-cycloaddition between a diene of dehydroprenyl phenol with a dienophile of the α, β-unsaturated carbonyl group of a chalcone. This reaction in plant tissues is naturally catalyzed by the enzyme Diels-Alderase. The experiment was designed to determine the existence of Diels-Alderase isolated from a root culture of M. shalun by evaluating its activity in the biotransformation process of morachalcone A to produce kuwanon J. Biotransformation was detected using HPLC and LCMS. Kuwanon J showed significantly higher cytotoxic activities against the three human cancer cell lines HeLa, A459, and MCF7 compared with morachalcone A.

Keywords: plant culture, morus shalun, diel-alderase, intermolecular cycloaddition, biotransformation, cytotoxicity

Citation: Kurniawan R, Hermawati E, Hertadi R, Abe I, Morita H, Cing Piow W, et al. Intermolecular [4+2]-cycloaddition reaction to biotransform morachalcone A into kuwanon J, catalyzed by Diels-Alderase from a root culture of Morus alba var. shalun (M. shalun). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):983-9.

The stability of Phytase activity from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7
Hafsan, Laily Agustina, Asamuddin Natsir, Ahyar Ahmad

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Abstract

Objectives: Phytase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phytic acid but is not produced in the monogastric gastrointestinal tract of poultry. This study aims to discover the stability of extracellular phytase Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 under a range of temperature, pH, and protease activity conditions including those similar to the digestive tract of poultry. Material and Methods: Temperature and pH stability tests were carried out at various temperatures (20-65 °C) and pH (1-8) by incubating the phytase in a Na-acetate buffer. The stability of phytase protease was further tested by adding the following levels of proteases (pepsin and/or trypsin): P0: without protease, P1: pepsin (5000 units/mL), P2: trypsin (5000 units/mL) and P3: pepsin + trypsin (2500 units/mL for each). ANOVA was used to analyze the protease stability experiments (α=0.05). Finding: The results showed that B. sp. strain HF.7 phytase had an optimum activity at 37 °C and pH 4; similar to the condition of the poultry digestive tract in general. Conclusion: These findings suggest that B. sp. strain HF.7 has potential to be used in poultry feed to increase productivity.

Keywords: Burkholderia sp., physiology, phytase, poultry digestive tract, stability

Citation: Hafsan, Agustina L, Natsir A, Ahmad A. The stability of Phytase activity from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):991-4.

Analysis of initial and boundary conditions for convective diffusion of vapors and aerosols in closed volumes
Svetlana V. Veretekhina, Alexander M. Karmishin, Andrey D. Kozlov

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Abstract

The publication describes mathematical modeling of environmental assessment after the selection of toxic chemicals. An assessment is made of the ecological state of enclosed spaces after the release of toxins was conducted. Two methods are considered: the field of instantaneous concentration of a chemical substance and the field of integral concentrations of a chemical substance of convective-diffusion (convention) and (diffusion) processes. The mathematical instrument of methods is described. The essence of the method based on instantaneous concentration fields of a chemical substance is the compilation of differential equations of the first order of the material balance, with the control of the decrease of the substance in a short time. The essence of the convective-diffusive (convention) and (diffusion) processes is described - these are second-order parabolic partial differential equations. Tables with classifications of source types and ciphers are presented. The variants of the accident scenario are described. Calculated fields of instantaneous concentrations of chemicals in the coordinates. In modeling, exposure is used. Finite series obtained. The initialization and boundary conditions are formalized. Analytical and numerical methods are proposed for calculating the fields of instantaneous concentrations of chemicals and exposure doses of toxic substances in enclosed spaces. It is proposed to consider mathematical tools for determining the concentration of COVID-19 infection in enclosed spaces.

Keywords: chemical emissions, indoor environmental assessment, COVID-19, methods for calculating the concentration of toxic substances, viral infection

Citation: Veretekhina SV, Karmishin AM, Kozlov AD. Analysis of initial and boundary conditions for convective diffusion of vapors and aerosols in closed volumes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):995-1002.

Antiviral activity of different misai kucing extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1
Wafaa Abdelwahed Jaheel Alkaby, Saba Falah, Roza Mohamed Hasan

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Abstract

Herpes is a challenging opportunistic infection caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Emergence of drug resistance is the worst catastrophe that encountered the dedicated efforts to eradicate the disease. This urged the scientists to search for other alternatives from the natural products sanctuary. In this study, aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves (ALE, MLE & ELE) were prepared and their yield extract and phytochemical contents were determined. Their anti HSV-1 effect was screened using plaque reduction assay and their safety limit was assessed after determining their cytotoxicity against Vero cells using MTT assay. This was followed by mechanism elucidation study which included pre-treatment, attachment, virucidal, penetration, virus yield and time removal and time addition assays. MLE got the highest yield extract and phytochemical content as compared to the others. All of them were considered as non-toxic to Vero cells as their (CC50s > 0.2 mg/ml). Furthermore, their anti-HSV-1 effect shows that all of them had a selective effect in the following order (MLE>ELE>ALE. Their anti-HSV-1 effect was ascribed to their direct virucidal effect or interference with the viral entry through modifying the viral ligand molecules or preventing fusion of the viral envelop with the host cell membrane. In this regard, MLE produced the most powerful effect and it was the only which inhibited the intracellular activity of the virus at all the replication stages. Overall, O. stamineus leaves can be used to develop new antiherpetic agent.

Keywords: Herpes virus, Orthosiphon stamineus, extract, Vero cells and virucidal

Citation: Jaheel Alkaby WA, Falah S, Hasan RM. Antiviral activity of different misai kucing extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1003-12.

Accounting for informal assets in the valuation of a company
A.V. Shchepot’ev, T.A. Fedorova

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The objectives of the study. This article substantiates the scientific and methodological approach to accounting for informal assets in the course of valuation procedures. Methodology and research. As part of the study of the process of identifying and accounting for informal assets in the course of assessing the value of a company, the transformation of the concept of “asset” has been investigated. The authors considered the regulatory framework of the concept of an asset, and also analyzed the possibility of accounting for valuation activities (and other analytical procedures) of informal assets, that is, assets that do not have all the formal qualifications of assets. As part of informal assets, hidden, imaginary and probabilistic assets, as well as economic analogues of assets, are considered. The authors also examined in detail the features of accounting and valuation of assets, the alienation of which from the organization is impossible or unlikely. Results. As a result of the analysis in this article, it was proved that there are assets that are not reflected in accounting, but ultimately affect the value of the company. Such assets cannot be entered into accounting and reflected in the accounting (financial) statements, as they do not meet qualification requirements, at the same time, assets that are unreasonably reflected there due to an error or due to the loss of assets qualification features. These assets are identified by the authors as informal. The authors proposed a scientific and methodological approach to identifying, classifying and assessing the value of informal assets held by companies.

Keywords: informal assets, hidden assets, imaginary assets, probabilistic assets, economic analogue of an asset, valuation activity, business valuation, management accounting, financial analysis, bankruptcy

Citation: Shchepot’ev A, Fedorova T. Accounting for informal assets in the valuation of a company. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1013-20.

Ether oil types of flora semi-desert of the Turkestan region, their distribution and prospects for resource use
T. S. Ibragimov, A. T. Kuatbaev, G. K. Satybaldieva, A. E. Orazbaev, E. S. Boribay

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The article presents materials on the species diversity of essential oil species of Turkestan semi-deserts flora. The ecological and coenotic patterns of their distribution are analyzed, the resources of promising essential oil plants are identified. Reserves of 10 essential oil-bearing species of Turkestan semi-deserts flora of the Republic of Kazakhstan are determined.

Keywords: flora, taxonomic composition, essential oil plants, habitat, semi-desert zones

Citation: Ibragimov TS, Kuatbaev AT, Satybaldieva GK, Orazbaev AE, Boribay ES. Ether oil types of flora semi-desert of the Turkestan region, their distribution and prospects for resource use. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1021-5.

Differential morphological responses to osmotic changes in euryhaline cichlid, Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790)
T. V. Arun Kumar, M. A. Pradeep, S. R. Krupesha Sharma, N. K. Sanil, K. K. Vijayan, E. S. Anooj

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Aquaculture of Etroplus suratensis is being practised at various water salinities. In this investigation, morphological responses of gill tissue of E. suratensis to various osmotic changes induced by freshwater (0%) and sea water (36%) were studied. Ultra-structural studies revealed significant decrease in the density of type I Mitochondrial rich cells in the apical surface of gills at 18% and complete disappearance of these cells at 36%. Type III subtype density increased consistently from 0% to 36%. Variations in type II cells density were comparatively less in any of the experimental groups. Light microscopic changes included reduction in mucous cell number with increasing salinity. Haemorrhages, lamellar fusion, lamellar curling, lifting of epithelium & hyperplasia are major histological responses to salinity shock. Observable clinical signs in fish exposed to increased salinity changes included agitated behaviour and respiratory distress.

Keywords: Etroplus suratensis, Gills, osmotic changes, mitochondrion-rich cells, scanning electron microscopy

Citation: Arun Kumar TV, Pradeep MA, Krupesha Sharma SR, Sanil NK, Vijayan KK, Anooj ES. Differential morphological responses to osmotic changes in euryhaline cichlid, Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790). Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1027-33.

Comparison of glass-ionomer-polyethylene, cellulose-polyethylene, and mercury restorations for treatment of equine peripheral dental caries
Ali Qayes Taref, Farman Rafid Hadi, Hussein Abbas Ali

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This invitro study is conducted on 30 horse teeth. Three restorations are compared glass-acid and alkaline are grossly studied and the compressive strength measurements are done at the first day and after three months of acid and alkaline resistance test. The superiority is for glass ionomer-polyethylene, cellulose-polyethylene, and mercury amalgam respectively.

Keywords: glass, ionomer, polyethylene, cellulose, mercury, restorations, equine, caries

Citation: Qayes Taref A, Rafid Hadi F, Abbas Ali H. Comparison of glass-ionomer-polyethylene, cellulose-polyethylene, and mercury restorations for treatment of equine peripheral dental caries. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1035-8.

The effect of blood flow rates on dialysis adequacy and complications in both low and high flux membrane
J. E. Abdulla, J. K. Shakor, A. F. Shallal

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Background: Hemodialysis has been taken a major role in prolonging survive of patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patient. The efficacy of hemodialysis may be improved by using the difference flux dialysis membranes and blood flow rates by considering their difference complications. This study aimed to know the assess dialysis adequacy in difference blood flow rates and low and high flux membranes. Subject and materials: The research method adopted for the study was a quasi-experimental design. The researchers selected 96 hemodialysis sessions from different patients. Two difference filters were used, and BFRs have been arranged from 200ml/min, 250ml/min, and 300ml/min. The clinical signs of the patient status were assessed and monitored during dialysis. Dialysis adequacy for difference flow rates were measured based on normalized treatment ratio (Kt/V) and urea reduction rate (URR). Results: Over 58 of participants were male, with the overall mean age was (51.40±13.64). Mean Kt/V (1.31±0.43) and URR (55.09±11.68) were significantly high among female, the statistical value (P. value=0.026). The high Kt/v was seen in blood flow rate 300ml/min in low flux and high flux dialysis membranes, means was 1.33±0.35, and 1.54±0.47. Similarly, high URR was seen 300ml/min blood flow rates in high flux dialysis membrane, 64.57±6.82. Statistical difference was (p. value=0.000). The high significant Kt/V and URR were seen in dry weight patient (P. value= 0.016 and 0.021 respectively). Over (33%) of patient was developed complication during dialysis, the most frequent complications were hypotension (10%) and weakness (9%). Conclusion: dialysis adequacy is most associated with high blood flow rate with using high flux dialysis membrane. Less percentage complications have seen among dialysis patients in this study.

Keywords: end stage renal diseases, hemodialysis, dialysis adequacy, KT/V, URR, complications

Citation: Abdulla JE, Shakor JK, Shallal AF. The effect of blood flow rates on dialysis adequacy and complications in both low and high flux membrane. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1039-43.

Complex assessment of the condition and esthetics of garden-park plants of mangistau with the use of a computer program «plant-est-kz»
A. A. Imanbayeva, I. F. Belozerov, A. S. Ondassynova

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A comprehensive scale for assessing the aesthetics of green devices, developed in relation to arid conditions of Mangistau, is considered, taking into account 37 structural, memorable, ecological, biological and agrotechnical characteristics of landscape gardening objects. A description is given of a special computer program “PLANT-EST-KZ” developed by the MEBG, the database of which currently includes the most complete information about 94 green devices of 13 species in the residential and industrial zones of 5 settlements of the Mangistau region. A comparative analysis of the aesthetics of green devices for various functional purposes is given.

Keywords: assessment, condition, aesthetics, green devices, databases, computer program, “PLANT-EST-KZ”, Mangistau

Citation: Imanbayeva AA, Belozerov IF, Ondassynova AS. Complex assessment of the condition and esthetics of garden-park plants of mangistau with the use of a computer program «plant-est-kz». Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1045-3.

Change of immunological blood indicators during follicular cattle mange
O. A. Stolbova, L. N. Skosyrskikh

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The most important problem for veterinarians is cattle skin diseases. This is explained by the fact that various predisposing factors of metabolic disorders and hormonal homeostasis, immunodeficiency states, ecto- and endoparasites play a significant role in the pathogenesis pathology. Follicular cattle mange is one of primary ectoparasite causing skin diseases in the Northern Trans-Urals. Demodectic invasion in cattle proceeds with a manifestation of a multifactorial immune response, which includes: firstly, the impact on the causative agent of invasion of humoral antibodies, and secondly, the development of an allergic reaction of an immediate and delayed type. Immunological studies found that infestation with Demodex bovis tick in the body, a decrease in immunoglobulin A (IgA) is observed in animals by 38.5% with slight damage, by 45.6% with medium damage, and by 54.3% with severe damage. Moreover, the concentration of immunoglobulin M (IgM) is lower in slightly damaged animals by 12.5%, medium damage - by 32.1%, and severe damage - by 39.3% in relation to clinically healthy animals (62.4±0.12 g/l), and the content of immunoglobin G (IgG) is higher by 48.03%, by 93.9%, and by 2.4%, respectively, against 4.83±0.01 g/l, which is explained by their participation in the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC). The identification of immunological disorders in a macroorganism provides a more complete picture of changes in the animal organism, which in turn is important not only for understanding pathogenesis, but also for developing specific treatment methods.

Keywords: cattle, parasites, invasion, mites, blood, immunology, ticks, immunoglobulins

Citation: Stolbova OA, Skosyrskikh LN. Change of immunological blood indicators during follicular cattle mange. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1055-8.

Clinical and Molecular Investigation of Mycoplasma spp. infection in camel (Camelus dromedaries) in the Central Eastern areas of Iraq
Basim Abdulhussein Jarullah

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Camels are considered to be an important economy animal, also one of Arabian history identity. The study aimed to detection of Mycoplasma ssp. in a diseased camels herds in two provinces Waset and Maysan in eastern areas near the borders of Iran Republic. Study extend from September – December 2019. 100 camels included in this study suffered from clinical signs represented by respiratory system infection symptoms includes fever, anorexia, emaciation, thirsty, snoring, load sound during inspiration, recumbence and an able to stand again, lameness, arthritis and enlargement of joints, mortality rate 5%. 25 camel consider as a control group (they appear healthy when clinically exanimated)..Investigation of suspected causes of disease criminated mycoplasma spp. By PCR technique, blood samples collected, DNA extracted by using (Favorgen Biotech Corp.) kit. Three primers used for detection mycoplasma ssp first was universal primer for detection mycoplasmas second was M. arginine and last primer for detected M. mycoides ssp. Mycoides respectively. Results revealed that 94 samples were positive to universal primer while 23 sample were positive to Mycoplasma mycoides ssp mycoides and 77 were negative. Mycoplasma arginine did not detected in all samples. 3 positive sample for Mycoplasma universal primer in control group. Also results showed there were many other Mycoplasma ssp. according to the electrophoresis results of universal primer of Mycoplasma ssp.

Keywords: Mycoplasma, camel, PCR, Iraq

Citation: Jarullah BA. Clinical and Molecular Investigation of Mycoplasma spp. infection in camel (Camelus dromedaries) in the Central Eastern areas of Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1059-64.

Genetic study of Thiopurin S-Methyltransferase and nudix hydrolase genes in a sample of Iraqi children
Meena Thaaer Alani, Louay M. Al-Ani, Mohammed M. F. Al-Halbosiy

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An essential anti-cancer drugs in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia treatment protocols since long time are Thiopurines. In addition, thiopurines are also used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases and as immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. However, 6-Mercaptopurine can cause unexpected frequent toxicities in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients because of low activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Thiopurine, intolerance is related to genetic polymorphism in Nudix hydrolase 15 and thiopurine S-methyltransferase. To measure the frequency of thiopurine S-methyltransferase and Nudix hydrolase 15 polymorphisms and assess whether they are predictors of 6-Mercaptopurine intolerance in Iraqi children treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Results showed that mutant paterns AG present in patients and controls, with genotypic frequency of (18%) in patients and (12%) in controls. Whereas, the homozygous mutant type (GG) for thiopurine S methyltransferase gene and homozygous and heterozygous mutant type (CT/TT) for Nudix hydrolase Nudix hydrolase 15 did not detected in patients and controls. Heterozygous mutant type (AG) of SNP 719A>G was significant in 6-Mercaptopurine resistant to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients as compared with patients don’t have resistant to 6-Mercaptopurine and showed good response in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients with P≤0.05. These explorative results lead to propose the prospect of exploration the SNPs 719A>G as biomarkers to predict the expected respons to 6-Mercaptopurine in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients before using 6-Mercaptopurine as a treatment.

Keywords: polymorphism, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, thiopurine methyltransferase, NUDT15, TPMT

Citation: Alani MT, Al-Ani LM, Al-Halbosiy MMF. Genetic study of Thiopurin S-Methyltransferase and nudix hydrolase genes in a sample of Iraqi children. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1065-70.

Combating with ageism in care settings: A qualitative study
Mohammad-Ali Hosseini, Fallahi-Khoshknab Masoud, Akbari-Zardkhaneh Saeed, Mohammadi-Shahbelaghi Farahnaz, Mehri Saeid

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This study was conducted to collect and explore the experiences of hospital caregivers about strategies to deal with ageism in care settings. This qualitative research used conventional content analysis. Twelve nurses and physicians in Tehran hospitals were selected by purposeful sampling method and entered the study after data saturation. The study data were collected using in-depth and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed with Hsieh and Shannon approach. After analyses of the interviews, 640 primary codes were extracted, which resulted in the emergence of two main categories of “caregiving is worthwhile” with four subcategories (Not considering caregiving a useless task, Not considering more valuable dead older people over alive ones, Not considering caregiving costly, Motivation for caregiving) and “caregiving is sensitive “with three subcategories (Being sensitive to the health of older people, Supervising and follow up, Education and culture-building). According to the study results, caregivers believed that the valuation of caregiving and being sensitive to caregiving were the most important strategies to deal with ageism in care settings. Therefore, health care decision-makers and authorities can reduce the likelihood of discrimination in the care provided to the elderlies by proper policy-making to promote caregivers’ attitudes towards the worthwhileness and sensitiveness of caregiving.

Keywords: ageism, content analysis, ageing, valuing, sensitization

Citation: Hosseini M, Masoud F, Saeed A, Farahnaz M, Saeid M. Combating with ageism in care settings: A qualitative study. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1071-7.

Effect of antenatal exercises on bearing down in primiparous under epidural anesthesia during labor: A randomized controlled trial
Eman Awad, Ali Mobark, Hamada A. Hamada, Amel M. Yousef, Engy M. El Nahas

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Evidence suggests that for primiparous females delivered with epidural anesthesia maternal comfort is accomplished at the expense of a longer second stage, higher frequencies of operative delivery as well as reduced muscular tone of pelvic floor needed for normal internal rotation of the fetal head, and the reflex maternal urge to bear down. This study was conducted to determine the effect of antenatal exercises on bearing down in primiparous under epidural anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was performed. Overall, 70 primiparous expected vaginal delivery under epidural anesthesia with a single healthy fetus at their 14-15 weeks’ of gestation were included, aged 18-35 years with a body mass index not exceeding 25 kg/m2. The participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups: group (A), receiving antenatal exercise program and advice relevant to each trimester of pregnancy, while group (B) continued their ordinary life style after receiving the advice as group (A). The unpaired t-test revealed significant differences between both groups (A &B) in duration of second stage of labor (p < 0.05) with a significant decrease in duration of latent and active phases of 2nd stage of labor in group (A) participants. Also, neonates of group (A) showed statistically higher values of Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life (p < 0.05) compared to neonates of group (B). It can be concluded that antenatal exercises are very effective in decreasing labor complications for mothers and fetuses as well as facilitating bearing down during 2nd stage of labor in primiparous under epidural anesthesia.

Keywords: antenatal exercises, bearing down, primiparous, second stage of labor, epidural anesthesia

Citation: Awad E, Mobark A, Hamada HA, Yousef AM, El Nahas EM. Effect of antenatal exercises on bearing down in primiparous under epidural anesthesia during labor: A randomized controlled trial. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1079-85.

Degradation of hydrocarbon substances by some bacterial species isolated from contaminated soils with motor oil
Rafal Mhaidi Younus, Eman Mohammed Taher Aziz, Dalia Abdulelah Mohammed

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The use of microbial metabolism in the degradation of some aliphatic and aromatic compounds plays a key role in ridding the environment of hydrocarbon residues. Therefore, in this study some bacterial species were isolated from soils contaminated with motor oils and were investigated for their ability to degrade and consume these compounds as a carbon and energy sources. The spectrophotometric method to measurement the optical densities of bacterial media for all incubation period was used. The increase in the intensity of absorption was observed through the first incubation periods. Detection of the consuming compounds using GC technique showed the high ability of Bacillus sp. MOSUL1, Bacillus sp. MOSUL2, Bacillus sp. MOSUL3, Bacillus sp. MOSUL4 and Bacillus sp. RAND to degrade motor oils in contaminated soils.

Keywords: motor oil, degradation, Bacillus sp., Gas chromatography, bioremediation, 16srRNA, contaminated soils

Citation: Younus RM, Taher Aziz EM, Mohammed DA. Degradation of hydrocarbon substances by some bacterial species isolated from contaminated soils with motor oil. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1087-95.

Analysis of changes in the life quality of patients before and after dental prosthetics and implantation
Maxim Andreevich Abashev

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The purpose of the article is to analyze the dynamics of the life quality of patients with denture defect, with concomitant diseases of periodontitis on the basis of a comprehensive analysis and determine the use of a more appropriate treatment method of this pathology. In the analysis process, a survey was conducted among patients of the clinic. Based on the analysis results, conclusions were drawn that the life quality of patients after implantation made it possible to bring patients closer to practically healthy. It can be noted that the implantation method is more promising both for the life quality and for general well-being.

Keywords: dental implants, fixed orthopedic constructions, life quality

Citation: Abashev MA. Analysis of changes in the life quality of patients before and after dental prosthetics and implantation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1097-9.

Interleukin-17 serum levels as a vital indicator of psoriatic Iraqi patients in Thi-Qar Province
Hind M. Mousa, Ahmed G. Hassan

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Psoriasis is a multifactor skin disorder, with immune-mediated inflammatory pathogenesis. Theories and studies illustrated the crucial role for Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in promotes the occurrence and severity of psoriasis. We measured the serum IL-17 levels for detection the importance and effects of IL-17 as predictors for the psoriasis disorders and its severity. Forty-five cases of psoriatic patients and the same number from healthy subjects as control were included in this study, the severity of psoriasis was determined by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Patients were categorize according to severity as mild psoriasis in (21), and moderate to severe psoriasis group in (24), 3 ml sera samples of both groups were collected to estimate IL-17, The results showed that the majority of the patients comprised of age group 36-45 (42.0%), Female to male ratio in patients was 1.6:1. Serum IL-17 was significantly increasing among psoriatic patients as compared to healthy controls (895.066 pg/ml and 364.334 pg/ml) respectively. Also, there was a relation between an elevated IL-17 serum levels and Psoriasis severity of groups with highly significant difference. It can be concluded that (IL-17) has important role during the activity of psoriasis and should be a target for biological therapy in Iraqi psoriatic patients.

Keywords: IL-17, Iraqi patients, Thi-Qar Province

Citation: Mousa HM, Hassan AG. Interleukin-17 serum levels as a vital indicator of psoriatic Iraqi patients in Thi-Qar Province. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1101-4.

The relationship between matrix metallopeptidase 9 with interleukins 6, 12, 13, 18 and 20 among male atherosclerosis Iraqi patients
Muthanna M. Awad, Muhannad Shweash, Shakir F. T. Alaaraji

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Atherosclerosis (AS), or arteriosclerotic vascular damage, is a medical condition in which the arteries begin to narrow and harden as a result of an accumulation of plates near to the artery wall. The damage gives rise to disorders in the movement of blood around the body, hence bringing the risk of severe health problems. The central aim of this study is to assess serum concentrations of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18 and IL-20 in Iraqi AS patients, and to study whether there is an association between MMP-9 and above interlukines in these patients. The study involved 42 Iraqi AS patients and 42 healthy control patients of comparable age and sex. Serum levels of MMP-9, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18 and IL-20 were estimated using the commercially available ELISA kit. MMP-9, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18 and IL-20 levels displayed a high variation between AS patients and the control group. Notably, the levels were larger in AS patients than in healthy controls, with p-value <0.0001. Positive significant correlations were detected between MMP-9 and IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18 and IL-20. IL-6 showed the highest value for association and ROC curve in comparison to other ILs. There are high concentrations of MMP-9, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18 and IL-20 in the serum of patients with AS, and these may play a role in injury development. Moreover, the concentrations of MMP-9 are positively related with the studied ILs.

Keywords: Matrix Metallopeptidase 9, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-20, Atherosclerosis

Citation: Awad MM, Shweash M, Alaaraji SFT. The relationship between matrix metallopeptidase 9 with interleukins 6, 12, 13, 18 and 20 among male atherosclerosis Iraqi patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1105-12.

Impact of moderate exercise on breast milk cortisol in healthy lactating women: A randomized controlled trial
Doaa A. Osman, Amel M. Yousef, Salwa El-Badry, Amal A. El-Taweel, Hamada Ahmed Hamada, Marwa Esmael Hasanin

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Despite the well-known benefits of exercise on the physical and mental health of postnatal women, none of the former studies had evaluated the impact of moderate exercise on breast milk cortisol in healthy lactating women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of moderate exercise on breast milk cortisol in healthy lactating women. Forty-seven healthy lactating women, between 1 and 5 months postpartum, were distributed randomly into two groups. The control group received only lactational and nutritional counseling for 4 weeks, while the exercise group received the same lactational and nutritional counseling, as well as engaged in an aerobic exercise program of moderate intensity for 4 weeks. Breast milk cortisol was assessed pre and post-intervention. The breast milk cortisol showed a significant decrease (P=0.001) within both groups, while it showed a non-significant difference between both groups post-intervention (P>0.05). Moderate aerobic exercise doesn’t have any negative impact on breast milk cortisol in healthy lactating women.

Keywords: moderate exercise, lactation, breast milk cortisol

Citation: Osman DA, Yousef AM, El-Badry S, El-Taweel AA, Hamada HA, Hasanin ME. Impact of moderate exercise on breast milk cortisol in healthy lactating women: A randomized controlled trial. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1113-7.

Possible cause-and-effect linkage of transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelets derived growth factor-AB with delayed anthropometric parameters in adolescent patients with Cooley’s anemia: Cases vis control research strategy
Fouad Shareef Dleikh, Ameera Jasim Al-Aaraji, Rebee Mohin, Mazin Jaafar Mousa, Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Al-Hindy, Basim Abd Al-Ka’abi

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Cooley’s anemia, a hereditary blood disorder caused by defective synthesis of hemoglobin β-globin chains, leads to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia that may require frequent blood transfusions. Delayed anthropometric parameters occur almost invariably in the homozygous form of this disease. This work aims to determine whether there is a link between transforming growth factor-beta1, platelets derived growth factor-AB and their effects on delayed anthropometric parameters in adolescents’ patients with Cooley’s anemia. This was a case-control study, completed over six months at Thalassemia-Center of Babylon province. The study encompassed 163 thalassemic teenagers including 84 males and 79 females. The control group (59 participants; 26 males) were cautiously selected. All anthropometrics were completed for the two groups, including height, weight and BMI calculation (kg/m2). Height and weight-ZScores were calculated and compared to that of WHO’s standards. In conformity to their growth stature; the patients were stratified into three groups: normal-anthropometrics, mild delayed-anthropometrics, and severely-delayed anthropometrics. Blood samples for all participants were taken for biochemical analysis of serum TGF-β1, PDGF and ferritin. A statistically significant difference was found between the studied groups regarding age (p<0.05) and all anthropometric parameters; the patients with the disease were underweight, shorter; while the healthy controls revealed normal parameters. The mean serum ferritin, TGF-β1, and PDGF were significantly (p<0.05) differed among the studied groups. The same was noticed regarding the influence of gender on the distribution of those parameters. However, unlike serum levels of PDGF; both serum levels of ferritin and TGF-β1 were significantly higher in males except in normal thalassemic patients. There were significant differences in all anthropometrics as well as mean serum ferritin levels among the patients collectively and the control (p<0.05), which is not the case for serum levels of both TGF-β1 and PDGF together. Logistic linear regression analysis displays a substantial positive correlation (r=0.61; p<0.05) between TGF-β1 and ferritin, in those with delayed anthropometrics. Such a significant correlation is the same in patients with elevated serum ferritin levels. There was a significant negative correlation (r=-0.38; p<0.05) between ferritin and PDGF among those with delayed anthropometrics. Furthermore, all anthropometrics were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with serum levels of ferritin and TGF-β1 together in those with delayed anthropometrics. Finally, both ‘‘height and weight-ZScores’’ in the patients and those with normal anthropometrics and controls were correlated to PDGF values (p<0.05). Our study showing a higher level of serum TGF-β1 but not PDGF-AB in CoAn patients. Paradoxical positive significant correlation of TGF-β1 vis ferritin accompanied by negative significant correlation of PDFG-AB vis ferritin. Nevertheless, additional works are essential to ‘‘shedding a light’’ on the detailed causal-effect of both TGF-β1 PDGF-AB on the DAP parameters in CoAn.

Keywords: Cooley’s anemia, TGFβ1, PDGF-AB, ferritin, delayed anthropometrics

Citation: Dleikh FS, Al-Aaraji AJ, Mohin R, Mousa MJ, Al-Hindy HAM, Al-Ka’abi BA. Possible cause-and-effect linkage of transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelets derived growth factor-AB with delayed anthropometric parameters in adolescent patients with Cooley’s anemia: Cases vis control research strategy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1119-25.

Phylogenetic analysis of Giardia lamblia using small subunit ribosomal RNA(ssrRNA) gene and triose phosphates isomerase (TPI) gene isolates from Iraqi patients
Abdulkareem Khattar Alhatemi, Sundus Nsaif Al-Huchaimi, Majida Malik Meteab Alshammari, Alia Essa Bashbosh, Rasha Fadhl Obaid

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Abstract

Giardia lamblia is most important intestinal protozoan worldwide. Giardiasis manifestation differ from asymptomatic infection to chronic diarrhea .The current study is performed to genotye G. lamblia isolates from Iraqi patients by molecular analysis. Ten hundred positive direct smear for giardiasis of different ages and sexes were exposed to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for triose phosphates isomerase (TPI) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) genes. The products of PCR were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using multiple sequence alignment analysis of the partial triose phosphate isomerase (tpi)gene sequence in local Giardia lamblia genotypes isolates and NCBI-Genbank local Giardia lamblia genotypes based ClustalW alignment analysis by using (M`EGA 6.0, multiple alignment analysis tool). Only 80 samples gave positive results by molecular analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences was detected that assemblage A, B, mixed subtypes AB and F were isolated from stool samples. It was found that 18 (22.5%), 42 (52.5%), 8 (10% and 12(15%) corresponding to genotype A,B, AB, and F respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the partial sequence of triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene in local Giardia lamblia genotypes isolates that used for confirmative genetic detection and genetic relationship analysis. The evolutionary distances were computed using phylogenetic UPGMA tree type (MEGA 6.0 version). The local Giardia lamblia genotype AII were showed genetically closed related to NCBI-Blast Giardia lamblia genotype AII (KT235928.1), local Giardia lamblia genotype AI were showed genetically closed related to NCBI-Blast Giardia lamblia genotype AI (MF671916.1), local Giardia lamblia genotype F were showed genetically closed related to NCBI-Blast Giardia lamblia genotype F (KU378636.1), and local Giardia lamblia genotype B were showed genetically closed related to NCBI-Blast Giardia lamblia genotype B (JF918474.11 ) at total genetic change (0.05-0.15). A, B, and F were the genotypes that have a prevalence in the city of Najaf. assemblage B is the more prevalent subgroup compared with other assemblages. This is the first study that involved a phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains and recorded assemblage F from Najaf patient. The present results provide to a better considerate of the molecular epidemiology of Giardia parasite.

Keywords: Giardia, PCR, Phylogeny

Citation: Alhatemi AK, Al-Huchaimi SN, Alshammari MMM, Bashbosh AE, Obaid RF. Phylogenetic analysis of Giardia lamblia using small subunit ribosomal RNA(ssrRNA) gene and triose phosphates isomerase (TPI) gene isolates from Iraqi patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1127-33.

Biofilm and antibiotic resistance profile among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples
Raad D. Al-Obaidi, Hussein O.M. A-Dhmoshi

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic gram-negative bacilli capable of causing a wide range of problematic acute and chronic infections. It is survival, adaptation and struggle to numerous classes of antibiotics pushing it as life threating pathogen. Sixty P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from 7 types of specimens (1 Pharyngeal swab, 1 CSF, 2 High vaginal swab, 11 ear swab,12 wound swab, 12 Broncoalveolar lavage and 21 midstream urine). All isolates confirmed by Pseudomonas chromogenic agar Biofilm formation were assayed by TCP while antibiotic susceptibility performed according to CLSI-2019. The results of isolation revealed high percentage of P. aeruginosa among cystitis patients 21/60(35%), lower respiratory tract infection patients 12/60(20%), wounds infection 12/60(20%) and otitis media 11/60(18.3%) while 2/60(3.3%) for bacterial vaginosis, 1/60(1.7%) for each of meningitis and pharyngitis. The results of Biofilm formation using TCP method revealed that 51/60 (85%) were biofilm former while 9/60 (15%) were non biofilm former. Concern correlation of biofilm-formation with antibiotic resistance, the results showed strong association between biofilm and resistance to Beta-lactams. The P. aeruginosa resistance to Cefepime 55/60(91.7%), Piperacillin 44/60 (73.3%) and Ceftazidime 43/60(71.7%) while weak association were seen for Aztreonam resistance 21/60 (35%). Carbapenem antibiotics also show weak correlation between biofilm and antibiotic-resistance in which only 11/60 (18.3%) and 9/60 (15%) of isolates were resist meropenem and imipenem respectively. Fluoroquinolone resistance were 31/60 (51.7%), 29/60 (48.3%), 21/60(35%) and 18/60 (30%) for lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin respectively. Totally MDR P. aeruginosa compile 38 (63.34%) while non-MDR P. aeruginosa consist 22(36.66%). The most prevalent phenotype is BETA/AMINO/FLUORO which compile 13(21.66%). Concern relationship of multidrug resistance with biofilm formation the results revealed that 21/51 (41.17%) were non-MDR while 30/51(58.83%) were MDR. There is a strong correlation between biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotic among P. aeruginosa recovered from clinical samples with dominance of coexistence resistance among MDR isolates.

Keywords: biofilm formation, pseudomonas aeruginosa, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin

Citation: Al-Obaidi RD, A-Dhmoshi HO. Biofilm and antibiotic resistance profile among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1135-9.

Molecular detection of some virulence factors among Enterococcus species isolated from patients with cystitis
Shahad A. Rehma, Hussein O.M. Al-Dhmoshi

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Enterococcal bacteria have emerged as main nosocomial pathogens. Virulence factor is important in enhancing ability to cause disease. Some of which are very significant in the pathogenesis of diseases caused via them. Resistance genes only does not indicate pathogenicity of bacteria, presence them with virulence factors it can cause the strain to be dangerous. Eighty-nine Enterococci were recovered from patient with cystitis. All isolates confirmed by m-EI chromogenic agar and the virulence factors were assayed by conventional PCR. It was found that esp observed in (35.4%) E.fecalis, (30%) E.faecium and (36.7%, 10%) E.faecalis and E.faecium respectively have asa1 gene, (22.7%) E.fecalis give positive result and all E.faecium was free of ace, (8.8%) E.faecalis have cyl gene and all of E. faecium didn’t have this gene, 6.3% of E.faecalis and no one of E.faecium have hyl gene. 16.4% of E.faecalis and 30% have EF3314 gene. virulence factors commonly prevalent in enterococcus isolated in this study, the incidence of virulence factors was higher average number in E.faecalis and much lower average number in E. faecium.

Keywords: Enterococcus, virulence factors

Citation: Rehma SA, Al-Dhmoshi HO. Molecular detection of some virulence factors among Enterococcus species isolated from patients with cystitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1141-5.

Efficiency of molecular GeneXpert MTB/RIF system and conventional test as rapid detection of TB associated lung cancer
Suhad Faisal Hatem Al-Mugdadi, Faris Ali Muhammed Al-Hilli, Ahmed E. Salman

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Lung cancer is main cause of morbidity and mortality; it includes 12.4% of all new cancer cases, and about 29% of all cancer deaths. There is evidence about persons infected with tuberculosis have increased lung cancer risk. GeneXpert System new diagnostic technique firstly, for TB infection secondly, detect RIF –based rpoB gene mutations related resistance tuberculosis. The rapid detection allows the doctors take critical decisions about therapy. This study aimed to find relationship between lung cancer and TB using GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional Z-N stain. 50 cases suspected cancer was enrolled to procedure of Cephid GeneXpert system manufacture also conventional stain was done for all samples. Out of 33 positive lung cancer, 7 (21.22%) MTB/Rif sensitive was positive detected. Significant difference (p-value 0.0001**) was found between detected MTB/Rif (sensitive and resist) and not detected MTB/Rif by Molecular gen expert method. In addition, Z-N stain was positive in 6 (18.18%) BAL cancer cases. In lung cancer cases, there is no significant difference (p-value 0.828) between two rapid methods. Present study data showed the high percentage of M. tuberculosis/RIF sensitive in cancer bronchoalveolar lavage. Gene Xpert had a higher diagnostic yield in patients beside the routine work to diagnosis and detection of TB/ RIF related rpoB gene mutation as a cancer risk factor.

Keywords: molecular GeneXpert MTB/Rif, smear test, lung cancer, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Citation: Al-Mugdadi SFH, Al-Hilli FAM, Salman AE. Efficiency of molecular GeneXpert MTB/RIF system and conventional test as rapid detection of TB associated lung cancer. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1147-51.

Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) in Wasit Province, Iraq
Noor H Al-Mousawi, Tamarah Hmed Ahmed, Mohammed R. S. Al-attabi

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This study aims for estimate the association between diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and thyroid dysfunction (TD). For this purpose, a total of 161 diabetic patients [mellitus-type 2 (diabetic group)] and 40 healthy adults (control group), attended to the Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital (Al-Kut, Wasit, Iraq) during January to March 2020, were subjected for data collection and blood draining. Concerning to demographic data (sex, age, familial history, hypertension, residence, and time since diagnosis) respectively, there a higher significance (P<0.05) was showed in diabetic males than females, >50 years than groups of 30-40 and 40-50 years, families having a history to diabetes than families without, non-hypertension group hypertension group, diabetic urban than rural patients, and moderately diagnosed diabetic patients than newly and elderly diabetic patients. To estimate the parameters of blood glucose and thyroid gland in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, significant increases (P<0.05) were reported in FBS and HbA1c, but not (P>0.05) T3, T4, TSH, and Tg-Ab. In moderately diabetic patients, there significant elevation (P<0.05) were observed in FBS, HbA1c, and Tg-Ab; and significant reduction (P<0.05) in T4. However, there no significant changes (P>0.05) were detected in T3 and TSH. For elderly patients, diabetic significant increases (P<0.05) were reported in FBS, HbA1c, and Tg-Ab; but not (P>0.05) in T3, T4, and TSH. Among the diabetic groups, FBS value of newly diabetic patients was appeared more significance (P<0.05) than moderately and elderly of diabetic patients. For T4, the values of newly and elderly patients were significantly higher than of moderately diabetic values. For Tg-Ab, the values of elderly diabetic patients were revealed on significant elevation (P<0.05) compared to values of moderately and newly diabetic patients. However, there no significant variation (P>0.05) was detected between the values of HbA1c, T3, and TSH parameters of newly, moderately, and elderly diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, thyroid, Iraq, demographic data, thyroglobulin-Ab

Citation: Al-Mousawi NH, Ahmed TH, Al-attabi MRS. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) in Wasit Province, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1153-60.

Molecular detection of some tetracycline-resistant genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk in Al-Qadisiyah province of Iraq
Ghassan Khudhair Esmael, Noor Mahmood Majeed

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Our study aims to investigate some tetracycline resistance genes in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that collected from ewes milk that collected randomly. Sixty Milk samples are taken from ewes randomly and submitted to culturing on blood agar then submitted to PCR methods for final confirming detection of Staphylococcus aureus by using specific primers designed for (Glpf) gene depending on NCBI and Primer3 then making sensitivity test for tetracycline then make PCR for detection of some tetracycline resistance genes. Our results showed positive samples for Staphylococcus aureus was 14/60 (23.3%) by using PCR. Besides, all Staphylococcus aureus isolates were submitted to the tetracycline sensitivity test (disk diffusion method (Kirby‐Bauer) by tetracycline. Moreover, showing the percentage of tetracycline resistance isolates was 8/14(57.1%), and tetracycline sensitive isolates were 6/14 (42.8 %). Also, our results showed the percentage of tetracycline resistance genes tet(L) and tet(k) were 9/14 (64.2%) and 7/14 (50%) respectively, and percentage of isolates that carry gene tet(L) and tet(K) together was 2/14 (14.2)% by using polymerase chain reaction technique. Our study concluded ewes milk that contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus at a high rate, and the non-response to treatment by tetracycline is occurred due to present tetracycline resistance genes such as tet(L) and tet(k), were causes treatment failure by tetracycline.

Keywords: tetracycline resistance genes, ewes, Staphylococcus aureus, PCR

Citation: Esmael GK, Majeed NM. Molecular detection of some tetracycline-resistant genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk in Al-Qadisiyah province of Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1161-6.

Epidemiological study and diagnostic of some the bacterial agents that isolated from a cutaneous abscess in the horse by using VITEK2
Ghassan Khudhair Esmael, Noor Mahmood Majeed

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The current study aims to investigate in distribution and epidemiological aspect of some bacterial species that causes of skin abscess in the local horse in females and males at different ages in Al-Qadissiyah province by using VITEK 2. Sixty horses have skin abscess at different old ages and included females and males were chosen randomly consist of (15) adult male, (15) adult female, (15) foal male and (15) foal female. All the animals examined clinically and showed skin abscess in different body regions are included the head, the neck, the back, the abdomen, the front legs, and the hind legs. Sixty swaps are taken from all the study animals then kept in a sterile tube at (4) C until reach to the lab. All the swaps submitted to culture on nutrient media for enrichment then the colonies are tested by using VITEK 2 apparatus and make gram stain. Our finding showed that bacteria agents that isolated from skin abscess in horse were Corynebacterium equi was (81.6) %, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was (10) %, Streptococcus equi was (15) % and Actinomyces denticolens was (5) %. The percentage of Corynebacterium equi was (57.2) % in females and (42.8) % in males. Percentage of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was (66.6) % in female and (33.3) % in males, Streptococcus equi was (55.5) % in female and (44.4) % in males, and percentage of Actinomyces denticolens was (66.6) % in female and (33.3) % in males. Percentage of infection occurrence was distributed on several regions included the head, the neck, the back, the forelimb, the hind limb, and the abdomen, wherever the percentage was (3.3) %, (5) %, (1.6) %, (5) %, (13.3) % and (71.6) % respectively. The current study showed a distribution percentage of bacterial species according to the ages, wherever the percentage of Corynebacterium equi was (28.5) % in adult and (71.4) % in foal, also, percentage of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was (33.3) % in adult and (66.6) % in foal. Percentage of Streptococcus equi was (22.2) % in adult and (77.7) % in foal and percentage of Actinomyces denticolens was (100) % in adult and (0) % in foal. Knowledge and determining the bacteria species that cause skin abscess in horses enhance the veterinarian clinician to treating it and prevent the recurrent skin abscess.

Keywords: bacteria, cutaneous abscess, horse, VITEK 2

Citation: Esmael GK, Majeed NM. Epidemiological study and diagnostic of some the bacterial agents that isolated from a cutaneous abscess in the horse by using VITEK2. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1167-3.

Study the effect of some biochemical variables among women with renal failure and find a relationship between those variables and the progesterone
Asra’a Ismail Yaseen AI-Taii

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The study investigates the correlation between the studied biochemical parameters and progesterone. It consisted of 50 patients, which included 25 blood sample from female with signs and symptoms of renal failure, and compared with 25 blood sample from healthy female were their age ranging between 15 and 56 years. High level of urea, creatinine, and uric acid in females with renal failure compared to healthy subjects at a probability level of 0.05, while when comparing the level of the above variables among age groups, the results showed a high level of urea and uric acid in the age group of more than 45 years in both patients and healthy people compared with the age group less than 45 years, while creatine results showed an increase in the age group below 45 years. The results showed low level of calcium at a rate of (2.133 ± 0.250) and the level of progesterone at the probability level of 0.05 in patients. The research included finding progesterone correlation relationships, as the results showed positive relationships among patients with kidney failure with a correlation coefficient of 0.44 with calcium and negative with uric acid with a correlation coefficient value of -0.41.

Keywords: biochemical parameters, progesterone, renal failure

Citation: AI-Taii AIY. Study the effect of some biochemical variables among women with renal failure and find a relationship between those variables and the progesterone. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1175-80.

Genotyping of intron 1 and 22 inversion of factor VIII gene using IS-PCR in Kurdish patients of Iraq
Omed Hasan Qadir, Elnaz Agi, Azam Bolhassani, Alireza Azizi Saraji, Ali Namvar, Shaban Alizadeh, Ahmed Farhan Shallal

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Since Hemophilia A (HA) is an endemic hereditary disease in the Middle East without a complete cure, determination of factor VIII mutations can lead to genetic diagnosis of HA in the prenatal stage. Several studies indicated that inversions of intron 22 and intron 1 (Inv22 and Inv1) in factor VIII gene are responsible for at least half of severe hemophilia A cases. In the current study, an inverse shifting-polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) approach was used for the molecular diagnosis of Inv22 and Inv1 in 28 Kurdish patients. Then, the coding region of the factor VIII gene was sequenced. 11 out of 28 patients had Inv22 and 2 missense, one nonsense, and deletion were found among all patients.

Keywords: Hemophilia A, Inversion, Mutation, IS-PCR

Citation: Qadir OH, Agi E, Bolhassani A, Saraji AA, Namvar A, Alizadeh S, et al. Genotyping of intron 1 and 22 inversion of factor VIII gene using IS-PCR in Kurdish patients of Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1181-5.

Measurements of some immunological factors in asthmatic patients in Erbil City
Sahar Mohammed Zaki Abdullah

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Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease with high prevalence throughout the world. The disease is known to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including changes in lifestyle, urbanization and mainly air pollution. The study aimed to find some sociodemographic factors like age, gender, residency, family history, and also some immunological factors like CRP, IgE and IL-4 levels in asthmatic patients and compare them with the patients free from asthma. A total of (160) blood sample was collected from (80 diseases and 80 control ) patient attending from Rizgary hospital and the practical issue done in a private clinic and central public laboratory to obtain the serum to measure the (CRP) level, IgE level by using Coobas instrument and measurement the level of the IL-4 by using ELISA of both cases and controls done in central public health laboratory and king private laboratory in Erbil city. The mean age for asthmatic and control group was (36.55±13.3, 35.4 ±16.8) years respectively with the highest percentage of patients with asthma were in young age group(21-40)years which was 35(43.75%), and showed that asthma was higher in women(60%) than that in male which were (40%) and asthma was more common in the urban area (62.5%) than the rural area(37.2%). Regarding family history, this study showed that (63.75%) of asthmatic patients have a positive family history of one of the allergic diseases. Mean CRP level in asthmatic patients (7.4125±2.325 mg/ml) which was higher than control (3.937±4.77570mg/ml) and the mean level of IgE was (505.187±580.74968IU/ml) and for controls was (85.5433±185.04042IU/ml). The mean level of IL-4 for asthmatic patients was (1.1001±1.08497pg/ml) and was higher than control (0.0586±0.01032pg/ml). The highest percentage of asthma was in the young age group and more common in women than males, allergic asthma mostly associated with those they had a positive family history of asthma or any other allergic disease, and asthma is more common in an urban area than a rural area. The findings of this research indicate that serum CRP, IgE, and IL-4 in Asthma is higher than healthy control and can be used for assessing the severity and response to the treatment.

Keywords: asthma, C-reactive protein, allergy, interleukin-4

Citation: Abdullah SMZ. Measurements of some immunological factors in asthmatic patients in Erbil City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1187-92.

A new Ordabasy breed of sheep – a breakthrough technology for the production of lamb and mutton: theory and practice
N. N. Azhimetov, Zh. A. Parzhanov, N. N. Alibayev, A. S. Myrzakulov

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Sheep breeding in Kazakhstan is one of the traditional areas of animal husbandry. In recent years, the development trend of sheep breeding, regardless of the direction of productivity and specialization of the industry, in all zones is focused on the production of lamb and mutton – which is the main source of income. Research work was carried out in the period 1992-2013 in the experimental basic farm “Seraly” of Ordabasy district and implemented in the farms “Ortay”, “Rau”, “Sabyr”, “Medeu-ata”, “Akbastau”, “Kanat”, “Sayram-Astyk”, and limited liability companies “Bek”, “Parpata” of South Kazakhstan region. The object of research - the Kazakh fat-tailed coarse-hair ewes and stud ram of Edilbay (domestic) and Hissar (foreign) breeds of sheep, crossbreeds of various generations obtained by the method of three-breed crossing and the new Ordabasy breed, as well as lamb and mutton. The aim of research - to create a new breed that combines high live weight, earliness and adaptive ability of the original breeds, which is characterized by economic efficiency in the production of high-quality environmentally friendly lamb, mutton and providing agricultural producers with genetically valuable promising breeding material for the sustainable development of sheep breeding in Kazakhstan. Research results. A fundamentally new technology has been developed for breeding a new Ordabasy sheep breed using the method of three-breed reproductive crossing of the best genotypes of domestic and foreign breeds of meat-and-fat sheep created by folk selection in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The essence of the technology for breeding a new Ordabasy sheep breed is to manage heredity and variability of economic and useful traits in new generations with optimal genetic combinations.
The new technology consists of separate technological processes. The first process (1992-1996) – crossbreeding of Kazakh fat-tailed coarse-hair breed ewes with rams of Edilbay breed, i.e., within five years, the original parent breed artificially inseminated by Edilbay breed rams, to obtain first-generation crossbreeds. At this stage of the experiment, 5718 ewes of Kazakh fat-tailed coarse-hair breed and 17 rams of Edilbay breed were used. The second technological process (1994-2000) – crossing of the first generation animals of “Kazakh fat-tailed coarse-hair x Edilbay” upon reaching the age of puberty and adult ewes of this genotype with rams of Hissar breed for 7 years in order to select the desired types for breeding. At this stage of the experiment, first-generation crossbreeds in the amount of 3178 animals were crossed with Hissar sheep and selected model animals of the desired type. The third technological process (1996-2003) - breeding of crossbreeds of the desired type “in itself”. At this stage of scientific work, methods for stabilizing the population in a given direction were developed and high productive linear animals were bred on a large scale in order to consolidate the economically useful characteristics of the selected animal type.
The fourth technological process (2005-2013) - creation and testing of a new Ordabasy sheep breed. Implementation of breeding animals and implementation of a new breed to agricultural production. New high-productivity Ordabasy breed is characterized by large strong constitution, deep and broad chest jutting forward, rounded-barrel body, tucked tail, well-developed backbone, with medium length necks, strong medium length legs, polledness, high reproductive qualities and produce high-quality organic lamb and mutton in year-round pasture keeping. The production of lamb from rams of the new Ordabasy breed proved to be more cost-effective in the production of competitive “dairy” lamb on the domestic and foreign markets than other breeds, which indicates the effectiveness of breeding this unique breed to intensify the production of high-quality lamb. The new Ordabasy breed of sheep has been introduced into agricultural production on a large scale, its number is more than 75 thousand animals, including purebred more than 36 thousand animals. Breeding animals of the new breed are sold to 125 subjects of various forms of ownership, in the amount of 12388 animals and are successfully bred in various regions of Kazakhstan. Recommended breeding zones of Ordabasy sheep breed are semi-desert, desert, steppe, dry-steppe, foothill and mountain.
 

Keywords: sheep breeding, mutton, lamb, crossing, Ordabasy breed

Citation: Azhimetov NN, Parzhanov ZA, Alibayev NN, Myrzakulov AS. A new Ordabasy breed of sheep – a breakthrough technology for the production of lamb and mutton: theory and practice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1193-201.

Investigation of the performance of a new rotary harrow with the setting load on the prickle chain tillage tools
Alexandr Kurach, Maxat Amantayev

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Agricultural implements with the rotary prickle chain tillage tools have high commercial demands and are of great importance in agriculture all over the world. However, despite their numerous advantages, they have not been drawn a research attention. In order to increase in the quality of tillage process, in particular, to improve the penetration ability, it is developed a new rotary with the setting load on the prickle chain tillage tools. This type of designing provides a required tilling depth depending on soil conditions. In this article the results of the field experimental studies of the work quality produced by the developed rotary harrow with the setting load on prickle chain tillage tools and its power requirement are presented. The research results showed that the developed harrow provides the required quality of work at various values of soil hardness. Thus, the experimental studies revealed that the developed rotary harrow with the setting load on the prickle chain tillage tools improves the quality of work, including the tillage of soil with the increased hardness.

Keywords: rotary harrow, soil tillage, rotary prickle chain tillage tool, setting load on the teeth, soil hardness, penetration ability

Citation: Kurach A, Amantayev M. Investigation of the performance of a new rotary harrow with the setting load on the prickle chain tillage tools. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1203-8.

Reproduction of queen bees and Apis Mellifera Carnica colonies in the South of Kazakhstan
Roza Zh. Shimelkova, Zhanibek A. Parzhanov, Irina V. Demidova, Ainur K. Aldiyarova

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Despite the costs, the efficiency of production of fertile queen bees and nuclei of Apis mellifera carnica in the South of Kazakhstan is cost-effective. In the beekeeping industry, it is considered economically efficient to produce a type of product at a profitability above 30.0%.

Keywords: bee colonies, queen bee, reproduction, egg production, productivity, early nucleus

Citation: Shimelkova RZ, Parzhanov ZA, Demidova IV, Aldiyarova AK. Reproduction of queen bees and Apis Mellifera Carnica colonies in the South of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1209-12.

In vitro germplasm cold storage of fruit and berry plants of Kazakhstan
Timur T. Turdiyev, Irina Yu. Kovalchuk, Balnur Zh. Kabylbekova, Nina I. Chukanova, Sergey N. Frolov

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In vitro germplasm cold storage is an important part of the plant biodiversity conservation strategy, which ensures long-term reliable conservation and use of fruit and berry crops. Screening of apple, pear, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant and strawberry plants for Cold Storage Duration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without plant growth regulators (PGRs). Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without plant growth regulators (PGRs) showed that the viability depends on the breed and genotype, better preserved berry crops, worse fruit. The effect of plant growth regulators, carbon sources and nitrate nitrogen on the storage duration in vitro of various crops in low positive temperature and illumination conditions was studied. Many genotypes were well preserved at 4°C in semi-permeable plastic tissue-culture bags for cultivation in MS medium with 3% sucrose or 2% sucrose + 2% mannitol with or without PGRs. Reducing the nitrogen concentration increased the storage duration of some crops (apple, pear), but abscisic acid did not improve the storage time. In vitro cold collection is a reserve of the field collection and now has 196 samples of fruit and berry crops stored in bags for cultivation on MS medium with Nitrate nitrogen at 50%, 0.5 mg·L-1 N6 benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.1 mg·L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 3% sucrose and 0.75% agar at pH 5.7.

Keywords: germplasm, genetic resources, fruit and berry crops, cold storage, in vitro, plant growth regulators, carbohydrates

Citation: Turdiyev TT, Kovalchuk IY, Kabylbekova BZ, Chukanova NI, Frolov SN. In vitro germplasm cold storage of fruit and berry plants of Kazakhstan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1213-9.

The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis
Gehan M. Morsy, Rasha H. Hussein, Huda M. Isamail Abo El-Fadl

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Osteoarthritis (OA), an adult disorder joint worldwide, is a multifactorial disease. This research was planned to evaluate the anti-arthritis effect on adjuvant arthritis in male Albino rats of Pistachio and Pecan. Forty male albino rats were separated into five equal groups. G1: set a standard control. G2: OA-induced group receiving a commercially prepared, full adjuvant Freund’s (CFA) injection of 0.50 ml (1 mg/ml) intra-articularly, G3:(OA + Pecan treated group): osteoarthritic rats fed basal diets supplemented with 18% Pecans.G4: (OA + Pistachio treated group): osteoarthritic rats fed basal diets supplemented with 10% pistachio. G5: OA + Reference drug diclofenac sodium. The obtained results showed that CFA incused OA manifested by a significant elevation in MDA and MPO levels in paw tissues, NO, IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 in synovial fluid, CRP and ALP in serum. On the other hand, a significant reduction in serum GSH and GAG level in synovial fluid were observed in OA induced rats. Current evidence has revealed that treatment with either Pecan or Pistachio displayed anti-inflammatory effects by lowering pro-inflammatory factors levels. Also, it reduced OA-mediated oxidative damages, and improved GAGs levels in synovial fluid, thus slow degradation of cartilage, and enhanced joint function. Histopathological findings are similar to biochemical ones. In conclusion, comparing plant treatments showed that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were more evident in Pistachio treated group rather than Pecan treated group.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, knee joint, pecan, pistachio, complete freund’s adjuvant

Citation: Morsy GM, Hussein RH, El-Fadl HMIA. The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1221-31.